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Ketones bring alzheimer's patient back from the brink


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#1 FunkOdyssey

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Posted 07 November 2008 - 04:26 PM


http://tampabay.com/...ticle879333.ece (click the link, has pictures demonstrating the remarkable improvement after coconut oil supplementation)

The only thing that kept Dr. Mary Newport positive in the face of her husband's early onset Alzheimer's disease was that he didn't seem aware of how much ground he was losing.

"He didn't know the full ramifications of his decline — I hate to say it but that was the only blessing. I was watching my husband of 36 years simply fade away," said Dr. Newport, 56, a neonatologist and medical director of the newborn intensive care unit at Spring Hill Regional Hospital.

An accountant, Steve Newport left his corporate job the day his first daughter was born, allowing his wife to finish her medical training. As time went on, he worked from home, keeping the books for her neonatology practice and taking care of their two daughters, now age 22 and 26.

About six years ago, Newport began struggling with daily tasks. He took longer to complete the business' payroll and was making more mistakes.

"I didn't know what was happening to me. I was confused," Newport said of his prediagnosis days.

"There were big clues, and I knew that something was going on here," Dr. Newport said.

They saw his primary care physician, who referred him to a specialist. The diagnosis of early onset Alzheimer's was a devastating blow. According to the National Institutes of Health, as many as 4.5-million Americans have Alzheimer's. Early onset Alzheimer's strikes people age 30 to 60 and is rare, affecting only about 5 percent to 10 percent of those with Alzheimer's.

While there is no way to confirm an Alzheimer's diagnosis, Newport tested positive for the genetic marker that puts a person at higher risk for early onset Alzheimer's.

He was put on several FDA-approved medicines to help slow the progression of the disease, but he continued to decline. In August of last year, Dr. Newport said, her husband underwent a "drastic change," losing more than 10 pounds.

"He had completely lost interest in eating, and that was not a good sign," she said. He also abandoned the kayaking and gardening he loved so much.

Dr. Newport searched the Internet for clinical drug trials that would accept her husband. In May, he was set to apply for studies in St. Petersburg and in Tampa.

A fuel that nourishes the brain from birth

The evening before the first screening, Dr. Newport stayed up late researching both drugs. During that research she discovered a third that had shown unbelievable results — actual memory improvement.

"Most drugs talk about slowing the progression of the disease … but you never hear the word 'improvement.' Right then I knew I had to find out more," she said.

She began vigorously researching online and uncovered the new medication's patent application. She found an in-depth discussion of its primary ingredient, an oil composed of medium chain triglycerides known as MCT oil.

In Alzheimer's disease, certain brain cells may have difficulty metabolizing glucose, the brain's principal source of energy. Without fuel, these precious neurons may begin to die. But researchers have identified an alternative energy source for brain cells — fats known as ketone bodies, explained Dr. Theodore VanItallie, a medical doctor and professor emeritus at the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia University in New York City. He has been researching ketones for more than 35 years.

"Ketones are a high-energy fuel that nourish the brain," VanItallie said, explaining that when you are starving, the body produces ketones naturally. When digested, the liver converts MCT oil into ketones. In the first few weeks of life, ketones provide about 25 percent of the energy newborn babies need to survive.

As Dr. Newport continued to read about MCT oil and the new medication, she discovered something surprising: Non-hydrogenated coconut oil is more than 60 percent MCT oil, and this medication derived its MCT oil from this readily available tropical tree.

Newport was not accepted for the first clinical trial. He was unable to remember the season, month or day of the week, and he scored a 14 out of 30 on the mini-mental state examination, a test used to screen for dementia and assess the level of impairment. He tested too low and, according to the results, had "severe" Alzheimer's.

One important test for Alzheimer's progression is to draw the face of a clock from memory. That afternoon, Newport could barely remember how the clock looked, said Dr. Newport.

"We were devastated," she said.

She tried to reassure herself and her husband by looking forward to the next day's second screening, but she was beginning to feel hopeless.

"And then it hit me," she said. "Why don't we just try coconut oil as a dietary supplement? What have we got to lose? If the MCT oil in it worked for them, why couldn't it work for us?"

Trying out coconut oil and testing result

On the drive home, she stopped at a health food store and bought a jar of nonhydrogenated, extra-virgin coconut oil. The experimental medication's patent application was complete with dosage information, and she did some quick math, converting the measurements.

The next morning she stirred two tablespoons of coconut oil into her husband's oatmeal, and she tried it in hers, too.

On the way down to the second screening in Tampa, Dr. Newport quizzed her husband, asking him the day, month and year.

