Physicists at the University of Geneva have succeeded in teleporting the quantum state of a photon to a crystal over 25 kilometers"
A successful test in passing information from light into matter – using the teleportation of the quantum state of a photon via optical fiber cable to a receiving crystal located over 25 km (15 mi) away – has been claimed by physicists at the University of Geneva. This test shattered the same team’s previous record and may herald the development of greater, long-distance teleportation techniques and qubit communications and computing capabilities.
The experiment involved generating a quantum entanglement of two photons via a laser, then sending one of those entangled photons down an optical fiber whilst simultaneously sending the other to a crystal (composed of yttrium orthosilicate), where it was stored. A third photon was then sent to hit the first photon in the optical fiber, obliterating both itself and the first photon.
The researchers then used a device to measure the results of this collision and discovered that the quantum state information contained in the third photon was not actually destroyed, but had made its way into the crystal where the second entangled photon was contained.
In other words, the information contained in the third photon was transferred to the crystal, verifying that the quantum state of a photon can be preserved without the two photons needing to come into direct contact with each other. As such, the crystal acts as a memory store for the quantum information contained on the transmitted photon.
"The quantum state of the two elements of light, these two entangled photons which are like two Siamese twins, is a channel that empowers the teleportation from light into matter," said Dr. Felix Bussieres, senior researcher and lead author of the work.
This work is not the first time that the teleportation of quantum state information has been transmitted over a distance – the University of Geneva team itself conducted a similar successful experiment in 2003 over a distance of 6 km (3.7 mile), and scientists at TU Delft teleported qubit information between diamonds across the width of a room in another experiment. However, this long-range experiment not only exceeds the team's previous test distances, it is also the first successful mapping of energy–time entangled photons onto a quantum memory." more
"Mobile supercomputing will be central to tomorrow's car," said Jen-Hsun Huang, CEO and co-founder of Nvidia. "With vast arrays of cameras and displays, cars of the future will see and increasingly understand their surroundings. Whether finding their way back to you from a parking spot or using situational awareness to keep out of harm's way, future cars will do many amazing, seemingly intelligent things. Advances in computer vision, deep learning and graphics have finally put this dream within reach.”
Very soon AI computer systems capable of answering questions posed in natural language will enable both doctors and patients to intelligently search huge databases of scientific research to rapidly access information needed to make a more accurate diagnosis, especially for rare illnesses.
An example of this is IBM's supercomputer "Watson", which is able to read 200 million papers in three seconds and intelligently select the appropriate findings.
Access to the internet via a smartphone or tablet will be needed to use health technologies in 2025 and from there we will be connected to specialists via our GP.
SEQUENCING YOUR GENOME
A decade ago it cost millions of dollars to sequence a human genome, the complete genetic information for a human being.
Today this can be done for a few thousand pounds and in 10 years it will cost a fraction of this.
This will give us the equivalent of our own human body roadmap which will tell us how likely we are to develop certain diseases and enable specialists and companies to design personalised medication." more
“There is a growing realization that the ways genes are regulated to work together can be important for understanding disease,” said Mike Pazin, Ph.D., a program director in the Functional Analysis Program in NHGRI’s Division of Genome Sciences. “The GGR program aims to develop new ways for understanding how the genes and switches in the genome fit together as networks. Such knowledge is important for defining the role of genomic differences in human health and disease.”
"Our goal is to construct a clock that can measure accurate and precise ages of stars from their spins. We've taken another significant step forward in building that clock," said Soren Meibom of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics" more
Universal Mathematical Property Identified in Every Ecosystem in Nature
A previously unknown mathematical property has been found to be behind one of nature’s greatest mysteries — how ecosystems survive. Found in nature and common to all ecosystems, the Trophic Coherence property is a measure of how plant and animal life interact within the food web of each ecosystem — providing scientists with the first-ever mathematical understanding of their architecture and how food webs are able to grow larger while also becoming ...
In November, Undersecretary of Defense Frank Kendall quietly issued a memo to the Defense Science Board that could go on to play a role in history.
The memo calls for a new study that would "identify the science, engineering, and policy problems that must be solved to permit greater operational use of autonomy across all war-fighting domains…Emphasis will be given to exploration of the bounds-both technological and social-that limit the use of autonomy across a wide range of military operations. The study will ask questions such as: What activities cannot today be performed autonomously? When is human intervention required? What limits the use of autonomy? How might we overcome those limits and expand the use of autonomy in the near term as well as over the next 2 decades?"
A Defense Department official very close to the effort framed the request more simply. "We want a real roadmap for autonomy" he told Defense One. What does that mean, and how would a "real roadmap" influence decision-making in the years ahead? One outcome of the Defense Science Board 2015 Summer Study on Autonomy, assuming the results are eventually made public, is that the report's findings could refute or confirm some of our worst fears about the future of artificial intelligence.
In the event that robots one day attempt to destroy humanity...." more>>>
UCL says, their development until now has been largely by trial and error.
The 'virtual lab', developed using supercomputer simulations by UCL's James Suter, Deren Groen and Peter Coveney is described as greatly improving our understanding of how composite materials are built on a molecular level. They allow the properties of a new material to be predicted based simply on its structure and the way it is manufactured - a holy grail of materials science.
