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Vitamin C Reduces Human Mortality

vitamin c mortality biomarkers lifespan cancer oxidative stress cardio protection collagen immunosenescence

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#1 Engadin

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Posted 12 March 2019 - 04:46 PM

V i t a m i n   C   R e d u c e s   H u m a n   M o r t a l i t y  

Humans do not internally produce vitamin C.

Diets provide enough vitamin C to avoid scurvy, but nowhere near what may be optimal doses.

Researchers have found that vitamin C promotes a longer lifespan and can help prevent many of the disorders related to aging, including cancer.

In a major new study, people with higher blood levels of vitamin C were at significantly lower risk for heart disease and cancer death—and were up to 25% less likely to die from any cause.

Vitamin C shows potential to significantly improve the quality of life.


Effect of Vitamin C on Mortality



In a new study, researchers examined vitamin C blood levels and their relationship with patients’ health.

The study involved 948 randomly selected, healthy men and women aged 53 to 84, whose blood was collected in 1999-2000. Subjects were closely followed for the next 16 years, and their health was tracked.

What the study showed was that people whose 16-year-old blood samples contained the highest levels of vitamin C back then had significantly lower risks of dying now.

The differences were dramatic. Those in the highest quartile of baseline blood vitamin C levels were 25% less likely to die than those in the lowest quartile.

Finally, when the researchers analyzed data by disease type, they found that those in the top quartile of blood vitamin C levels in 1999-2000 were at a lower risk for both heart disease and cancer deaths 16 years later.

Many other studies also show a clear link between vitamin C and leading a long, healthy life.

While higher vitamin C levels are associated with people who practice healthier behavior patterns, this study nonetheless shows striking reductions in mortality rates in those with the highest blood levels of vitamin C.


Boosting Longevity


Animal studies show that vitamin C can reverse several age-related abnormalities in tissues. This includes reducing inflammatory responses, protecting DNA integrity, and reducing biomarkers of cellular stress. When left unaddressed, all of these are associated with rapid aging.

Research demonstrates that vitamin C supplementation can extend lifespan in a primitive worm often used in longevity testing.

Studies in mice show even more dramatic results. Humans are among the very few mammals not capable of making their own vitamin C and so they must obtain it from their diet. Scientists did a series of studies using mice that were genetically engineered to age prematurely and require dietary vitamin C.

These studies found that in the absence of significant dietary vitamin C, the mice have a severe reduction in lifespan, and have numerous metabolic abnormalities that resemble those of older humans.

But when vitamin C is added to their diet, the animals’ lifespans were significantly increased, and all metabolic abnormalities were resolved.

The evidence is clear: Vitamin C is an important component to healthy longevity. The results are even more remarkable when scientists examine the role of vitamin C in specific diseases that cause premature death in humans.




Vitamin C and Health


  • Vitamin C was one of the first vitamins to be discovered.
  • First noted for its ability to fight the connective tissue degeneration of scurvy, vitamin C has now been shown to have a vital relationship with biochemical reactions crucial to cellular health throughout the body.
  • A new study shows that individuals with higher blood levels of vitamin C are less likely to die from any cause.
  • Daily supplementation with vitamin C may help prevent cancer, boost the immune system, and protect the cardiovascular system.




Vitamin C is powerful in reducing the oxidative stress that can trigger DNA damage, leading to cancer initiation, and it can inhibit the inflammatory response that promotes tumor growth.

Taking vitamin C supplements reduces markers of oxidative stress in non-smokers exposed to second-hand smoke. Vitamin C supplements have also been shown to reduce damage to human cells that was caused by exposure to radiation.

In fact, some recent studies recommend vitamin C and other antioxidants as ideal protection for patients before undergoing imaging studies that use radiation (like X-rays and CT scans).

The vitamin may act directly on developing malignancies as well. Vitamin C can generate hydrogen peroxide, which destroys rapidly-replicating cancer cells.

Gastrointestinal cancers are among the most common and most preventable malignancies.