"I prayed harder than I'd ever prayed in my life," she said.

Her prayers were answered. Steve scored an 18 on the exam, the highest he'd scored for more than a year and four points higher than the previous day.

"It was like the oil kicked in and he could think clearly again," Dr. Newport said. "We were ecstatic."

Newport was accepted into the trial but more importantly, the coconut oil he'd ingested seemed to "lift the fog." He began taking coconut oil every day, and by the fifth day, there was a tremendous improvement.

"He would face the day bubbly, more like his old self," his wife said.

More than five months later, his tremors have subsided, the visual disturbances that prevented him from reading have disappeared, and he has become more social and interested in those around him.

Nothing can repair the brain damage he has sustained as a consequence of Alzheimer's disease, and there is no cure. But it appears the oil is helping, Dr. Newport said.

Studying effect of diet on other diseases

The Newports are not the only ones who have found positive results with ketones. In 2005, Dr. VanItallie studied the ketogenic diet's effect on Parkinson's disease. In his study, five patients stuck to the diet for one month, and all of the participants' tremors, stiffness and ability to walk improved, on average, by as much as 43 percent.

"Our study was very successful for our patients," Dr. VanItallie said, explaining that the one drawback is that the ketogenic diet mimics starvation. It is low carb, low protein and nearly 90 percent fat, he explained. "People can't really stay on this diet for long, it's too restrictive."

His study was preliminary, but he said he hopes it will "pave the way for future research."

Parkinson's is similar to Alzheimer's in that it is neuro-degenerative, and glucose metabolism may be affected, Dr. VanItallie said.

"We know that if we give patients ketones, we can bypass this glucose block," he said. However, researchers don't know if the effect is short term or long term. He is pushing for larger and more disciplined studies.

Since starting the coconut oil regimen with her husband, Dr. Newport has become somewhat of an expert on the subject. Though not a neurologist, her background as a medical doctor and her biochemistry classes in medical school have helped her understand the way MCT oil is converted into ketones, and how beneficial this dietary supplement can be for those unable to process glucose.

Additionally, ketones may be beneficial to those with Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, Lou Gehrig's disease, and Type I and II diabetes.

"I think (Dr. Newport) is quite courageous. Most people give up when they are facing severe Alzheimer's, but she feels she's got significant improvement," said Dr. Richard Veech, chief of the lab of metabolic control at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Md.

Dr. Veech has been working with ketones for more than 40 years and has become a valuable resource to the Newport family. Currently, he is working for the military, looking into ketones as a way to improve the performance of troops in severe conditions.

He has written several articles about the subject and is convinced that ketones can provide more cellular energy than glucose and that they may be the key to aiding those with neuro-degenerative diseases.

He has helped guide Dr. Newport in her personal study and answers many of her questions. Though her experience with ketones is not the peer-reviewed, double-blind clinical work researchers like to see, Dr. Veech said her results are promising.

"(Dr. Newport) is getting the best she can with what she has," he said.

Dr. Veech stresses the importance of consulting a physician before trying coconut oil at home. He said ingesting too much of one type of fat can be dangerous and can also cause diarrhea and vomiting.

Dr. Newport realizes more research is needed, but she is pleased with what she's seen so far.

"I've got living proof that this will help people," she said. "I want to just tell everybody about this. It may help them improve, too.

"All I'm asking is to investigate this further. After living through Alzheimer's, anything that can stabilize or help improve (your loved one) will be worth every drop."


Edited by FunkOdyssey, 07 November 2008 - 04:27 PM.

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#2 edward

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Posted 07 November 2008 - 07:21 PM

Its a case study with all that that entails but cool nonetheless. Ketones are good for the brain, antiepileptic, excellent sustainable energy, increased mitochondrial density etc etc. whats not to love.
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#3 FunkOdyssey

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Posted 07 November 2008 - 07:47 PM

Yes, of course it needs to be followed up with more study, but the possibility that Alzheimer's could be so effectively managed with coconut oil of all things is exciting isn't it? And its so ubiquitous and utterly harmless, its one of those things that people with Alzheimer's are not going to wait for clinical trials to test out.

Edited by FunkOdyssey, 07 November 2008 - 07:49 PM.

