I've noticed several threads on this forum dedicated to amphetamine in its various forms, but discerningly little to no information on how to prevent potential neurotoxicity. With that said, I do not use amphetamine though I do have several friends who have been using it for years as a AD(H)D treatment who lurk these boards.
There has been several findings recently suggesting negative outcomes for any sort of sustained amphetamine usage, even in the lower range of therapeutic doses.
- Increased risk of Parkinson's disease see a M&M discussion on the topic and study. There are several other studies exploring this link as well.
- A large loss in DA transported density, which may equivocate to cell death in primates given doses commonly seen in ADHD treatment. Ricaurte study and Bluelight discussion.
There are more studies indicating negative outcomes for (meth)amphetamine use, but the doses involved generally focus on abuse dosage patterns and non-primate studies. But, I'll spam with some links anyways.
A excellent review of mechanisms and relevance to humans
NMDA receptor, mematine, and reduction of amphetamine induced deficits
This is a great discussion on M&M about a potential treatment based on NMDA receptor antagonists and other relevant discussion. *waits for medievil to show up*
Another review of amphetamine neurotoxicity
Possible mechanism for amphetamine induced apoptosis
Rat study focusing on tyrosine hydroxylase and mRNA expression
I'm hoping you guys help out by posting more relevant studies.
Possible mechanisms for harm reduction:
- Stay cool, numerous studies have shown increased damage at higher temperatures (see below study).
- Antioxidants that can cross the BBB mitochondral support may be the key
- Asprin has been shown to work in rats though I'm unsure of human relevance
- Switch to methylphenidate its much less toxic
- Apoptosis inhibitors such as curcumin Comparison of MPTP to AMP, inhibition of MPTP induced apoptosis, protection of several aspects of DA system functioning after treatment with 6HODA, there seems to be several additonal pathways involved in curcumin's case though and I am somewhat unsure of the doses/relevance to humans. Here's a massive M&M thread on curcumin.
There are several other approaches that have worked in animal models as well, such as mega doses of vitamins A,C,E, and D, treatment with hypnotics/sedatives, and antipsychotics. But, I haven't had time to review them.
My current recommendation for amphetamine users is this: take as low a dose as you can, eat blueberries, drink something cool, take a 100% RDA dose of vitamins A,C,E,D (this and the next step can be covered with a really good multivitamin), take some bioavailable magnesium and selenium (200mg elemental magnesium and the RDA of selenium), take some CoQ10 (lipid based capsule and at least 100mg), ALCAR may help but I haven't looked into it enough, and end your day with a 3-5mg dose of sublingual melatonin.
NOTE: I am not a MD, I have a background in cell biology, physiology, and pharmacology at the undergrad level. This is simply a guide made to show people potential routes of harm reduction.
All relevant information is appreciated.
Edited by Delta Gamma, 24 February 2011 - 10:52 PM.