A large clinical study found that higher vitamin C levels were strongly linked to a lower risk of stomach cancer (gastric adenocarcinoma). For each 0.35 mg/dL increase in blood levels of vitamin C, there was a 14% reduction in risk of this tumor. Compared to people with the lowest vitamin C levels, those with normal concentrations had an overall 27%reduction in stomach cancer risk.

Breast cancer studies show a similar result: Women with the highest intake of vitamin C prior to a cancer diagnosis were 25% less likely to die from the disease compared to those with the lowest levels.

In experiments with normal mice and those genetically engineered to express human genes (including lack of vitamin C synthesis), all normal animals developed mammary cancers after implantation with human breast cancer cells. In mice bearing human genes there was a reduced growth when given modest vitamin C supplementation. Moreover, in the engineered mice on higher-dose vitamin C, none developed tumors.


Vitamin C Adds Cardio Protection


Research into vitamin C and cardiovascular disease has shown that the vitamin can act at multiple pathways involved in the development of atherosclerosis, arterial blockage, and the resulting heart attacks and strokes.

Lipid peroxidation, free radical damage to fats, is a crucial step in the development of atherosclerosis and heart disease. Studies show that vitamin C at doses of 1,000 mg per day lowers levels of oxidative-stress markers in blood, even during the high oxidative-stress period following a meal.

Vitamin C has shown many beneficial effects in preventing cardiovascular disease:

  • Vitamin C preserved crucial cardiac stem cells, required for healing damaged heart tissuein a lab study.
  • Two grams per day of vitamin C fully restored an important cardiovascular repair system in smokers after just 2 weeks of supplementation, giving them the same healing capacity as non-smokers.
  • A meta-analysis of 44 clinical trials showed that vitamin C supplementation improved endothelial function. The effect was stronger in those with higher cardiovascular risk.16
  • Vitamin C reduces the tendency to form harmful plaque and clots. A modest 500 mg per-day dose for 3 months in overweight and obese subjects triggered the release of a natural clot-busting protein, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in endothelial cells.
  • A human double-blind study found that vitamin C supplementation for 6 weeks resulted in a 37% reduction in the numbers of monocytes sticking to endothelial cells—reducing the risk that atherosclerotic plaque would form.
  • A clinical study of older men showed that a dietary intervention to increase vitamin C levels slowed the progression in thickening of the carotid artery.

The overall impact of vitamin C on cardiovascular disease risk is potentially life-saving, and studies suggest that daily supplementation with ample amounts can optimize protection of the heart and major arteries.


Boost Immune Function, Cut Infection Risk


Vitamin C is especially beneficial to the immune system, helping to prevent viral respiratory infections like the common cold. Immune system cells accumulate vitamin C, using it to create chemical “weapons” which destroy invading bacteria and viruses.

Diminished levels of vitamin C leave us vulnerable to specific disease-causing microbes.

Vitamin C’s immune-boosting effects arise from multiple mechanisms:

  • Promoting the actions of phagocytes, the cellular “eating machines” that chew up bacterial and fungal cells.
  • Activating T-cells, white blood cells, that scan the body for abnormalities and infections and direct both antibody-producing cells and killer cells to work against viruses and bacteria.
  • Mitigating oxidative stress and reducing unneeded inflammatory responses.

In addition, vitamin C slows the gradual shrinkage of the thymus gland in mice. A shrinking thymus is closely associated with immunosenescence, in which a declining immune system leaves older people at higher risk for infection and autoimmune disorders.

A meta-analysis of 7 randomized, controlled trials found that, at the onset of an upper respiratory tract infection such as a cold, the addition of doses greater than one gram of vitamin C per day, on top of an ongoing daily preventive vitamin C regimen, significantly shortened the duration of illness and the severity of symptoms.




Collagen, a structural protein abundant in connective tissue and found throughout the body, makes up 30% of all body protein. Collagen provides strength and durability to bone, skin, tendons, ligaments, blood vessels, and more.

