Posted 23 May 2008 - 02:21 AM
Add up all the calcium in your diet and do not exceed 1000 mg/day. For vitamin D, I aim for a blood 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentration of 40 -50 ng/ml.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Dec;16(12):2623-30.
Dairy products, calcium intake, and risk of prostate cancer in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening trial.
Ahn J, Albanes D, Peters U, Schatzkin A, Lim U, Freedman M, Chatterjee N, Andriole GL, Leitzmann MF, Hayes RB; Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Trial Project Team.
Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, 6120 Executive Boulevard, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Ahnj@mail.nih.gov
Higher intakes of calcium and dairy products, a major source of dietary calcium, are reported to increase the risk of prostate cancer, potentially due to reductions in circulating vitamin D with increasing calcium intake. We prospectively examined the association of dairy product and calcium intake with prostate cancer risk in 29,509 men, including 1,910 cases, in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. We also evaluated the relation of calcium intake with serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D] and 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D [1,25(OH)(2)D], in a Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Trial substudy (n = 275). Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Baseline serum 1,25(OH)(2)D was determined by RIA. Greater intake of dairy products, particularly low-fat dairy products, was weakly associated with increased risk of prostate cancer [relative risk (RR), 1.12; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 0.97-1.30; P trend = 0.06 for >2.75 versus < or = 0.98 servings of total dairy/day; 1.23 (1.07-1.41) for low-fat dairy]. Greater dietary calcium intake was associated with increased risk of prostate cancer (RR, 1.34; 95% CI, 0.93-1.94; P trend = 0.02 for >2,000 versus <1,000 mg/day), but greater supplementary calcium intake was not associated with the risk. Associations of dairy product and dietary calcium intake were evident for nonaggressive disease (RR, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.99-1.46; P trend = 0.01 for dairy products; 1.64, 1.04-2.57; P trend = 0.002 for dietary calcium), but not aggressive disease (RR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.81-1.28 for dairy products; 0.94, 0.49-1.80 for dietary calcium). Calcium intake was not associated with serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D and 1,25(OH)(2)D concentration. In this large prospective study in a prostate cancer screening trial, greater dietary intake of calcium and dairy products, particularly low-fat types, may be modestly associated with increased risks for nonaggressive prostate cancer, but was unrelated to aggressive disease. Furthermore, we found no relationship between calcium intake and circulating vitamin D.
Int J Cancer. 2007 Jun 1;120(11):2466-73.
A prospective study of dietary calcium, dairy products and prostate cancer risk (Finland).
Mitrou PN, Albanes D, Weinstein SJ, Pietinen P, Taylor PR, Virtamo J, Leitzmann MF.
Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD 20852, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
High dietary intakes of calcium and dairy products have been hypothesized to enhance prostate cancer risk, but available prospective data regarding these associations are inconsistent. We examined dietary intakes of calcium and dairy products in relation to risk of prostate cancer in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Cancer Prevention Study, a cohort of 29,133 male smokers aged 50-69 years at study entry. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline using a validated 276-item food use questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to adjust for known or suspected risk factors for prostate cancer. During 17 years of follow-up, we ascertained 1,267 incident cases of prostate cancer. High versus low intake of dietary calcium was associated with a marked increase in prostate cancer risk. The multivariate relative risk (RR) of prostate cancer for > or =2,000 mg/day compared to <1,000 mg/day of calcium intake was 1.63 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.27-2.10; p trend < 0.0001). Total dairy intake was also positively associated with risk of prostate cancer. The multivariate RR of prostate cancer comparing extreme quintiles of intake was 1.26 (95% CI, 1.04-1.51; p trend = 0.03). However, no association with total dairy intake remained after we adjusted for calcium (p trend = 0.17). Findings were similar by stage and grade of prostate cancer. The results from this large prospective study suggest that intake of calcium or some related component contained in dairy foods is associated with increased prostate cancer risk.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006 Feb;15(2):203-10.
A prospective study of calcium intake and incident and fatal prostate cancer.
Giovannucci E, Liu Y, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC.
Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. email@example.com
Prostate cancer is the most common incident cancer and the second leading cause of cancer mortality in U.S. males. Higher milk intake has been relatively consistently associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer, especially advanced prostate cancer. Some data suggest that high intake of calcium might account for this association, but this relationship remains controversial. We hypothesized that high calcium intake, possibly by lowering 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D levels, is associated with poorer differentiation in prostate cancer and thereby with fatal prostate cancer. We examined calcium intake in relation to prostate cancer risk using data from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, a prospective cohort study of 47,750 male health professionals with no history of cancer other than nonmelanoma skin cancer at baseline. We assessed total, dietary, and supplementary calcium intake in 1986, 1990, 1994, and 1998, using a validated food frequency questionnaire. We calculated the multivariable relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) using Cox proportional hazards regression. Over 16 years of follow-up, we identified 3,544 total cases of prostate cancer, 523 advanced (extraprostatic) cases, and 312 fatal cases. Higher calcium intake was not appreciably associated with total or nonadvanced prostate cancer but was associated with a higher risk of advanced and fatal prostate cancer [for fatal prostate cancer, compared with men whose long-term calcium intake was 500-749 mg/d (excluding supplement use of <5 years); those with intakes of 1,500-1,999 mg/d had a RR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.17-3.01; and those with > or = 2,000 mg/d had a RR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.32-4.48; P(trend) = 0.003]. Dietary calcium and supplementary calcium were independently associated with an increased risk. For high-grade prostate cancer (Gleason > or = 7), an association was observed for high versus low calcium intake (RR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.32-2.71; P(trend) = 0.005), but a nonsignificant, inverse association was observed for organ-confined, low-grade prostate cancer (RR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.50-1.25; P(trend) = 0.09). In a sample of this cohort, higher calcium intake was associated with lower circulating 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D levels. Our findings suggest that calcium intakes exceeding 1,500 mg/d may be associated with a decrease in differentiation in prostate cancer and ultimately with a higher risk of advanced and fatal prostate cancer but not with well-differentiated, organ-confined cancers.