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#4 DukeNukem

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Posted 07 November 2008 - 08:52 PM

Good find. Clearly, given that MCT oil is pretty much super safe and has been in use for decades, if I knew anyone with a cognitive disease I'd highly recommend them taking this. It can be had rather cheaply -- I take about 20 grams daily, and have done so for several years.
http://www.amazon.co...-...0562&sr=8-2
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#5 Mind

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Posted 07 November 2008 - 10:59 PM

Another nail in the coffin of the low fat high/carb Ornish diet. That is the way I see it.
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#6 EricR

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Posted 07 April 2010 - 12:44 AM

Here's an interview with Doctor Newport and her husband. It's about an hour long.

Part 1:


Part 2:


Part 3:


Part 4:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X2jp7BhDFrU

Part 5:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Up6JrQhaDUw

Part 6:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G-IOs0JE1zg
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#7 James Cain

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Posted 07 April 2010 - 02:50 AM

Would ketones halt disease progression, or is it just that the ketones act as an energy source by side-stepping impaired neuronal glucose metabolism? Or is it both? I understand hyperglycemia can result in neuronal damage, but I don't know to what extent the specific Alzheimer's or Dementia pathologies are halted beyond this effect. I'm also curious about the description of the diet. Adding coconut oil to oatmeal is certainly not a ketogenic diet, but MCTs are converted to some extent to ketones even in the presence of carbs. I doubt that the guy in the article was on a VLCKD, so it's probably that elevated ketones and not reduced glucose is the reason for improved function.
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#8 James Cain

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Posted 07 April 2010 - 02:52 AM

Good find. Clearly, given that MCT oil is pretty much super safe and has been in use for decades, if I knew anyone with a cognitive disease I'd highly recommend them taking this. It can be had rather cheaply -- I take about 20 grams daily, and have done so for several years.
http://www.amazon.co...-...0562&sr=8-2


Any reason you prefer this over coconut oil? Besides a more concentrated form of MCTs, are you specifically avoiding something in the coconut oil? If I remember from other posts you do eat coconut oil, so just wondering if that's changed.
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#9 prophets

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Posted 07 April 2010 - 04:24 AM

i think the guy in the video is not on a ketogenic diet, he's just using MCT/coconut oil to make ketones. after all, she would have elaborated more on their diet, and she said at one point that he was eating oatmeal (carbs). the ketones are utilized by parts of the brain that become incapable of using glucose.

think its just an issue of getting ketones in the blood so that the brain can function.

note: i use the nutvia coconut oil... 1 tablespoon per day.
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#10 caston

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Posted 07 April 2010 - 02:06 PM

What about lactate?

http://www.hubmed.or...i?uids=12796713

I'd suggest that for tiptop mental fitness you would need both lactate and ketone bodies. So maybe have some coconut oil and go for a ridiculously long bike ride.
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#11 Skötkonung

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Posted 07 April 2010 - 05:32 PM

Well if you keep your carbohydrate below the level needed to completely satiate your body with glucose, you will produce some ketones. However, that may not be sufficient to be in "ketosis." I'm assuming that ketosis is when the body's energy predominantly comes from ketones.

I think if you were to inject ketones into a healthy body functioning completely on glucose, you would just expel the ketones through the breath / urine. Without a restriction on carbohydrate, the body has no reason to switch to ketones.

Would ketones halt disease progression, or is it just that the ketones act as an energy source by side-stepping impaired neuronal glucose metabolism? Or is it both? I understand hyperglycemia can result in neuronal damage, but I don't know to what extent the specific Alzheimer's or Dementia pathologies are halted beyond this effect. I'm also curious about the description of the diet. Adding coconut oil to oatmeal is certainly not a ketogenic diet, but MCTs are converted to some extent to ketones even in the presence of carbs. I doubt that the guy in the article was on a VLCKD, so it's probably that elevated ketones and not reduced glucose is the reason for improved function.


I believe you are right with your second assertion, ketones sidestep impaired neuronal glucose metabolism. This won't work in healthy individuals unless they are in a ketogenic state. I've heard Alzheimer's described as diabetes of the brain.
Glucose Shortage In Brain Causes Alzheimer's Disease?

Edited by Skotkonung, 07 April 2010 - 05:42 PM.

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#12 Sillewater

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Posted 07 April 2010 - 05:36 PM

i think the guy in the video is not on a ketogenic diet, he's just using MCT/coconut oil to make ketones. after all, she would have elaborated more on their diet, and she said at one point that he was eating oatmeal (carbs). the ketones are utilized by parts of the brain that become incapable of using glucose.

think its just an issue of getting ketones in the blood so that the brain can function.

note: i use the nutvia coconut oil... 1 tablespoon per day.