The strength and resilience of much of our collagen decreases with age, contributing to age-related changes to skin, bone, and even our cardiovascular and respiratory systems.

Vitamin C plays a critical role in the synthesis of collagen. Studies have consistently shown that vitamin C supplementation improves collagen production and supports healing of tissues following injuries.

For example, there is evidence that vitamin C may accelerate bone healing after a fracture, and increase the quality and amount of collagen in connective tissues.

Additionally, vitamin C also protects against skin aging and prevents damage caused by ultraviolet radiation. In aging mice, it blocked wrinkle formation, loss of elasticity, and thinning of the skin by augmenting production of both collagen and elastic fibers.


Bone Health


Large population studies have found that higher vitamin C intake is associated with greater bone mass, and that lower vitamin C intake correlates with bone loss. And clinical studies have shown positive associations between vitamin C supplementation and improved bone mineral density.

2018 systematic review and meta-analysis found that overall, greater vitamin C intake was associated with a 33% lower risk of osteoporosis, a lower risk of hip fractures, and greater bone mineral density. This isn’t surprising, given that vitamin C is required by enzymes that produce the protein matrix in bones. Thus, vitamin C is required for healthy, strong bones.

The study used mice with genetic defects that make them reliant on dietary vitamin C, as humans are. Multiple bone abnormalities were uncovered when the animals were fed a C-deficient diet. However, when vitamin C supplements were given, those abnormalities were resolved.

Vitamin C has a tremendous impact on bone, including restoring normal development of critical bone-forming cells (osteoblasts).


May Help Boost Mood, Fight Depression


Clinical studies are revealing that supplemental vitamin C, alone or in combination with anti-anxiety drugs, improves mood-related disorders.

In a randomized, controlled trial, two weeks of vitamin C treatment reduced anxiety compared to a placebo. In another controlled, clinical trial, 6 weeks of supplementation with vitamin C at a dosage of 1,000 mg daily significantly reduced anxiety levels.

Another placebo-controlled clinical trial in children with major depression found that with the addition of vitamin C to fluoxetine drug therapy the children had lower depression scores than those who received the fluoxetine plus a placebo. Remarkably, a short-term trial found that a single dose of 1,000 mg of vitamin C significantly reduced anxiety, compared to baseline levels, among the subjects in the top one-quarter of anxiety scores.

Several mechanisms are being explored to explain vitamin C’s mood-improving effects — beyond its ability to combat oxidative stress. One recent animal study showed that vitamin C may activate receptors for the neurotransmitter GABA, which boosts mood. Another provided evidence that vitamin C modulates human opioid-like receptors as it exerts its anti-depressant effects.




Multiple, large studies have shown that individuals with higher blood levels of vitamin C are less likely to die from any cause. Vitamin C has important preventive effects on a range of age-associated disorders.

Studies show that vitamin C supplementation can help prevent many kinds of cancers, protect the heart and blood vessels, boost the immune system and fight immune senescence. It has even shown the ability to help prevent osteoporosis and promote healthy bone formation.

Daily vitamin C supplementation plays a vital role in optimizing our body’s ability to combat oxidative stress and protect against many of the diseases associated with aging.


Source: https://www.lifeexte...uman-Mortality/

#2 William Sterog

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Posted 16 March 2019 - 09:51 PM

I am in. Is there a consensus in which kind is best to supplement?

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#3 pamojja

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Posted 16 March 2019 - 10:13 PM

I am in. Is there a consensus in which kind is best to supplement?


Long term users who have benefited for many years, especially from intractable chronic disease, have no doubt. However, all others still can't agree. One such discussion: https://www.longecit...ystemic-health/

#4 MankindRising

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Posted 16 March 2019 - 11:19 PM

While Im a fan of vitamin c (despite me not taking it atm due to acidity) I do would have to say I have a strong dislike for lifeextension website blog posts... theres simply too much of an overhyped marketing factor in it.


