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Autophagy vs Apoptosis

autophagy apoptosis telomere healthspan

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#1 manofsan

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Posted 16 March 2019 - 01:49 AM


Hi, I'd like to know about the desirability of autophagy versus apoptosis. Which is more desirable - and under what conditions and why? What are the pro's and cons of each?

 

Autophagy seems to be about rebooting and recycling malfunctioning cells, while apoptosis is about killing off malfunctioning cells (and letting fresh ones take their place).

 

A senolytic would cause apoptosis - is there a counterpart word for a substance which causes autophagy?

 

 

 

Since apoptosis typically triggers replacement by adjacent neighboring cells, then those new daughter cells would have slightly shorted telomeres compared to the pre-apoptosis situation.

Meanwhile, autophagy would not result in any telomere shortening - or would it?

 

Autophagy is less drastic than apoptosis-&-replacement, but so can it therefore result in a defective cell not being fully cured?


Edited by manofsan, 16 March 2019 - 02:00 AM.

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#2 xEva

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Posted 16 March 2019 - 09:37 PM

You may find this interesting: 2009 review: Life and death partners: apoptosis, autophagy and the cross-talk between them

 

Apoptosis, the first genetically programmed death process identified, has been extensively studied .... Yet, apoptosis does not function alone to determine a cell’s fate. More recently, autophagy... has been shown to engage in a complex interplay with apoptosis. In some cellular settings, it can serve as a cell survival pathway, suppressing apoptosis, and in others, it can lead to death itself, either in collaboration with apoptosis or as a back-up mechanism when the former is defective. The molecular regulators of both pathways are inter-connected;



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#3 xEva

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Posted 16 March 2019 - 11:09 PM

found even better paper: Autophagic cell death: the story of a misnomer, 2014. It is more in line with my view that "autophagy has, above all, a role in protecting mammalian cells from nutrient stress, aggregates of misfolded proteins, organelle damage and microbes". The fact that it may be active during a programmed cell death does not mean that it is central to the process. It is an essential cellular function, which is active in many different processes, and programmed cell death is just one such process.



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#4 manofsan

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Posted 17 March 2019 - 12:18 AM

But so let's talk nitty-gritty  --  should we prefer to have Autophagy first for malfunctioning cells, and then subsequently Apoptosis for any remaining cells which are still malfunctioning?

 

You've pointed out a natural balance between these 2 processes already occurs to ensure this.

 

But why should we prefer a balance between the 2? What advantage comes from that, as opposed to having one dominate over the other?

 

 

As you know, Senolytics are the cool new thing - but Senolytics only do Apoptosis - and this could tilt the natural balance between the 2 towards the Apoptosis side. Are we then "robbing Peter to pay Paul" - are we encouraging one at the expense of the other, in a way that would deprive us of useful health benefits from a more balanced approach?

 

When we take Senolytics to encourage Apoptosis, should we be taking them with something else that would likewise encourage Autophagy, to increase both of them instead of one of them, so as to ensure maximum health benefits?







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