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Skin Bioavailability of Dietary Supplements (some advantages over topi


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#1 edward

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Posted 28 February 2008 - 07:08 PM


Interesting article (attached) on the effects of dietary supplementation on skin health and aging

Highlights:

Advantages of Oral Administration:

The advantages of this route of administration are that the dietary bioactive compounds are metabolized and then presented to the entire tissue, potentially in an active form. Also, the blood continuously replenishes the skin with these bioactive compounds, which can then be distributed to all skin compartments (i.e. epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous fat and also to sebum)

Disadvantages of Topical Administration:
In the case of the skin, the classical route of antioxidant administration is topical application. However, this topical route of administration can be achieved efficiently only if the particular antioxidant is stable in the preparation as well as on skin, is able to penetrate the skin and is present in its active form (i.e. possible metabolites). In addition, penetration of antioxidants into the skin is influenced by environmental factors, such as temperature,hydration and the presence of other chemicals.

Some highlights about specific nutrients, see article for more:

Vit. E
Indeed, following supplementation, both the natural form (RRR-a-tocopherol) and the synthetic form (all-rac-atocopherol) appear in the blood circulation, whereas only
RRR-a-tocopherol appears in sebum (Vaule et al. 2004).

Carotenoids
Most of the increase in skin carotenoid levels occurs within the first four weeks of supplementation but no plateau is reached during 12 weeks of supplementation.Cessation of supplementation induces a prompt drop of carotenoid level in all skin sites, decreasing by 56% in forehead, 14% in dorsal, 31% for palm of the hand, 35% for back of the hand and 47% inside the arm (Stahl et al. 1998).

Polyphenols
Silibinin, a polyphenol from milk thistle, appeared in mouse skin rapidly after absorption, but 90%was metabolized or excreted within 4 h. The maximum amount of conjugated silibinin in skin was similar to that found in lung, liver and prostate, although the amount of the free form was lower

Conclusions
Different data support the fact that dietary bioactives such as vitamins, carotenoids, polyphenols and trace elements contribute
to maintenance and improvement of skin integrity and physiology, as well as preventing deleterious effects induced
by ageing and environmental stress. Beneficial effects have been demonstrated in various experimental systems including topical application of some of these ingredients. More recently, oral supplements containing various dietary bioactives have also been reported to be beneficial for skin.

edit: fixed link/download

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Edited by edward, 28 February 2008 - 07:21 PM.


#2 johnblaze

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Posted 26 April 2008 - 03:10 AM

Interesting article (attached) on the effects of dietary supplementation on skin health and aging

Highlights:

Advantages of Oral Administration:

The advantages of this route of administration are that the dietary bioactive compounds are metabolized and then presented to the entire tissue, potentially in an active form. Also, the blood continuously replenishes the skin with these bioactive compounds, which can then be distributed to all skin compartments (i.e. epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous fat and also to sebum)

Disadvantages of Topical Administration:
In the case of the skin, the classical route of antioxidant administration is topical application. However, this topical route of administration can be achieved efficiently only if the particular antioxidant is stable in the preparation as well as on skin, is able to penetrate the skin and is present in its active form (i.e. possible metabolites). In addition, penetration of antioxidants into the skin is influenced by environmental factors, such as temperature,hydration and the presence of other chemicals.

Some highlights about specific nutrients, see article for more:

Vit. E
Indeed, following supplementation, both the natural form (RRR-a-tocopherol) and the synthetic form (all-rac-atocopherol) appear in the blood circulation, whereas only
RRR-a-tocopherol appears in sebum (Vaule et al. 2004).

Carotenoids
Most of the increase in skin carotenoid levels occurs within the first four weeks of supplementation but no plateau is reached during 12 weeks of supplementation.Cessation of supplementation induces a prompt drop of carotenoid level in all skin sites, decreasing by 56% in forehead, 14% in dorsal, 31% for palm of the hand, 35% for back of the hand and 47% inside the arm (Stahl et al. 1998).