So for everyone like me who dont want to dig through the bogus bullshit over at the LE website heres the link to the actual study: 



Association of plasma vitamin C concentration to total and cause-specific mortality: a 16-year prospective study in China. (not sponsored by any vitamin c supplement seller it seems)





Something I would like to add (not sure how relevant it is but it could be): both resveratrol (and other antidiabetic compounds) aswell as vitamin c seem to upregulate PON1. This powerfully controls lipid peroxidation among many other things that are important. In fact PON1 plays a crucial role in detoxicfication of homocysteine junk called homocysteine thiolactone:





Serum paraoxonase/arylesterase 1 (PON1) also known as A esterase homocysteine thiolactonase or serum aryldialkylphosphatase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PON1 gene.


"PON1 is responsible for hydrolysing organophosphate pesticides and nerve gassesPolymorphisms in the PON1 gene significantly affect the catalytic ability of the enzyme.[10]

PON1 (paraoxonase 1) is also a major anti-atherosclerotic component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL).[11][12] The PON1 gene is activated by PPAR-γ, which increases synthesis and release of paraoxonase 1 enzyme from the liver, reducing atherosclerosis.[13]

The "natural" substrates for PON1 appear to be lactones.[14] However, PON1 has evolved to be a highly promiscuous enzyme capable of hydrolysing a wide variety of substrates such as lactones (including a number of important pharmaceutical agents such as statins), glucuronide drugs, thiolactones, arylesters, cyclic carbonates, organophosphorus pesticides and nerve gases such as sarin, soman and VX, oestrogen esters and lipid peroxides(oxidised lipids)."


"PON1 was first discovered through its ability to hydrolyse and therefore detoxify organophosphorus compounds which are widely used as pesticides and nerve gases. Despite decades of research it is only now becoming clear that PON1 protects humans from the acute and chronic harmful effects of these compounds[20][21] Low PON1 activity found in children may increase their susceptibility to organophosphates.

Oxidised-lipids are the major cause of inflammation and are responsible for the initiation and/or propagation of several inflammatory diseases including atherosclerosis (heart disease and stroke), diabetes, liver and kidney diseases, rheumatic diseases, eye diseases (macular degeneration), cancer and HIV infection[citation needed]. Because of its ability to destroy oxidised-lipids PON1 appears to play some role in all these diseases. However, the greatest research interest has been the role of PON1 in atherosclerosis, where, because of its ability to remove harmful oxidised-lipids, PON1 protects against the development of atherosclerosis[22] Oxidized polyunsaturated fatty acids (notably in oxidized low-density lipoprotein) form lactone-like structures that are PON substrates.[23]

PON1 also protects against bacterial infection by destroying the bacterial signalling molecules that cause gram negative bacteria to invade human tissue and form colonies, thus PON1 contributes to the bodies innate immunity[24]"




Homocysteine can cyclize to give homocysteine thiolactone, a five-membered heterocycle. Because of this "self-looping" reaction, homocysteine-containing peptides tend to cleave themselves by reactions generating oxidative stress.[9]

Homocysteine also acts as an allosteric antagonist at Dopamine D2 receptors.[10] It has been proposed that both homocysteine and its thiolactone may have played a significant role in the appearance of life on the early Earth.[11]


Now obviously resveratrol alone isnt unique in inducing PON1 (vitamin c, quercetin and low alcohol intake also do so), but the MOA by which it does seems rather unique from what I understand.


Induction of the Paraoxonase-1 Gene Expression by Resveratrol


"Methods and Results— PON-1 activity assays, Northern blot, and transfection experiments showed that resveratrol increased the PON-1 gene expression in human hepatocyte primary cultures and in the HuH7 hepatoma cell line involving a transcriptional mechanism. The resveratrol effect was not ERα-dependent and was surprisingly mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and an unconventional AhR responsive element in the PON-1 gene promoter. This agonist effect of resveratrol was specific for this DNA motif and was not observed on classical AhR responsive elements.

Conclusions— These observations suggest that the PON-1 gene induction may be involved in the cardioprotective properties of resveratrol. They also highlight a ligand-dependent differential modulation of AhR-sensitive genes.

