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Fasting-mimicking diet holds promise for people with digestive problem

fast-mimicking diet gut microbiota microbiome inflammatory bowel disease ulcerative collitis crohns disease inflammation fasting intermitent fasting

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#1 Engadin

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Posted 07 March 2019 - 10:51 AM

USC study indicates periodic low-calorie diet could help patients with inflammatory bowel disease: A clinical trial shows reduction of inflammation.


USC researchers provided evidence that a low-calorie “fasting-mimicking” diet has the potential to do just that. Published in the Tuesday edition of Cell Reports, the study reports on the health benefits of periodic cycles of the diet for people with inflammation and indicated that the diet reversed inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathology in mice.


Results showed that fasting-mimicking diet caused a reduction in intestinal inflammation and an increase in intestinal stem cells in part by promoting the expansion of beneficial gut microbiota. Study authors say the reversal of IBD pathology in mice, together with its anti-inflammatory effects demonstrated in a human clinical trial, indicate that the regimen has the potential to mitigate IBD.


“This study for the first time combines two worlds of research,” said Valter Longo, a study author and the director of the USC Longevity Institute at the USC Leonard Davis School of Gerontology and professor of biological sciences at the USC Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences. “The first is about what you should eat every day, and many studies point to a diet rich in vegetables, nuts and olive oil. The second is fasting and its effects on inflammation, regeneration and aging.”


Fasting and IBD: Reducing inflammation


By combining these fields of research using the fasting-mimicking diet, the authors were able to reduce the inflammation and pathology associated with intestinal diseases.

Longo said for people with a poor diet, a “once in a while” fix is the periodic use of a low-calorie, plant-based diet that causes cells to act like the body is fasting. Earlier clinical trials conducted by Longo and colleagues allowed participants to consume between 750 and 1,100 calories per day over a five-day period and contained specific proportions of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Participants saw reduced risk factors for many life-threatening diseases.


“Fasting is hard to stick to and it can be dangerous,” Longo said. “We know that the fasting-mimicking diet is safer and easier than water-only fasting, but the big surprise from this study is that if you replace the fasting-mimicking diet, which includes pre-biotic ingredients, with water, we don’t see the same benefits.”


In the study, one group of mice adhered to a four-day fasting-mimicking diet by consuming approximately 50 percent of their normal caloric intake on the first day and 10 percent of their normal caloric intake from the second through fourth days. Another group fasted with a water-only diet for 48 hours.


The study demonstrated that two cycles of a four-day fasting-mimicking diet followed by a normal diet appeared to be enough to mitigate some, and reverse other, IBD-associated pathologies or symptoms. In contrast, water-only fasting came up short, indicating that certain nutrients in the fasting-mimicking diet contribute to the microbial and anti-inflammatory changes necessary to maximize the effects of the fasting regimen.

“We’ve determined that the dietary components are contributing to the beneficial effects; it’s not just about the cells of the human body but it’s also about the microbes that are affected by both the fasting and the diet,” Longo said. “The ingredients in the diet pushed the microbes to help the fasting maximize the benefits against IBD.”


The research team observed activation of stem cells and a regenerative effort in the colon and the small intestine, which increased significantly in length only in the presence of multiple cycles of the fasting-mimicking diet. They concluded that fasting primes the body for improvement, but it is the “re-feeding” that provides the opportunity to rebuild cells and tissues.


Fasting and IBD: Importance of “refeeding”


“It is really remarkable, that in the past 100 years of research into calorie restriction, no one recognized the importance of the re-feeding,” Longo said. “Restriction is like a demolition where you take the building down. But you have to rebuild it. If you don’t do that, there’s no benefit. You are left with an empty lot, and what have you achieved?”


In the current and previous studies, the authors showed that in patients with elevated C-reactive protein, a marker for inflammation, fasting-mimicking diet cycles are able to reduce C-reactive protein and reverse the associated increase in white blood cells. Together with the results in mice, these data indicate that fasting-mimicking diet cycles have the potential to be effective against human IBD, including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.


IBD afflicts an estimated 1.6 million Americans and is associated with acute and chronic inflammation of the intestine. Study authors say a randomized clinical trial involving the use of fasting-mimicking diet cycles to treat IBD is necessary to determine the safety and efficacy of these dietary treatments in humans, and are currently finalizing a clinical trial protocol.


Source: https://news.usc.edu...-ibd-usc-stody/



Highlights from the original source:

  • FMD cycles partially reverse IBD-related pathology compared to water-only fasting
  • FMD cycles reduce intestinal inflammatory and immune and increase regenerative markers
  • FMD cycles promote the expansion of Lactobacillaceae and Bifidobacteriaceae
  • FMD cycles can reduce systemic inflammation and consequent leukocytosis in humans
Dietary interventions are potentially effective therapies for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). We tested the effect of 4-day fasting-mimicking diet (FMD) cycles on a chronic dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced murine model resulting in symptoms and pathology associated with IBD. These FMD cycles reduced intestinal inflammation, increased stem cell number, stimulated protective gut microbiota, and reversed intestinal pathology caused by DSS, whereas water-only fasting increased regenerative and reduced inflammatory markers without reversing pathology. Transplants of Lactobacillus or fecal microbiota from DSS- and FMD-treated mice reversed DSS-induced colon shortening, reduced inflammation, and increased colonic stem cells. In a clinical trial, three FMD cycles reduced markers associated with systemic inflammation. The effect of FMD cycles on microbiota composition, immune cell profile, intestinal stem cell levels and the reversal of pathology associated with IBD in mice, and the anti-inflammatory effects demonstrated in a clinical trial show promise for FMD cycles to ameliorate IBD-associated inflammation in humans.

The rest here: https://www.cell.com...1247(19)30181-0

#2 Engadin

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Posted 07 March 2019 - 12:01 PM



What I don't really understand is why they claim higher FMD benefits when compared to water fasting if the time basis/duration used for each option are different in this work, at least in mice: 2 cycles of 4 FMD days vs 2 days (48 h.) of water fasting. IMHO Valter Longo once again uses relatively questionable rigurous methods for comparing, duration wise and therefore not so comparable, results to claim this 'successful' results.

Edited by Engadin, 07 March 2019 - 12:36 PM.

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Also tagged with one or more of these keywords: fast-mimicking diet, gut microbiota, microbiome, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative collitis, crohns disease, inflammation, fasting, intermitent fasting

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