Yea, I think she uses a mixture of MCT/coconut oil for her husband. You can find her regimen on the Alzheimer's Info forum.
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#13 HaloTeK

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Posted 07 April 2010 - 10:23 PM

Before we get excited guys -- this is an example of 1 <---- ONE person who seemed to benefit. We don't even know if he is taking any other medication <---- which has in fact been getting a lot better over the years.

Also, just because ketones might benefit alzheimer's patients, we can't just extrapolate that they are beneficial for normal, healthy individuals. Or in amounts everyday that would be present from consuming lots of coconut oil/MCT oil. They might be postitive/neutral/negative over time <---- we just don't have enough studies yet.

And there is also the case that the MCT fraction of coconut oil is benefical for our brain, but negative to our cardio system because of the postprandial triglyceride surge they cause. And let us not forget, the addition of MCTs to a normal diet may also act differently then when on a low carb diet. It's possible that we all can benefit from the ketone increase for the brain, but that in order to blunt the negative to our cardio system, we may need to stay low carb.

See the problem with open systems?
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#14 caston

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Posted 08 April 2010 - 12:41 AM

HaloTek: bummer hey.. I had never heard of the term "postprandial triglyceride surge" before...



I found something interesting though:


http://www.i-sis.org.uk/HTSFDS.php

"Ketosis as treatment for Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases?"

"The accumulation of ‘amyloid peptides’ both inside and outside brain cells is a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease. Earlier research by Hoshi and coworkers have shown that a fragment of the beta chain of amyloid stimulates the activity of glycogen synthase kinase 3b, an enzyme that adds a phosphate group to pyruvate dehydrogenase, thereby inhibiting it, and blocking the entry of pyruvate into the TCA cycle. The amyloid fragment was also found to inhibit the formation of acetyl choline, a major neurotransmitter, probably because the block in pyruvate dehydrogenae decreases the concentration of citrate, an intermediate in the TCA cycle and also a precursor of acetyl choline. Adding the amyloid peptide fragment to cultured neurons from the hippocampus killed the cells.

Ketones are the answer to removing the block, and as ISIS has reported in 2001, Veech and coworkers found that adding ketones protected the neurons from the amyloid peptide fragment. Similar treatment was also effective in a cell model of Parkinson’s disease, which involves another defect in the mitochondrial energy generating enzyme reactions.

Other conditions that may be addressed by ketones include Freidreich’s Ataxia, a genetic defect in a mitochondrial protein involved in iron transport, various forms of insulin resistance, and cognitive disorders.

Veech believes that the benefits of ketones are best produced by a diet that include ketones, and not those that generate ketones in the body, as they tend to unbalance it (see below). The problem is that one can’t give a lot of ketones directly, because they are too acidic, so one way is to produce a ketone esters, where the acidic groups are neutralised.

Veech tells me enthusiastically that he has just received a contract to produce these ketone esters as a way to induce significant ketosis without feeding high fat and low carbohydrate, and further down the line, to test the diet on people with different kinds of disease."

Perhaps i'm way off the ball here but is there such a thing as lactate esters? And could they benefit the body or brain during exercise?

Edited by caston, 08 April 2010 - 12:48 AM.

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#15 e Volution

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Posted 08 April 2010 - 01:06 AM

Also, just because ketones might benefit alzheimer's patients, we can't just extrapolate that they are beneficial for normal, healthy individuals. Or in amounts everyday that would be present from consuming lots of coconut oil/MCT oil. They might be postitive/neutral/negative over time <---- we just don't have enough studies yet.

This is a position I just cannot understand... I think scepticism is great, particularly if their is not an abundance of hard scientific evidence on that particular topic. However in the absence of this shouldn't then the position to be to default to what's 'natural'. We know our Paleolithic ancestors regularly consumed low/zero carbohydrate, and went intermittent periods with no food at all. So we know ketones played a strong and significant role in the development and fuelling of our brains evolutionary history. When you adopt this line of thinking, your sample size increases dramatically and you have better data on which to draw your conclusions. I think we must then assume evolution has worked within this framework to optimise form & function of the brain on what was available: a mixture of ketones and glucose. It is ludicrous to assume otherwise. As DukeNukem says often, this is our best starting point. It is then from this 'default position' we review the scientific evidence, and anecdotes like this, together with a wealth of other information from different fields like epilepsy treatment, which supports their role as being beneficial, and the answer to me becomes blindingly obvious. You don't need an RCT to tell you its a good idea to look left and right before you cross the road.
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#16 caston

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Posted 08 April 2010 - 03:11 AM

I found a patent that discusses "Glycerol-lactate esters for use as an energy supplement during exercise and recovery"

Posted Image

http://www.freepaten...om/6743821.html

I thought I saw a video comparing neurons to bacteria posted on facebook once. It could give us some ideas on the types of fuels neurons like best.
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#17 James Cain

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Posted 08 April 2010 - 11:34 AM

Well if you keep your carbohydrate below the level needed to completely satiate your body with glucose, you will produce some ketones. However, that may not be sufficient to be in "ketosis." I'm assuming that ketosis is when the body's energy predominantly comes from ketones.

