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Shankhpushpi


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#1 meursault

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Posted 23 November 2008 - 05:35 PM


Nat Prod Res. 2008 Nov;22(16):1472-1482.
Effect of Convulvulus pluricaulis Choisy. on learning behaviour and memory enhancement activity in rodents.
Nahata A, Patil UK, Dixit VK. Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dr. Hari Singh Gour Vishwavidyalaya, Sagar, M.P., India.

The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Convulvulus pluricaulis (CP), considered as Shankhpushpi on learning and memory in rodents. Nootropic activity using Cook and Weidley's Pole Climbing Apparatus, passive avoidance paradigms and active avoidance tests were used to test learning and memory. The ethanolic extract of CP and its ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions were evaluated for their memory enhancing properties. Two doses (100 and 200 mg kg(-1) p.o.) of the ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions were administered in separate groups of animals. Both the doses of all the extracts of CP significantly improved learning and memory in rats. Furthermore, these doses significantly reversed the amnesia induced by scopolamine (0.3 mg kg(-1) i.p.). Nootropic activity was compared using piracetam as the standard. Moreover, CP has exhibited potent memory-enhancing effects in the step-down and shuttle-box avoidance paradigms. Further studies are necessitated to identify the exact mechanism of action.


Does anyone have any experience with this potential nootropic? The phrase "significantly improved learning and memory" piques my interest.

Edited by czukles, 23 November 2008 - 05:35 PM.


#2 Mr.Bananas

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Posted 25 November 2008 - 02:41 PM

Its interesting, im gonna place an order as soon as i can, ill report back when i can give feedback about it.

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#3 luminous

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Posted 25 November 2008 - 05:45 PM

Nat Prod Res. 2008 Nov;22(16):1472-1482.
Effect of Convulvulus pluricaulis Choisy. on learning behaviour and memory enhancement activity in rodents.
Does anyone have any experience with this potential nootropic? The phrase "significantly improved learning and memory" piques my interest.

No, but here's an abstract about a study on mice saying that the stuff (seems the more common spelling is "Convolvulus") has "significant antidepressant-like effect", specifically the "chloroform fraction" (whatever that means).
http://www.find-heal...pluricaulis.htm
The efficacy of Convolvulus pluricaulis choisy was found to be comparable to that of imipramine and fluoxetine (Prozac) administered for 10 successive days. They used the "forced swim test" and the "tail suspension test". (I guess mice express depression in their own way.)

If this substance can make us smarter and happier, why aren't we all taking it? Perhaps it would become more popular if it had a more euphonic name. Neither Convolvulus pluricaulis choisy nor shankhpushpi seem to roll of the tongue. Anyway, it's a perennial herb that has been used medicinally for centuries in India.

Edited by luminous, 25 November 2008 - 05:57 PM.


#4 luminous

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Posted 25 November 2008 - 07:24 PM

Me again. I'm just wondering what the human equivalent dosage would be. The study I cited above said the mice were given a dosage up to 100 mg/kg a day. Does this mean that the human equivalency is also going to be 100 mg per kg? If so, we're talking about a LOT of 'pushpi, probably much more than anyone would ever want to take. I hope this isn't the case, but if not, how do we normally determine a comparable human dosage?

#5 solracselbor

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Posted 25 November 2008 - 09:02 PM

I am intrigued, keep this thread updated with any further information please!

#6 chrono

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Posted 17 September 2010 - 08:35 PM

Anyone tried this herb? (outsider?)

Not sure why an increase in AChE activity would be associated with cognitive improvement, unless for some reason they were using it as an indication of increased ACh release:

Effect of Convolvulus pluricaulis choisy. and Asparagus racemosus Willd on learning and memory in young and old mice: a comparative evaluation.
Sharma K, Bhatnagar M, Kulkarni SK.
B.N. PG College of Pharmacy, Udaipur 313 001, India.

