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PAYWALL > Lipid Hydrolase Enzymes: Pragmatic Prolongevity Targets for Improved Human Healthspan?

lipase lipid hydrolase lifespan healthspan rejuvenation aging

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#1 Engadin

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Posted 16 October 2019 - 05:15 PM


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S O U R C E :   Rejuvenation Research

 

 

 

 

Abstract

 

Compelling evidence suggests that lipid metabolism, which plays critical roles in fat storage, cell membrane maintenance, and cell signaling, is intricately linked to aging. Lipid hydrolases are important enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of more complex lipids into simpler lipids. Diverse interventions targeting lipid hydrolases can prolong or shorten life in model organisms. For example, the genetic removal of or RNAi knockdown against a phospholipase can reduce lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegansDrosophila melanogaster, and Mus musculus. The removal of lysosomal acid lipase results in premature death in mice, while its overexpression in nematodes generates lean, long-lived individuals. The overexpression or inhibition of diacylglycerol lipase leads to enhanced or reduced longevity, respectively, in both worms and flies. Lifespan can also be extended by knocking down triacylglycerol lipases in yeast, overexpressing fatty acid amide hydrolase in worms, or removing hepatic lipase in a mouse model of coronary disease. Conversely, flies lacking the triacylglycerol lipase Brummer are obese and short lived. Linking sphingolipids and aging, removing the sphingomyelinase inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase shortens chronological lifespan in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, while inhibiting an acid sphingomyelinase in worms or inactivating alkaline ceramidase in flies extends lifespan. The clinical potential of manipulating these enzymes is highlighted by the FDA-approved obesity drug orlistat, which is an inhibitor of pancreatic and hepatic lipases that induces weight loss and improves insulin/glucose homeostasis. Additional research is warranted to better understand how these lipid hydrolases impact aging and to determine if clinical interventions targeting them are capable of improving human healthspan.

 

 

 

 

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Also tagged with one or more of these keywords: lipase, lipid hydrolase, lifespan, healthspan, rejuvenation, aging

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