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(De)Toxifying the Epigenetic Code

cells toxic proteins necms histones

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#1 Engadin

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Posted 25 March 2019 - 10:28 AM




Cells are continuously subjected to an array of reactive/toxic chemical species which are produced both endogenously through metabolic pathways and taken up exogenously by diet and exposure to drugs or toxins. As a result, proteins often undergo non-enzymatic covalent modifications (NECMs) by these species, which can alter protein structure, function, stability, and binding partner affinity. NECMs accumulate over time and are linked to various diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, cancer, and diabetes. In the cellular proteome, histones have some of the longest half-lives, making them prime targets for NECMs. In addition, histones have emerged as key regulators of transcription, a function that is primarily controlled by modification of their tails. These modifications are usually installed or removed enzymatically, but recent evidence suggests that some may also occur non-enzymatically. Despite the vast knowledge detailing the relationship between histone modifications and gene regulation, NECMs on histones remain poorly explored. A major reason for this difference stems from the fact that, unlike their enzymatically installed counterparts, NECMs are difficult to both control and test in vivo. Here, we review advances in our understanding of the effect non-enzymatic covalent modifications (NECMs) have on the epigenetic landscape, cellular fate, and their implications in disease. Cumulatively, this illustrates how the epigenetic code is directly toxified by chemicals and detoxified by corresponding eraser enzymes.



Source: https://pubs.acs.org...mrestox.9b00013

Also tagged with one or more of these keywords: cells, toxic, proteins, necms, histones

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