I think if you were to inject ketones into a healthy body functioning completely on glucose, you would just expel the ketones through the breath / urine. Without a restriction on carbohydrate, the body has no reason to switch to ketones.

Under normal conditions neurons will use ketones or glucose depending on their availability. So the regulation of fuel utilization here is what is available, not what they "choose" to use. Ketones can be used just as easily for fuel, but it's the entire process of ketone production that validates the statement that it is an inefficient fuel source. The rate of oxidation is different, so the brain might be "slower" using pure ketones, but the actual "decision" to use ketones over glucose is initially a concentration effect.

Ketosis is the point of accumulation of ketones beyond what the body uses for fuel. The body constantly produces ketones in small amount, but they are used rapidly.

Edited by James Cain, 08 April 2010 - 11:37 AM.

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#18 James Cain

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Posted 08 April 2010 - 11:43 AM

I believe you are right with your second assertion, ketones sidestep impaired neuronal glucose metabolism. This won't work in healthy individuals unless they are in a ketogenic state. I've heard Alzheimer's described as diabetes of the brain.
Glucose Shortage In Brain Causes Alzheimer's Disease?


I found this (http://www.nature.co...by2008566a.html) which links obesity-related metabolic dysfunction with impaired ketone regulation and metabolism. Though there seems to be a lot of overlap between metabolic (diabetic) related cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's pathologies, ketone therapy may not be as effective in the former.
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#19 Skötkonung

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Posted 08 April 2010 - 05:31 PM

Well if you keep your carbohydrate below the level needed to completely satiate your body with glucose, you will produce some ketones. However, that may not be sufficient to be in "ketosis." I'm assuming that ketosis is when the body's energy predominantly comes from ketones.

I think if you were to inject ketones into a healthy body functioning completely on glucose, you would just expel the ketones through the breath / urine. Without a restriction on carbohydrate, the body has no reason to switch to ketones.

Under normal conditions neurons will use ketones or glucose depending on their availability. So the regulation of fuel utilization here is what is available, not what they "choose" to use. Ketones can be used just as easily for fuel, but it's the entire process of ketone production that validates the statement that it is an inefficient fuel source. The rate of oxidation is different, so the brain might be "slower" using pure ketones, but the actual "decision" to use ketones over glucose is initially a concentration effect.

Ketosis is the point of accumulation of ketones beyond what the body uses for fuel. The body constantly produces ketones in small amount, but they are used rapidly.

I disagree, for the most part the brain prefers glucose to ketones, even if some small levels of ketones are produced constantly. During the induction process, the brain switches to using greater amounts of ketones relative to glucose. As time in "ketosis" increases, the dependance on glucose will lower. However, add back glucose, and the brain will happily switch from ketones. In the AD patient, ketones were probably readily taken up since the brain's preferred fuel source was not available.

Regional ketone body utilization by rat brain in starvation and diabetes
"The rate of ketone body (beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate) metabolism was measured in individual cerebral structures of fed, starved, and diabetic rats. This was done by infusing beta-[3-14C]hydroxybutyrate intravenously and measuring the incorporation of 14C into brain by quantitative autoradiography. The capacity of the brain to use ketone bodies, expressed as plasma clearance, increased in starvation and diabetes by approximately 50-60%. Plasma clearance was near maximal after 2 days starvation and was not significantly increased after 4 days starvation, 6 days of diabetes or 28 days of diabetes. In all situations the ketone bodies provided only a modest amount of fuel for brain energy metabolism; 3.2% after 2 days starvation and 6.5 and 9.9% after 6 and 28 days of diabetes. The fraction of their energy requirement which the various structures could derive from the ketone bodies differed widely. In general the telencephalon made greatest use of ketone bodies, whereas the hindbrain used least. There was no correlation between the energy requirement of structures (estimated from glucose use in fed rats) and the fraction of energy they could derive from ketone bodies."

I think if you want to power your brain mostly be ketones, you will need to carbohydrate restrict (maybe protein restrict as well, as evidence by JH protocol for epilepsy).
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#20 HaloTeK

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Posted 08 April 2010 - 10:50 PM

I agree with SKOT -- glucose is the preferred source of fuel for the brain. Even if we find increased brain activity (with MCTs) in an alzheimer's patient who can't readily use glucose -- doesn't mean it isn't going to cause problems for other parts of the body.

