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Trehalose, is it an overlooked nutrient?


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#1 adamh

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Posted 20 August 2009 - 07:00 PM


I've been reading about this stuff and ordered some recently. Here is some info I was able to find on it.

http://journals.lww....nhibits.15.aspx

Trehalose (α-D-glucopyranosyl α-D-glucopyranoside) is a unique sugar capable of protecting biomolecules against environmental stress and may inhibit the inflammatory cascade that in turn causes oxidative damage and cytokines production

Trehalose inhibits LPS-induced lethality

Endotoxin administration caused a marked decrease in the survival of the rats exposed to a lethal dose of endotoxin (Table 1). Trehalose administration significantly increased the number of surviving animals (Table 1). In contrast, sucrose did not prevent mortality in rats challenged with a lethal dose of LPS

http://www.jstage.js...52_367/_article

An antitumor activity on oral administration of trehalose was investigated by using ICR mice implanted Sarcoma 180. After implanting of Sarcoma 180, five kinds of saline solutions containing trehalose (10 to 250 mg/kg) were administrated to mice daily for 10 days. The antitumor effect of trehalose was evaluated by measuring tumor sizes for 3 weeks and tumor weights on week 3. Approximately 70% inhibition ratio was observed in the tested groups admistered a dose higher than dose of 25 mg/kg.

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25mg per kg is not a large dose. That would be around 2gm for an average person.
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#2 eternaltraveler

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Posted 20 August 2009 - 07:30 PM

i knew there must be a good reason to eat all those crickets...
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#3 eternaltraveler

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Posted 20 August 2009 - 07:41 PM

I can only read the abstract of those articles. How was it administered? IV? Orally? We have trehalase in the brush border of our intestinal mucosa so I don't know if significant quantities would make it past into general circulation...
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#4 okok

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Posted 20 August 2009 - 08:48 PM

bla bla trehalose blah blah.
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#5 adamh

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Posted 20 August 2009 - 10:01 PM

It looks like from the paper that the trehalose was injected. However, I was able to find this about absorption. It also seems that some people are deficient in trehalose which suggests that it's needed in the body though I've never seen it listed as essential. Perhaps it's conditionally essential?

http://www.inchem.or...ono/v46je05.htm

In a study of the relative absorption of trehalose and glucose as an indicator of malabsorption, 50 healthy volunteers were given 50 g of trehalose or 50 g of glucose on different days, and the blood glucose concentration was examined before treatment and 15, 20, 60, 90, and 120 min after treatment. The fraction of trehalose absorbed as glucose over the first 60 min was calculated from the ratio of the area under the curve of the concentration of glucose in blood with time after trehalose administration and that after glucose administration. For normal individuals, the observed ratio ranged from 0.3 to 1.5, with a median of 0.7 (Bergoz et al., 1973). An abnormal ratio (< 0.26) was associated with malabsorption resulting from a disease of the small intestine. In a similar study, conducted with nine patients with chronic renal failure, the absorption of trehalose relative to glucose was 0.83 (Pointner et al., 1974).
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#6 tintinet

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Posted 21 August 2009 - 03:47 PM

It looks like from the paper that the trehalose was injected. However, I was able to find this about absorption. It also seems that some people are deficient in trehalose which suggests that it's needed in the body though I've never seen it listed as essential. Perhaps it's conditionally essential?

http://www.inchem.or...ono/v46je05.htm

In a study of the relative absorption of trehalose and glucose as an indicator of malabsorption, 50 healthy volunteers were given 50 g of trehalose or 50 g of glucose on different days, and the blood glucose concentration was examined before treatment and 15, 20, 60, 90, and 120 min after treatment. The fraction of trehalose absorbed as glucose over the first 60 min was calculated from the ratio of the area under the curve of the concentration of glucose in blood with time after trehalose administration and that after glucose administration. For normal individuals, the observed ratio ranged from 0.3 to 1.5, with a median of 0.7 (Bergoz et al., 1973). An abnormal ratio (< 0.26) was associated with malabsorption resulting from a disease of the small intestine. In a similar study, conducted with nine patients with chronic renal failure, the absorption of trehalose relative to glucose was 0.83 (Pointner et al., 1974).


I think people may have a trehalase (enzyme key in digesting trehalose) deficiency- not a trehalose deficiency.
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#7 adamh

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Posted 21 August 2009 - 07:45 PM

Yes, I think you are correct, Tintinet.

Trehalose seems to have a beneficial effect with various neurological diseases such as huntingtons and alzheimers.

http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/16137568

Trehalose differentially inhibits aggregation and neurotoxicity of beta-amyloid 40 and 42.
Liu R, Barkhordarian H, Emadi S, Park CB, Sierks MR.

Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Arizona State University, Box 876006, Tempe, AZ 85287-6006, USA.

