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95% of Centenarians are Frail

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#1 reason

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Posted 27 August 2021 - 07:37 PM

Survival to 100 years of age is a rarity at the present time, but if the present slow upward trend in life expectancy continues, most people born today will live to 100 or more. That trend will, of course, not continue as-is. The past trend was due to incidental effects of public health measures and general progress in medicine on the mechanisms of aging. The trend in life expectancy will leap upwards with the advent of rejuvenation therapies that deliberately target the reversal and repair of those mechanisms. But that is a topic for another post.

Here, let us focus on what actually happens at the present time to people in the last stages of aging. I think it is important to look at the reality of the situation, as in some circles, centenarians are held up as exemplars of health in later life, and the goal of medicine put forward as upholding the slow trend of increased life expectancy, thereby enabling more people to follow the same path. This is a terrible goal. Centenarian health is not good. As today's open access paper shows, near all centenarians are frail. Frailty is a life-limiting set of circumstances, caused by a high burden of the cell and tissue damage that lies at the root of aging. Frailty manifests as physical weakness, dependency, vulnerability to infection, cognitive decline, and a high mortality rate. No-one would choose to be frail, given the option. Mere survival should not be held up as an exemplar of health.

The goal of developing rejuvenation therapies is maintenance of health, the elimination of suffering and limitations such as frailty, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and so forth. Increased healthy life span, ultimately far beyond present human capabilities, will be a happy side-effect of keeping the human machine in good running condition. Rejuvenation is just another name for preventative maintenance sufficient for good operation: identify the damage that limits capabilities, and remove it before it causes major breakage. That is a lot more complicated in a mammal than it is in a car, but the concept is the same, and it will work just as well. If the entire field of longevity science turns into low-expectation-value efforts to modestly slow aging with the goal of making more frail centenarians, then we will have missed the point of the exercise, and missed the opportunity to achieve a great advance in the quality of life for all of humanity.

Age- and Gender-Specific Prevalence of Frailty and Its Outcomes in the Longevous Population: The Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Study

Based on the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Study (CLHLS, 2008-2018), individuals aged ≥ 65 years having complete data of frailty were recruited. The present study reported the prevalence of pre-frailty and frailty among the population with a mean age of 85 years, which were 54.1 and 26.3%, respectively. Females were predominant among frail population in all age groups whereas males were dominant among pre-frail individuals aged ≥ 80 years. Both pre-frailty and frailty were strongly associated with multiple adverse outcomes. Males and the young-old (younger than 80 years) were the most susceptible to the risk of mortality.

Healthy aging is an important goal of the public health in the 21st century. However, a huge gap exists between longer life and healthy aging. The present study indicated the high prevalence of pre-frailty and frailty among the Chinese longevous population, which is consistent with the results from 1,253 centenarians in the 5-COOP study countries (Japan, France, Switzerland, Sweden, and Denmark). It demonstrated that the heavy burden of frailty among the longevous population was globally substantial. Notably, only 5% of centenarians and 11.1% of nonagenarians were non-frailty in the present study. Similar results were observed among centenarians in the 5-COOP countries.

Additionally, the present results comprehensively demonstrated the association between pre-frailty, frailty, and the risk of multiple adverse outcomes. It implies not only the high consumption of healthcare resources of the frail elderly, but also the suffering of patients themselves. Hence, the epidemic of frailty could be considered as one of the great barriers of healthy aging.

View the full article at FightAging
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#2 Fernando G

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Posted 17 September 2021 - 03:31 PM

Lightly Caloric Restriction =95-105 yo moderatly 105-130 yo severe more than 130 yo

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