A dose dependent enhancement of memory was observed with A. racemosus and C. pluricaulis treatment as compared to control group when tested on second day. A. racemosus and C. pluricaulis at the dose of 200 mg/kg, po showed significantly higher percent retentions, than piracetam. Multiple treatment with A. racemosus and C. pluricaulis for three days also demonstrated significant dose dependent increase in percent retentions as compared to control group. The effect was more prominent with C. pluricaulis as compared with piracetam and A. racemosus. A significantly lower percent retention in aged mice was observed as compared to young mice. Aged mice (18-20 months) showed higher transfer latency (TL) values on first and second day (after 24 h) as compared to young mice, indicating impairment in learning and memory. Pretreatment with A. racemosus and C. pluricaulis for 7 days enhanced memory in aged mice, as significant increase in percent retention was observed. Significantly higher retention was observed with C. pluricaulis (200 mg/kg; po) as compared with piracetam (10 mg/kg/; po). Post-trial administration of C. pluricaulis and A. racemosus extract demonstrated significant decrease in latency time during retention trials. Hippocampal regions associated with the learning and memory functions showed dose dependent increase in AChE activity in CA 1 with A. reacemosus and CA3 area with C. pluracaulis treatment. The underlying mechanism of these actions of A. racemosus and C. pluricaulis may be attributed to their antioxidant, neuroprotective and cholinergic properties.

PMID: 20795365 [PubMed - in process]


While this study shows the opposite, albiet in response to a neurotoxicity-induced increase. The full texts are probably needed

Neuroprotective role of Convolvulus pluricaulis on aluminium induced neurotoxicity in rat brain.
Bihaqi SW, Sharma M, Singh AP, Tiwari M.
Dr B.R. Ambedkar Center for Biomedical Research, University of Delhi, India.

...Daily administration of CP (150 mg/kg) for 3 months along with aluminium chloride (50 mg/kg) decreased the elevated enzymatic activity of acetylcholine esterase and also inhibited the decline in Na(+)/K(+)ATPase activity which resulted from aluminium intake. Beside, preventing accumulation of lipid and protein damage, changes in the levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes associated with aluminium administration were also rectified. Oral administration of CP preserved the mRNA levels of muscarinic receptor 1 (M1 receptor), choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) and Nerve Growth Factor-Tyrosine kinase A receptor (NGF-TrkA). It also ameliorated the upregulated protein expression of cyclin dependent kinase5 (Cdk5) induced by aluminium....

PMID: 19505562 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


The human equivalent dose for these studies (100-200mg/kg) based on BSA is 8-16mg/kg, or ~500-1000mg for a 70kg person. Haven't tried to determine yet if this meshes with anecdotal guidelines, since the common name referenced in the thread title applies to several herbs (as well as their mixture), and it's not always clear which one people are discussing.

Edited by chrono, 17 September 2010 - 08:36 PM.


#7 dilenja

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Posted 18 September 2010 - 01:05 AM

I've been wanting to try this for a month now, however it's difficult to find a vender able to ship to Canada for a reasonable cost. I notice Dragonherbs carries a formulation with Shankpushpi called Jeevani, which contains Shankpushpi and also Arogyapacha, Ashwaghanda, and Black Pepper; however it would be nice to find Shankpushpi by itself to isolate the observation of any benefits to this plant specifically.

#8 dilenja

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Posted 19 September 2010 - 12:36 AM

In case anyone else is interested, I've located a company called 'Banyan Botanicals' which sells USDA certified Shankpushpi in 1/2 pound increments and also ships to Canada. The company itself appears to be quality and I imagine in all likelyhood I'll be placing an order in the next few days.

http://www.banyanbot...tem=61&mitem=74



#9 outsider

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Posted 19 September 2010 - 10:09 AM

I order most of my herbs from Banyan botanicals, I've done it for years, professional.

I still have one pound lying on the floor.