A key event in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis is the conversion of the peptide beta-amyloid (Abeta) from its soluble monomeric form into various aggregated morphologies in the brain. Preventing aggregation of Abeta is being actively pursued as a primary therapeutic strategy for treating AD. Trehalose, a simple disaccharide, has been shown to be effective in preventing the deactivation of numerous proteins and in protecting cells against stress. Here, we show that trehalose is also effective in inhibiting aggregation of Abeta and reducing its cytotoxicity, although it shows differential effects toward Abeta40 and Abeta42. When co-incubated with Abeta40, trehalose inhibits formation of both fibrillar and oligomeric morphologies as determined by fluorescence staining and atomic force microscopy (AFM). However, when co-incubated with Abeta42, trehalose inhibits formation only of the fibrillar morphology, with significant oligomeric formation still present. When aggregated mixtures were incubated with SH-SY5Y cells, trehalose was shown to reduce the toxicity of Abeta40 mixtures, but not Abeta42. These results provide additional evidence that aggregation of Abeta into soluble oligomeric forms is a pathological step in AD and that Abeta42 in particular is more susceptible to forming these toxic oligomers than Abeta40. These results also suggest that the use of trehalose, a highly soluble, low-priced sugar, as part of a potential therapeutic cocktail to control Abeta peptide aggregation and toxicity warrants further study
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#8 okok

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Posted 22 August 2009 - 08:16 AM

On ebay there's trehalose beauty face masks. Maybe if you mix it in a liposome cream you get some decent absorption?
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#9 tintinet

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Posted 23 August 2009 - 08:10 PM

On ebay there's trehalose beauty face masks. Maybe if you mix it in a liposome cream you get some decent absorption?


Maybe. Probably easier just to eat it, assuming you don't have a trehalase deficiency. It's available as "Neurocoat" and can be used as sugar substitute. Not hard to get.

Edited by tintinet, 23 August 2009 - 11:18 PM.

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#10 adamh

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Posted 23 August 2009 - 08:38 PM

I got mine in and have been trying it. It doesn't taste bad at all. It's sweet and has an interesting flavor, better than eating sugar. I got mine for $7 a lb. I don't know if we are allowed to post sources but you could pm me. It's a big company and I don't work for them.

If it protects cell membranes, has anticancer properties, helps with neurological diseases, is natural and your body produces some, I just don't see the harm in taking it. And if it lowers my cancer risk even 10% then it pays for itself easily. I'm going to try to dig up more research on it.

I also take xylitol which is another interesting sugar. But maybe that should be saved for another thread.
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#11 dnamechanic

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Posted 23 August 2009 - 09:35 PM

A few years back, the biology department Southern Methodist University (SMU) had a very reputable group of scientists and a laboratory for studying aging that used the housefly as a model organism.

A grad student performed lifespan studies using many selected compounds, trehalose was one of those selected.

Supplementation with trehalose had no measurable effect.

These results were not published as they were not actually part of a formal grad program, and the results were negative. Negative results are rarely published.

Interestingly, a somewhat related substance that did increase housefly lifespan was sucrose. Since sucrose consists of both glucose and fructose, these were tried separately in other follow-on studies. Fructose consistently yielded longer lifespan than either sucrose or glucose.

Possibly, many doubt the applicability of insect studies to humans, if so then these results may support that hypothesis.

Still, many reputable labs, including SMU use drosophila as models for studying aging and aging-related problems.

It is probably best to try to know biochemistry differences between organisms and then try to take these into account before extrapolating any results obtained from any organism to human applicability.

Edited by dnamechanic, 23 August 2009 - 09:37 PM.

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#12 adamh

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Posted 26 August 2009 - 09:23 PM

Yes, it's interesting that a student did an unpublished experiment and found no life extention in flies. If that's the worst they can come up with, then I'll keep taking it. Here is a study that was published and not by a student.

http://www.cell.com/...3495(08)70537-X

Understanding the mechanism of saturated fatty acid-induced hepatocyte toxicity may provide insight into cures for diseases such as obesity-associated cirrhosis. Trehalose, a nonreducing disaccharide shown to protect proteins and cellular membranes from inactivation or denaturation caused by different stress conditions, also protects hepatocytes from palmitate-induced toxicity. Our results suggest that trehalose serves as a free radical scavenger and alleviates damage from hydrogen peroxide secreted by the compromised cells. We also observe that trehalose protects HepG2 cells by interacting with the plasma membrane to counteract the changes in membrane fluidity induced by palmitate. The experimental results are supported by molecular dynamics simulations of model cell membranes that closely reflect the experimental conditions. Simulations were performed to understand the specific interactions between lipid bilayers, palmitate, and trehalose. The simulations results reveal the early stages of how palmitate induces biophysical changes to the cellular membrane and the role of trehalose in protecting the membrane structure.
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#13 FrankEd

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Posted 27 August 2009 - 12:22 PM

Yes, it's interesting that a student did an unpublished experiment and found no life extention in flies. If that's the worst they can come up with, then I'll keep taking it. Here is a study that was published and not by a student.