In fact, I would say that coconut oil and MCT oil only come close to being healthy in individuals that are fully fat-adapted -- and are low carb (I expect this is why Duke can benefit from there consumption). I don't believe adding coconut oil or MCT oil to a diet of 150+ carbs a day is going to fare well. My number is based on the assumption that carb intake would consist of at least 33% of the calories someone would consume.

The insulin potentiating effect of MCTs would interact badly with higher carb intake.
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#21 caston

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Posted 09 April 2010 - 01:35 AM

No one has mentioned lactate yet except for me. When you are doing a lot of exercise and producing lactic acid you have increased mental clarity and decreased reaction time. For instance all of the highest level of FPS gamers are also sportsmen. It may be the glucose is the fast food of brain fuels and that neurons that grow up on fast food tend to know what to do with fast food. My bet is that the brain likes all fuels and that sometimes it needs lactate, sometimes it needs ketone bodies and sometimes it needs glucose.

"The human brain, just like muscles, works harder during strenuous exercise and uses lactate rather than glucose as fuel, according to a new study by Dutch scientists. Not only does this finding help explain why the brain is able to work properly when the body’s demands for fuel and oxygen are highest, but it goes a step further to show that the brain actually shifts into a higher gear in terms of activity.

More at : Brain uses lactate as fuel during strenous muscular exercises [url="http://www.thaindian.com/newsportal/world-news/brain-uses-lactate-as-fuel-during-strenous-muscular-exercises_100102253.html#ixzz0kYw7aMg5""]http://www.thaindian.com/newsportal/world-...0kYw7aMg5"[/url]


"THE ENERGETICS OF NEURON-ASTROCYTE interactions during brain activation is an exciting but controversial topic because the idea that lactate might be a significant supplemental fuel challenges the long-held consensus that brain is strictly dependent on glucose as its obligatory fuel. Thus a "cellular menu" comprised of "sweet and sour food for thought" could be envisaged in which the traditional sweet brain foods, glucose and glycogen, might be combined with a sour ingredient, lactate, which is derived from glycolytic metabolism of glucose either within the brain, as proposed by studies described below, or by muscles during vigorous exercise, as reported in this issue of the American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology by Dalsgaard and colleagues (12). The uptake by brain of muscle-derived lactate during intense physical activity extends the "cell-cell and intracellular" lactate shuttle concepts recently reviewed by Brooks (4), in which lactate is recognized not as simply a dead-end metabolite formed during hypoxic-anoxic conditions, but rather, as an energy-rich intermediate or a precursor for gluconeogenesis that can be transferred within and among in normal, normoxic body tissues to maximize overall energy efficiency. Thus the flow of glucose-derived carbon through the glycolytic and oxidative pathways needs not be continuous in a given cell, tissue, or organ. Instead, glycolysis might predominate in some subcellular structures, cells, regions, or conditions, whereas oxidative metabolism and resynthesis of glucose from circulating lactate might prevail in others. The possibility of activity-dependent and temporal-spatial partitioning of brain metabolism is an idea that has been evolving over time as different types of studies help elucidate the functional and interactive architecture of the brain's cellular, neurotransmitter, and enzymatic systems"


Lactate muscles its way into consciousness: fueling brain activation


http://ajpregu.physi...full/287/3/R519
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#22 e Volution

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Posted 09 April 2010 - 02:58 AM

No one has mentioned lactate yet except for me. When you are doing a lot of exercise and producing lactic acid you have increased mental clarity and decreased reaction time. For instance all of the highest level of FPS gamers are also sportsmen. It may be the glucose is the fast food of brain fuels and that neurons that grow up on fast food tend to know what to do with fast food. My bet is that the brain likes all fuels and that sometimes it needs lactate, sometimes it needs ketone bodies and sometimes it needs glucose.

This is exactly my thoughts, but I would phrase it as not just needing lactate or ketones or glucose but optimising on a variety of them.
Also any evidence for your statement top gamers being sportmen? ;)
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#23 caston

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Posted 09 April 2010 - 03:22 AM

well i'm thinking of a doco I saw about Johnathon "Fatal1ty" but i'm on my phone now so won't be looking up any refs until i'm on a pc
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#24 caston

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Posted 09 April 2010 - 03:35 PM

Also any evidence for your statement top gamers being sportmen? ;)



http://www.cbsnews.c...in1220146.shtml

"He may spend eight to 12 hours a day in front of a video screen, but don’t mistake him for a geek.