The human paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) is a high-density lipoprotein-associated enzyme displaying protective properties toward cardiovascular disease. We show that resveratrol, a wine component, increases the PON-1 gene expression in human hepatocytes and in the HuH7 hepatoma cell line by an unusual AhR-mediated transcriptional mechanism."


Whats kind of unique about it is that resveratrol seems to also be an AHr antagonist (selective one) and thus blocking blocking the formation of carcinogens such as those in car exhaust and cigarette smoke AND at the same time increase the defense against toxins and endogenous created junk by inducing PON1.

Edited by MankindRising, 16 March 2019 - 11:20 PM.

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#5 manofsan

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Posted 17 March 2019 - 02:46 AM

I am in. Is there a consensus in which kind is best to supplement?



Try the time-release Vitamin C   --  that will ensure you constantly have a healthy supply of it

#6 William Sterog

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Posted 17 March 2019 - 07:27 AM

Try the time-release Vitamin C -- that will ensure you constantly have a healthy supply of it

Won't this supplement hinder my response to exercise?

#7 pamojja

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Posted 17 March 2019 - 09:42 AM

Won't this supplement hinder my response to exercise?


Depends, in studies it seem to do to some extent.


In real life and my case of a 60% walking-disability due to PAD (considered a progressive and non-reversible chronic disease) and a 80% stenosis at my abdominal aorta, which initially allowed me to walk 300-400 meters only at a time (10 years ago), improved very fast to at least being able to walk 1 hour at a time, after reaching a higher therapeutic dose of at least 6 g/d after one year (together with lysine, as part of Linus Pauling's recommendations). So with a chronic disease, where walking has become the only kind of exercise tolerated, at least in my case it improved.


2012 had a setback to only 1/2 hr walking distance due to a chronic bronchitis that whole year. Finally that cured with a lot of sunshine and sea-breeze at a South-Indian beach for 4 months. Which for its beneficial effects I repeated from then on, by staying each winter for 6 weeks on vacation there. Which additionally allowed to exercise in swimming, and much further than at home in Europe. Where I only get to 20 minutes at a time due to shivering, while relaxed swimming in the tepid Ocean there allowed up to 40 minutes at a time.


However, only after 6 years of high dose vitamin C (in average at about 23 g/d for that time period) the 60% walking-disability was officially revoked, and given a remaining general 50% disability for remaining general symptoms similar to CFS instead.


Finally this year winter swimming in the Arabic sea each day up to 40 minutes again, after some weeks I thought I will probably never be able any longer at a time. But then it gave way and even been able to swim 70 minutes at a time the last 2 weeks.


That's of course only one anecdotal experience, additional with a very nasty usually non-reversible chronic disease. However, since exercise capacity is really not difficult to ascertain, it is easy enough to find out by how any intake is affecting oneself, and therefore really no need for believing in studies.



Try the time-release Vitamin C -- that will ensure you constantly have a healthy supply of it


If one goes the for me effective route of taking teaspoon fulls of pure ascorbic acid 3-4 times a day in a glass of water - than I would highly disadvise to use any capsule or tablet products, but only pure powder mixed in water. For avoiding all the binder, filler and additives. Which other than ascorbic acid can't be healthy in the many grams range for many years.

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#8 Oakman

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Posted Yesterday, 11:45 PM

Though only my anecdotal experience, I have taken various amounts of Vit C throughout my life, from young adulthood, and continuing as of today, so at least 40+ yrs. Never less than 500 mg/day normally, typically 1g/day, but when ill (colds/flu/etc) sometimes as much as 1g/hr while awake. I'm not any great athlete, but have gotten more fit in later life by some measures, and have been generally healthy throughout. 


Back in the day, I was a great fan of Linus Pauling, who was a promoter of Vitamin C for many ills. I took that to heart and I can't say I've ever regretted it. In fact, I highly recommend using Vitamin C to anyone.

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