http://www.cell.com/...3495(08)70537-X

Understanding the mechanism of saturated fatty acid-induced hepatocyte toxicity may provide insight into cures for diseases such as obesity-associated cirrhosis. Trehalose, a nonreducing disaccharide shown to protect proteins and cellular membranes from inactivation or denaturation caused by different stress conditions, also protects hepatocytes from palmitate-induced toxicity. Our results suggest that trehalose serves as a free radical scavenger and alleviates damage from hydrogen peroxide secreted by the compromised cells. We also observe that trehalose protects HepG2 cells by interacting with the plasma membrane to counteract the changes in membrane fluidity induced by palmitate. The experimental results are supported by molecular dynamics simulations of model cell membranes that closely reflect the experimental conditions. Simulations were performed to understand the specific interactions between lipid bilayers, palmitate, and trehalose. The simulations results reveal the early stages of how palmitate induces biophysical changes to the cellular membrane and the role of trehalose in protecting the membrane structure.


Any studies out there linking trehalose and low tryglycerides, or at least showing some benefits of trehalose intake to lower tryglycerides?
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#14 adamh

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Posted 27 August 2009 - 05:07 PM

I couldn't find anything about it and lower triglycerides but it seems trehalose helps reduce inflammation which has been shown to be a pro aging factor and some think reducing inflammation is key to longevity.

http://www.rt-pcr.co...se inflammation

Proinflammatory phenotype activation in macrophages (MPhis) after sepsis orchestrates an inflammatory response leading to multiple organ dysfunction. Trehalose preserves cell viability during exposure to a range of environmental stresses...

Furthermore, in vivo trehalose prevented mortality in rats challenged with a lethal dose (20 mg/kg; LD90) of LPS (80% survival rate and 70% survival rate 24 and 72 h after LPS injection, respectively) and reduced serum TNF-alpha. Sucrose did not modified inflammatory phenotype in vitro nor in vivo protected against endotoxin-induced mortality. Our study suggests that trehalose inhibits proinflammatory phenotype activation in MPhis and prevents endotoxin-induced mortality.
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#15 VespeneGas

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Posted 27 August 2009 - 05:23 PM

Wait, so what exactly happens when humans ingest trehalose? From what I understand, trehalase breaks down trehalose into glucose, which is then absorbed and used as a fuel. Doesn't this render trehalose ineffective as an oral supplement, or is some absorbed through passive diffusion? If so, what concentration does it reach in the bloodstream, and what tissues? These seem like essential questions to ask before getting really excited over in vitro or IV studies.

http://www.inchem.or...ono/v46je05.htm just discusses how well trehalose is absorbed as glucose compared to ingested glucose.
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#16 adamh

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Posted 27 August 2009 - 07:18 PM

Yes, it's broken down into glucose but it does not seem to cause a blood sugar spike like taking glucose directly does. And yes, it has an effect and in vivo. If you had read over the links I provided you would have read about the anti tumor and anti inflammatory effects it has in vivo. Besides that, it seems to have neuroprotective benefits and is being used as a treatment for huntington's and alzheimers patients.

I figure it can't hurt and the evidence shows it helps. I found another source for it at $4 a lb for when I reorder. I also take xylitol which is excellent for the teeth and bones and seems to have other benefits as well. I just shake my head at the people who say something isn't totally proven. It's been proven that these things are safe and the evidence of benefit is strong. What more do you need?

A lot of things are taken just for the anti inflammatory effects alone and they may be poorly studied chemicals. This is a natural sugar and doesn't have the side effects of table sugar.
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#17 VespeneGas

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Posted 27 August 2009 - 07:48 PM

I wasn't naysaying, and I DID read the links you posted.

http://www.jstage.js...52_367/_article looks pretty darn good, while
http://www.rt-pcr.co...se inflammation doesn't go into depth on the in vivo evidence in the abstract, and I don't have access to the full text. I was merely asking if there's data on the absorption and tissue distribution of trehalose in people (or if not, at least in mice). The former link says that some of trehalose's anticancer effects may be attributable to changes in the immune environment in the intestines. If so, this might suggest that it's effects are chiefly limited to tissues it comes into contact with in the digestive system, rather than through systemic distribution.

The only thing you posted on huntington's/alzheimers was an in vitro incubation study. Are there human treatment trials underway?

http://hdlighthouse....52trehalose.php is a bit old and presents only in vitro and animal studies on models of alzheimer's and huntington's.

If it is absorbed and distributed the same way in people as it is in our favorite little critters, it's a very promising molecule indeed. I presume you saw the discussion of trehalose in the chaperone-mediated autophagy thread?

What's your $4/lb? Sounds like something I might add to my diet :)
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#18 JLL

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Posted 27 August 2009 - 08:13 PM

I wish I could get this stuff in Finland.
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#19 okok

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Posted 27 August 2009 - 10:25 PM

Might be a good idea to take with lecithin, as it probably travels with fat. (from ron mignon's protein cycling diet).
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