Like most of the top video game professionals, he is an excellent athlete, and was a star on his high school tennis team.

"I work out a lot -- you know being physically fit and making sure your neurotransmitters are working properly and making sure that you're on beat and you're ready to go," says Wendel.

He calls that "neuro-fitness" and he believes it makes him think faster. "
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#25 prophets

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Posted 09 April 2010 - 03:54 PM

Also any evidence for your statement top gamers being sportmen? ;)



http://www.cbsnews.c...in1220146.shtml

"He may spend eight to 12 hours a day in front of a video screen, but don’t mistake him for a geek.

Like most of the top video game professionals, he is an excellent athlete, and was a star on his high school tennis team.

"I work out a lot -- you know being physically fit and making sure your neurotransmitters are working properly and making sure that you're on beat and you're ready to go," says Wendel.

He calls that "neuro-fitness" and he believes it makes him think faster. "


i'm not knocking this guy, but don't fall too much for the hype. he's trying to sell you fatality branded products just like tiger woods, billy mays or any other pitchman.
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#26 gregandbeaker

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Posted 09 April 2010 - 05:01 PM

I agree with SKOT -- glucose is the preferred source of fuel for the brain. Even if we find increased brain activity (with MCTs) in an alzheimer's patient who can't readily use glucose -- doesn't mean it isn't going to cause problems for other parts of the body.


I often wonder if "preferred" is the best word to use when talking about glucose and the brain. I've met many people who's brain seems to prefer they use cocaine, heavy narcotics, cigarettes, etc. In my n=1 experience, letting my body running primarily on glucose is a problem that leads to diabetes, afternoon brain fog, and unacceptable levels of body fat, which would eventually lead to a cascading health failure. Balls to that! While staying predominantly VLC my energy levels are constant, my brain is level, more focused, and better able to concentrate. Alzheimer's disease is increasingly being called "diabetes of the brain" or type-III diabetes, etc. Too me my brain's desire to run on glucose is more akin to a drug addiction, at least in terms of my overall health.
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#27 caston

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Posted 11 April 2010 - 11:59 AM

So what foods help us run the brain on ketones?

Extravirgin coconut oil... obviously avoid carbs and sugars... but what else?

What foods help us run the brain on lactate?

Edited by caston, 11 April 2010 - 11:59 AM.

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#28 vato

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Posted 04 December 2010 - 05:44 PM

ketosis is how life is ment to exist i guess.
the body can regulate ketone production very well!

i've read some studies that ketone level is regulated, when ketone levels increase, breakdown of adipose tissue gets inhibited to prevent overproduction.
i am in such a 'clear' euphoric and sharp mood and it doesn't seem to go away, there is no sign of tolerance to BHB (beta hydroxybutyrate)

i've always wondered how do dinosaurs get so big by only eating leaves! how do all animals in fact get big without carbs!
the biggest animals eat protein/fat or just massive amount of leaves. and yea, there is glucose in leaves, but those animals have stabilized blood sugar and remain in KETOSIS!
ketosis protects brain neurons, protects muscle breakdown...

look at it like this, all your life you felt NOT NORMAL, you were depressed by instablized blood sugar levels, and your body keeps fighting to neutralize the excess!
the primary preferred fuel by the brain is beta-hydroxybutyrate and it is very awesome to have this fuel in my brain!!!!!!!! :D

something else to think about, my dog and cats have 0 carbs in their diet, they eat... once or twice a day, with some bugs or flies here and there...
they are aways sharp, always in the right mood, they don't have to eat to feel great!
since i'm on the ketogenic lifestyle i wake up at 6 o clock every working day and i feel awake within seconds! i don't need to set a clock to wake up!
i actually feel every day as a GOOD DAY!
it seems my body and mind stay in perfect homeostasis all the time and i know this when i do my homework for school, i have more mental stamina and concentration is improved by 10 fold!

here is a very interesting study:
http://www.jbc.org/c...0/6247.full.pdf
The Regulation of Ketogeuesis from Oleic Acid and the
Influence of Ant&erogenic Agents*

use it to optimize ketone body production!
like this putting olive oil or coconut oil in your system is like eating and drinking brain gasoline! taking drugs was never so easy and healthy at the same time :D

Edited by vato, 04 December 2010 - 05:52 PM.