This herb is interesting. First it is supposed to be the most powerful ayurvedic memory herb. So, more powerful than bacopa, gotu kola, ashwagandha, vacha etc. And from personal experience I can say it has potential from the few days I've tried it but I felt there could be some placebo effect since I could not try it long enough. Unfortunately it opens up my appetite to the point I just can't take it right now. At this point I'm not sure if it is due to neurotransmitters or directly due to digestion since it is known in the tradition to open appetite. Maybe it has to do with interaction with other stuff I already take.

Also, I find it funny that Evolvulus alsinoides has lots of pyrolidine alkaloids (hygrine, norhygrine,
5-(2-oxopropyl)-hygrine, 5-(2-hydroxypropyl)-hygrine, 5-(2-hydroxypropyl)-hygroline, 2,3-Nmethylpyrrolidinylhygrine,2,4-N-methylpyrrolidinylhygrine, cuscohygrine)(Eich, pers.
commun., September 2003).

And we know that piracetam is a pyrolidine derivative. But I have no idea if this could account for shankapushpi memory effect.

Then there is the shankapushpi name being used historically for different plants so a little confusion there. My experience is with Evolvulus alsinoides not Convolvulus pluricaulis. They are in the same plant family.

See:
http://ag.arizona.ed...n/Evolvulus.pdf

and

http://www.sciencedi...f1&searchtype=a

Edited by outsider, 19 September 2010 - 10:26 AM.


#10 chilp

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Posted 19 September 2010 - 10:30 AM

is Banyan Botanicals mistaken ? The latin name is different:

Certified Organic
Shankhapushpi herb powder

(Evolvulus alsinoides)


edit:


Abstract
Shankhpushpi is an Ayurvedic drug used for its action on the central nervous system, especially for boosting memory and improving intellect. Quantum of information gained from Ayurvedic and other Sanskrit literature revealed the existence of four different plant species under the name of Shankhpushpi, which is used in various Ayurvedic prescriptions described in ancient texts, singly or in combination with other herbs. The sources comprise of entire herbs with following botanicals viz., Convulvulus pluricaulis Choisy. (Convulvulaceae), Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. (Convulvulaceae), Clitoria ternatea Linn. (Papilionaceae) and Canscora decussata Schult. (Gentianaceae). A review on the available scientific information in terms of pharmacognostical characteristics, chemical constituents, pharmacological activities, preclinical and clinical applications of controversial sources of Shankhpushpi is prepared with a view to review scientific work undertaken on Shankhpushpi. It may provide parameters of differentiation and permit appreciation of variability of drug action by use of different botanical sources.


Edited by chilp, 19 September 2010 - 10:40 AM.


#11 chilp

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Posted 19 September 2010 - 10:42 AM

more:

Effect of Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. on learning behavior and memory enhancement activity in rodents.
Nahata A, Patil UK, Dixit VK.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dr Hari Singh Gour Vishwavidyalaya, Sagar, India. aloknahata@gmail.com


Abstract
In the Ayurvedic system of medicine, the whole herb of 'Shankhpushpi' has been employed clinically for centuries for its memory potentiating, anxiolytic and tranquilizing properties. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Evolvulus alsinoides (EA), considered as Shankhpushpi on learning and memory in rodents. Nootropic activity using Cook and Weidley's pole climbing apparatus, passive avoidance paradigms and active avoidance tests were used to test learning and memory. The ethanol extract of EA and its ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions were evaluated for their memory enhancing properties. Two doses (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o.) of the ethanol extract and ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions were administered in separate groups of animals. Both doses of all the extracts of EA significantly improved learning and memory in rats. Furthermore, these doses significantly reversed the amnesia induced by scopolamine (0.3 mg/kg i.p.). Nootropic activity was compared using piracetam as the standard. EA also exhibited potent memory enhancing effects in the step-down and shuttle-box avoidance paradigms.


Adaptogenic and anti-amnesic properties of Evolvulus alsinoides in rodents.
Siripurapu KB, Gupta P, Bhatia G, Maurya R, Nath C, Palit G.

Division of Pharmacology, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow-226001, P.B. No. 173, U.P, India.