"Developing composite materials has been a bit of a trial-and-error process until now," says James Suter (UCL Chemistry), the first author of the study. "It typically involves grinding and mixing the ingredients and hoping for the best. Of course we test the properties of the resulting materials, but our understanding of how they are structured and why they have the properties they have, is quite limited. Our work means we can now predict how a new nanocomposite will perform, based only on their chemical composition and processing conditions." more>>>
"Multivac's interface is mechanized and impersonal, consisting of complex command consoles few humans can operate (with the exception of "Key Item"). Though the technology depended on bulky vacuum tubes, the concept – that all information could be contained on computer(s) and accessed from a domestic terminal – constitutes an early reference to the possibility of the Internet (see "Anniversary" for how it was used). In The Last Question, Multivac is shown as having a life of many thousands of years, growing ever more enormous with each section of the story" more wiki
NASA announced Monday the largest NASA Hubble Space Telescope image ever assembled — a sweeping bird’s-eye view of a portion of the Andromeda galaxy (M31) and the sharpest large composite image ever taken of our nearest galaxy. The galaxy is over 2 million light-years away, but the Hubble Space Telescope is powerful enough to resolve individual stars in a 61,000-light-year-long stretch of the galaxy’s pancake-shaped disk. This is the first image of stars over such a large contiguous area." more
We're composites..describable, and describable as programmes. When enough is known about the world we can recreate anything once lost.
There is no qualitative difference between information expressed as a living human being or as a set of data. Any long dead person is likely to be describable & therefore resurrectable. An archaeological regaining of correct and sufficient spacetime coordinates should lead to this. Reassembly of whole groups may follow physical resurrection as microrobotics advances, and this empirical theory which is happening in its early stages now, must throw a new psyche into mankind. We can expect that external life is a given for everyone, so long as our newly technological species survives.
Solomonov a pioneer of information theory & a founder of artificial intelligence showed how information could be extracted from massively complex data by algorithmic probability; coming process technologies such as super recursive algorithms, massively parallel supercomputing grids, quantum computers, biocomputing, nanocomputing, light computing, and other hypercomputations are expected to deal with vast scaling.
Calculations so vast and complex they were unthinkable 10 years ago are conceivable today.
QA attempts to look at resurrection issues in terms of scaled information manipulation in a world that has post-human level intelligence (assumed to occur at more than 10^17 flops (Hans Moravec) which would match guesses of one human brain's computation ability.
These animated gifs are records of events. Future ones will be so complete they will be indistinguishable from the real thing, - in all ways, and at that point resurrection will have taken place.
"By bringing long-dead proteins back to life, researchers have worked out the process by which evolution added a component to a cellular machine. The result, they say, is a challenge to proponents of intelligent design who maintain that complex biological systems can only have been created by a divine force.
Cells rely on ‘machines’ made of multiple different protein components to carry out many vital functions in the cell, and molecular and evolutionary biologists have puzzled about how they evolved. In an effort to find out, Joe Thornton at the University of Oregon in Eugene chose to study a particular machine called the V-ATPase proton pump, which channels protons across membranes and is vital for keeping cell compartments at the right acidity. Part of this machine is a ring of six proteins that threads through the membrane.
In animals and most other eukaryotes, this ring is composed of two types of protein; fungi are alone in having a ring with three. Thornton wanted to know how the machine evolved from the simple to the more complex form. And, because he has built a lab that specializes in resurrecting ancient proteins, he had just the tools to find out at hand.
The team first scoured databases and pulled out 139 genetic sequences that encode the ring’s component proteins in a range of eukaryotic organisms. They then used computational methods to work backwards and find the most likely sequences of these proteins hundreds of millions of years ago, at key branching points on the evolutionary tree: just before and just after the ring increased in complexity.The team synthesized DNA that encoded these ‘ancestral’ proteins and put it into yeast, which had had parts of its own proton pump deleted.The technique allowed Thornton’s team to test in yeast whether various combinations of ancestral proteins produced a working, proton-pumping, machine.
The work, published online in Nature, reveals the pathway by which the two-component ancestral protein (let’s call the components A and B) became a three-component one (A, B and C). The gene encoding protein A duplicated, and two identical copies of the gene started making proteins A1 and A2. Then, A1 and A2 started to accumulate mutations so that they could no longer substitute for each other in the ring. To work out the exact sequence of events, the team identified the likely historical mutations and engineered them, one by one, into their version of ancestral A.
They found that just one key mutation in each of A1 and A2 created proteins that could no longer bind promiscuously with neighbouring proteins in the ring, and instead had to occupy specific spots. The proteins “went from being a generalist to a specialist,” Thornton says. And A2 eventually became C, the third part of the three-component ring now made up of A1, B and C.
The result challenges the assumption in biology that increased biological complexity evolves because it offers some kind of selective advantage. In this case, the more complex version doesn’t seem to work better or have any other obvious advantage compared with the simpler one; it is more likely that A1 and A2 proteins were just corrupted by random mutation. (The yeast didn’t seem worse off when they were stripped of their own three-protein ring and instead used one built of two ancestral proteins.) “What’s surprising to me is the idea that greater complexity doesn’t require acquisition of new functions. It can come from partial degeneration of the ancestor,” Thornton says.
To those studying evolutionary theory, the result “is an expectation rather than a surprise”, says Michael Lynch, who carries out such studies at Indiana University in Bloomington. “But science does not advance with theoretical work alone,” he says. The new results “bring the theory to life”.
And to intelligent-design proponents, Thornton adds, the results say that “complexity can appear through a very simple stepwise process — there is no supernatural process required to create them.” Still, evolution of a three-protein machine is unlikely to silence those proponents — there are many far more complicated biological machines with far more protein parts and intricate internal mechanisms. Thornton says thathis and other groups will now probably use the same tools to dissect the evolution of more complex molecular machines."
At least 28 chariots were discovered in three months of excavation. About five meters away the chariot pit was a horse pit, where at least 49 pairs of horse skeletons were discovered.
"Judging from the way the horses were buried, they were buried after they were killed, as there was no trace of struggle. Second, it is the way they were laid. They were laid back to back, lying on their sides. It means that two horses pull one chariot," said Huang Wenxin, researcher from the provincial archaeological institute." more>>>