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#29 Strangelove

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Posted 08 July 2013 - 03:10 PM

Interesting article about a pure ketones drink http://www.dailymail...Alzheimers.html Any ideas why all the research, and how this might be better than MCT oil?
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#30 lucid

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Posted 08 July 2013 - 04:54 PM

Ketogenic diets also likely effect longevity through the IGF-1 Axis. Stunted growth is a side-effect of epileptic children going onto a ketogenic diet. See my recent (though inconclusive post):

http://www.longecity...igf-1-question/

Hey guys (and ladies!),
I'm a 28 yo male.
Weight: 235
BodyFat%: 12%

IGF-1: 231 ng/ml
Insulin (Fasting): 7.6 uIU/ml

Having bad cholesterol, I decided to switch to a very low-carb diet. I was <50g carb/day and was deep in ketosis for about 4 months. Big changes happened. Triglycerides went from 300-400 down to 80-95 (-70%). HDL went from 26->40 (+55%). LDL+VLDL went from 136 -> 130 (-4%). Lipid profiles (so far as I can tell), don't change that rapidly so I expect the results to improve over the next year.

For the first time in my life, I have blood work that indicates I'm not at risk for diabetes or heart disease. In the "before" era, I was in OK shape (16% bf). I didnt drink sodas, eat dessert or candy etc. I ate normal 'balanced' meals that included rice, whole grain etc.. So I maybe I just had bad genetics, maybe thats why my bloodwork sucked. WELL, nurture > nature.

Now there are some downsides to being in ketosis:
1. Fatigue: You muscles lose all their glycogen stores and replace them with triacylglycerol - triacylglycerol isn't as oxygen efficient in its metabolism. This means that you can't excercise close to your aerobic threshhold for very long at all.
2. Insulin Resistence: When you first start going into ketosis, your fasting blood glucose is AMAZING. My fasting glucose went into the high seventies. However, prolonged ketosis causes insulin resistence & increased fasting blood glucose. By 4 months in my blood glucose was mid/high nineties. This isn't normal insulin resistence -> it exists to route all existing glucose to the brain instead of the muscles and is reversed once you start consuming carbs (oddly enough).

For these reasons, I have stopped trying to be in ketosis and instead am doing just a low carb diet. Still no grains, no sugar (except that found in fruit), and few starchy veggies. What's the difference you might ask? Well I have added things like beans and fruit back into my diet. I'll post results in a month or two and we will see how that impacts the above results.

As I was reading up on ketosis and its effects. I found that the ketogenic diet was invented a long time ago (100 years) to treat epilepsy. The reason that it helps with epilepsy is that the brain starts consuming ketone bodies instead of glucose when in ketosis. This prevents seizures! So as a result lots of epileptic children were put on ketogenic diets. And... they found that when kids were put on ketogenic diets their height and weight velocity (increase / year) was very significantly slowed. This will start sounding very familiar to you dwarf mice fans -- Now guess what was happening...? Their IGF-1 levels dropped significantly from being in ketosis and it became evident that their growth was stunted. (Can provided references)

Ketosis causes IGF-1 to drop because a ketogenic diet isn't just a low carb diet, its a HIGH FAT DIET! Don't think 'Atkins' where you are eating steak and veggies. You have to control you protien intake as well (though it should be up a little bit). In a ketogenic diet, 75+% of your calories are going to come from fat! It might be starting to dawn on you how ludicous it felt: I was eating cheesy eggs & bacon to improve my risk for heart disease!!!! The reason that I mention that the ketogenic diet is really a high fat diet is because fat is the only macro-nutrient that doesn't stimulate insulin. Carbs stimulate insulin and to a lesser exent protien does as well. The picture should be pretty clear at this point how ketosis should impact IGF-1: High fat, medium protien and low carbs should radically lower the IGF-1 levels. And (as I'm hoping this audience already knows), IGF-1 levels dramatically effect aging in almost every animal its been studied in!

Now on to my question!!!
So I (kind of) screwed up. I didn't get a 'before' IGF-1 test. If you are going to do the same protocol, do this one thing. Get a complete 'before' test before you start - I was too axious to start, and boy I wish I had gotten it done. So here is my predicament:

I don't have a baseline for my before 'IGF-1', now as a secondary problem I went out of ketosis and switched to just being low-carb about a 3 days before my blood work.... I know, I know. Ughhhh. To make matters worse, the baseline for IGF-1 is very ambiguous and every single source that I have read has a different reference interval for IGF-1 for my age group. Some show its sex dependent some show its not. So are my IGF-1 and/or insulin levels low?

Anyways, thanks for reading. Please post if you found this interesting, would like to know more or think you can help answer my questions!!!


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