Abstract
Evolvulus alsinoides (EA) is well known for its memory enhancement, antiepileptic and immunomodulatory properties in the traditional Indian system of medicine, Ayurveda. In view of the increasing attention towards plants offering non-specific resistance (adaptogens) towards stress, we have evaluated crude ethanolic extract of EA for its adaptogenic and memory enhancing properties in rodents. Adaptogenic activity was assessed in rats subjected to acute and chronic unpredictable stress. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 180-200 g were immobilized for 150 min once only in acute stress (AS) model, whereas in chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) model rats were subjected to different types of stressors daily for 7 days. Stress exposure has induced gastric ulceration with increase in adrenal gland weight, plasma creatine kinase (CK), and corticosterone level in AS and CUS. However plasma glucose was increased only in AS. Rats were treated with graded doses of crude ethanolic extract of EA (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o.) for 3 days and subjected to AS on 3 day after 45 min of last dose. In CUS, EA at a dose of 200 mg/kg p.o. found effective in acute studies was administered 45 min prior to stress regimen for 7 days. EA reduced the stress induced perturbations similar to Panax quinquefolium (PQ) (100 mg/kg p.o.), a well known adaptogen. EA (100 mg/kg) administered orally for 3 days in adult male Swiss mice, was effective in decreasing scopolamine induced deficit in passive avoidance test. The improvement in the peripheral stress markers and scopolamine induced dementia by EA in the present study indicates the adaptogenic and anti-amnesic properties of EA.


Edited by chilp, 19 September 2010 - 10:44 AM.

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#12 chrono

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Posted 21 September 2010 - 09:18 AM

is Banyan Botanicals mistaken ? The latin name is different:

As outsider and I mentioned, the common name is used pretty interchangeably for both EA and CP, as well as mixtures like in the first abstract you posted. For that reason, attention should only be paid to the latin name, though I'm not sure if there's much practical difference in their MOA or effects.

Edited by chrono, 21 September 2010 - 09:19 AM.


#13 dilenja

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Posted 21 September 2010 - 11:33 AM

It's somewhat fascinating that so many varieties are collectively referred to as Shankhapushpi. Is there a general consensus as to which variety of the plant would be considered more prominent for nootropic purposes than others? From the literature posted, it would seem perhaps this might be the Evolvulus Alsinoides variety?

#14 outsider

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Posted 22 September 2010 - 09:11 AM

I've read somewhere that all shankapushpi plants share the same cognitive property but not all the general physiological effects. But this is not scientific it's from a traditional source.

#15 chrono

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Posted 26 September 2010 - 08:21 PM

Here's a source for the convulvulus, that was recommended by Nicholas: Bazaar of India. $20/pound

Edited by chrono, 26 September 2010 - 08:22 PM.

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#16 aLurker

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Posted 11 December 2010 - 01:04 PM

All very interesting.

I can't seem to find ANY trials on humans on these herbs alone though. EA is used in Himalaya's Mentat/MindCare product which has extensive trials behind it so EA looks like the most promising variety to me at the moment. Of course we can't really tell if the beneficial results upon cognition in the Mentat trials are in part due to EA since the product contains a shipload of other stuff like bacopa which is pretty much proven to be beneficial. However, these trials at least shows us that EA is pretty safe for human consumption, at least at the doses in the Mentat formula. Though I guess the traditional usage might also serve as an indication that these herbs are generally pretty safe.

Outsider, did you continue your trial? Is this supposed to be taken chronically or should it be cycled according to traditional use? Any ideas about dosage?

Any experiences with this at all?

#17 aLurker

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Posted 11 December 2010 - 01:31 PM

Also, in these studies: when they say 100/200 mg/kg of ethanol extract, I suppose they really mean extract and not that it corresponds to that amount of raw herb. Anyone know how much raw herb it takes to get 100 mg of extract?

