redan, on 08 January 2012 - 12:29 AM, said:
Numerous proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) studies have linked cytosolic choline levels to the neuropathology of mood disorders
). Increases in choline in depressed subjects have been noted in adults (1
) and in pediatric samples (4
). Conversely, two studies demonstrated reduction in choline (6
). Auer and others (8
) did not note any significant difference in choline levels in the cingulate in their study of MDD subjects and controls. The choline resonance derived by 1H-MRS arises mainly from phosphocholine and glycerophosphocholine (9
Children and adolescents have been relatively understudied with regard to the neurobiology of mood disorders. This is despite the fact that the prevalence of depression increases during adolescence, rising from 1% up to adult levels (6–8%). Mood disorders in youth are associated with impairment in social, family and academic functioning, are highly predictive of future episodes and are significantly related to suicide (11
). Despite the prevalence and outcomes associated with the mood disorders, there is a paucity of information about the etiology. Hence, studies of children and adolescents are necessary in order to determine if abnormalities noted in adult populations occur across the life span, how early they present during development, and whether they can be used as predictors for future risk of developing depression. Studies early in the course of an illness also avoid the potential confounds of illness chronicity, hospitalization and long-term medication use. This study endeavors to uncover neurobiological correlates of juvenile depression. Based on the adult literature (1
) and the reports on pediatric depression (4
), we hypothesized that youth with MDD and those without psychiatric illness will demonstrate differences with regard to cytosolic choline in the prefrontal cortex.
The above is a bit worrying for anyone planning on taking racetams with a choline supplement. Especially when they say they have "brain fog" which sounds something like "depression". Any infor on choline/racetams and depression? Looks like for the most part increased choline levels is something you DON'T want.
Let me nip this in the bud for you. The word you are looking for is MODERATION
. Just because too much of something can be bad, this DOES NOT mean that it is ALL BAD. For example, consuming too much water can kill you through a process called water intoxication. Does this mean that water is ALL BAD and you should therefore consume NO water at all? Well I’ll let you answer that one for yourself…
Can and does taking too much choline induce mood disruption including DEPRESSION in healthy individuals?
YES IT DOES. However, does that mean choline is ALL BAD? Not necessarily; in fact, in this particular case not at all. Again, the word you are looking for is MODERATION
Are increased choline levels ON ANY LEVEL something you DON'T want?
NO, CHOLINE IS AN ESSENTIAL
NUTRIENT FOR HUMANS; by definition this means that your body is unable to manufacture it from other sources and your body is unable to function properly without it. Hence if your diet contains insufficient levels, and/or your choline pool is depleted to insufficient levels via some other mechanism, SUCH AS RACETAM SUPPLEMENTATION
, then you would become CHOLINE DEFICIENT and begin to suffer the associated symptoms of choline deficiency, which with MILD deficiency can include: Impaired cognition and problems with memory (including brain fog); headache, fatigue, insomnia, poor ability of the kidneys to concentrate urine, and nerve-muscle imbalances; and with moderate to severe choline deficiencies include: liver dysfunction, cardiovascular disease, impaired growth, abnormalities in bone formation, lack of red blood cell formation, infertility, respiratory distress in newborns, failure to thrive in newborns, kidney failure, anemia, and high blood pressure.
TOO MUCH choline can indeed induce MOOD DISRUPTION, including DEPRESSION, in healthy individuals (as well as a whole array of other undesirable side effects), however TOO LITTLE choline is EQUALLY BAD in that it comes with its own array of undesirable side effects that you also don’t want. And since there is mounting evidence that some at least of the RACETAMS deplete your body’s choline pool (COLURACETAM for example has in fact been scientifically proven to be a Choline uptake enhancer) it make logical sense to supplement with AN APPROPRIATE QUANTITY of additional choline when taking the relevant Racetams.
WHAT IS THE RIGHT QUANTITY TO TAKE?
That will depend upon the individual, how much choline they are already intaking from dietary and supplementary sources, and what dosage of the relevant Racetam(s) they are taking. The answer is to ascertain what is the right dosage of choline FOR YOU, by simply evaluating what is the MINIMUM dosage of choline that prevents manifestation of choline deficiency symptoms from occurring (e.g. brain fog, headache etc.), then supplement with NO MORE than that; and by doing so you will 100% eliminate the possibility of choline induced depression and mood-disruption due to too much choline.
Edited by ScienceGuy, 08 January 2012 - 11:35 AM.