#18 Ark

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Posted 11 December 2010 - 04:27 PM

Would anyone else share there expereience :wub: , or have more info on Shankhpushpi :wacko:

#19 aLurker

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Posted 12 December 2010 - 10:50 AM

Here is an article about Shankhapushpi from 2009 which covers the research on the different herbs so far:

An update on Shankhpushpi, a cognition-boosting Ayurvedic medicine

#20 aLurker

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Posted 19 December 2010 - 10:46 PM

The following study supports my suspicions that EA might be the one to focus on.

Click headline for full study:

EFFECT OF VARIOUS SPECIES OF SHANKHPUSHPI ON SPATIAL MEMORY IN MORRIS WATER MAZE TASK IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS

The main objective of the present study was to investigate and compare the neuropsychopharmacological effects of various reported species of Shankhpushpi - Evolvulous alsinoides Linn.,Convolvulous pluricaulis Sieb.and Clitorea ternatea Linn. on learning and memory processes by Morris water maze paradigm. Shankhpushpi is reported to fall in the category of “controversial drug” since it has more than one botanical source.
Pharmacological studies on Shankhpushpi have been of interest on account of the different plant which go by that name or by related names. Morris Water maze was employed to evaluate learning and memory parameters.
Alcoholic extract of Evolvulous alsinoides Linn., Convolvulous pluricaulis Sieb. and Clitorea ternatea Linn. were prepared and administered to rats per oral , at a dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight . Piracetam (200 mg/kg body weight ip) was used as standard drug. The animals were subjected to training for eight days. At the end of trial session the animals were subjected to spatial memory test by measuring the time spent in the target quadrant. Amongst the three species of Shankhpushpi ethanolic extract of Evolvulous alsinoides seemed to be the best since time spent in target quadrant after the training session was the maximum. Results indicate that all the three species exhibited a dose dependent nootropic effect.


Edited by aLurker, 19 December 2010 - 10:47 PM.

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#21 Reformed-Redan

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Posted 02 February 2012 - 06:01 AM

Awesome stuff, too bad it's a AChE inhibitor.

#22 houdini

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Posted 07 October 2012 - 11:29 AM

Any update on this interesting herb? Can anyone share his experience?

#23 dear mrclock

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Posted 08 October 2012 - 12:48 AM

there is still no article on wikipedia for Evolvulus alsinoides

#24 abelard lindsay

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Posted 08 October 2012 - 05:25 AM

I bought some a few years ago from Banyan Botanicals and took it for a while. It seemed a bit too serotogenic IMHO to become a regular part of any stack. Maybe good short term for getting out of depressive funks but not much else. It's also good for the stomach. Its effects were pretty short lived. IIRC, there was something annoying about it that led me to stop taking it but I don't exactly remember what it was.

Edited by abelard lindsay, 08 October 2012 - 05:28 AM.


#25 dear mrclock

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Posted 08 October 2012 - 06:32 AM

there is a problem if its too serotogenic ?

#26 FocusPocus

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Posted 13 August 2013 - 05:29 PM

Awesome stuff, too bad it's a AChE inhibitor.



Isnt that a good thing? Increasing Acetyl Choline!?

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#27 mait

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Posted 14 August 2013 - 02:24 PM

I bought some a few years ago from Banyan Botanicals and took it for a while. It seemed a bit too serotogenic IMHO to become a regular part of any stack. Maybe good short term for getting out of depressive funks but not much else. It's also good for the stomach. Its effects were pretty short lived. IIRC, there was something annoying about it that led me to stop taking it but I don't exactly remember what it was.


Are you referring to Evolvulus alsinoides or Convolvulous pluricaulis?

I myself have been using Convolvulous pluricaulis for over a 2 years now in powder form (2,5gms per day 5days a week). I must admit that the memory enhancing effects are definitely there BUT it makes me quite sleepy immediately after taking it and when I have tried to use this herb before bed it makes me fall a sleep quickly BUT usually I wake up 2-4 hours before my normal end of good 8-9 hours of sleep, which hinders my ability to fully rest-out.

Edited by mait, 14 August 2013 - 02:26 PM.





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