Polyphenols
Silibinin, a polyphenol from milk thistle, appeared in mouse skin rapidly after absorption, but 90%was metabolized or excreted within 4 h. The maximum amount of conjugated silibinin in skin was similar to that found in lung, liver and prostate, although the amount of the free form was lower

Conclusions
Different data support the fact that dietary bioactives such as vitamins, carotenoids, polyphenols and trace elements contribute
to maintenance and improvement of skin integrity and physiology, as well as preventing deleterious effects induced
by ageing and environmental stress. Beneficial effects have been demonstrated in various experimental systems including topical application of some of these ingredients. More recently, oral supplements containing various dietary bioactives have also been reported to be beneficial for skin.

edit: fixed link/download


Nice find, I like it. :-D

Just reading your summary when do carotenoids platue, for instance I have been actively supplementing for 2 years now (carotenoids from orthocore) so are my levels still rising?

Also, I'm not familar with Vitamin E isomers beyond the alpha, beta, delta, gamma nomenclature; what does RRR-A and all-rac mean? sounds like R and S optical chiralty (then saying all-racemic) but R+S is different than a-, b-, d-, g- right? confused. :)

Also on the theoretical side, I have always thought sun exposure was healthy, and that taning is a relatively recent phenomena (thank you coco chanel :~ ), and that it was very important for physiology and conditions such as depression and things beyond even vitamin d; so, when it comes to cancer I believe it is a relatively overhyped fear, and that if you were to take a whole B complex you would prevent AGEs in skin and taking detox substrates like DIM you could prevent cancer from taking a foothold. If one were to put sunscreen on, which again is a recent phenomena, you are preventing these metabolic reactions from occuring, especially if you block out the wavelengths areound 300nm. I'm not advocating total unfiltered sun expsoure for the the whole population, but it's something to discuss. Just my 2c.

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#3 tintinet

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Posted 26 April 2008 - 03:54 PM

WRT sun exposure. It's ionizing radiation and, yes, it can cause cancer. Some (how much depends upon your skin type) is good for you in many ways, but, your skin, along with the rest of you, was not designed to last forever, or even 100 years.

#4 frederickson

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Posted 27 April 2008 - 04:11 PM

Nice find, I like it. :~

Just reading your summary when do carotenoids platue, for instance I have been actively supplementing for 2 years now (carotenoids from orthocore) so are my levels still rising?

Also, I'm not familar with Vitamin E isomers beyond the alpha, beta, delta, gamma nomenclature; what does RRR-A and all-rac mean? sounds like R and S optical chiralty (then saying all-racemic) but R+S is different than a-, b-, d-, g- right? confused. ;)

Also on the theoretical side, I have always thought sun exposure was healthy, and that taning is a relatively recent phenomena (thank you coco chanel :-D ), and that it was very important for physiology and conditions such as depression and things beyond even vitamin d; so, when it comes to cancer I believe it is a relatively overhyped fear, and that if you were to take a whole B complex you would prevent AGEs in skin and taking detox substrates like DIM you could prevent cancer from taking a foothold. If one were to put sunscreen on, which again is a recent phenomena, you are preventing these metabolic reactions from occuring, especially if you block out the wavelengths areound 300nm. I'm not advocating total unfiltered sun expsoure for the the whole population, but it's something to discuss. Just my 2c.


i agree, this was a GREAT article! i have sensitive skin and am suspicious of the stability/efficacy/long term safety of topically applied products, and for these reasons avoid them and prefer the dietary/supplemental route to skin care.

in reference to your question, my understanding is that RRR-A refers to natural tocopherols and all-rac refers to synthetic products. i think most would argue that the naturally derived products are superior, as evidenced by the finding that natural tocopherols reached the sebum and synthetic did not.

i have a counter question for you... how does a B complex prevent AGEs in skin?

#5 johnblaze

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Posted 27 April 2008 - 08:48 PM

The B complex, and especially benfotiamine and pyrodoxamine, inihibit the amordi cycle in later-phases - preventing AGEs from forming. Internal B being systematic inferring skin being included.

The following is an excerpt from AOR regarding their B-Complex

Research

The non-enzymatic glycation of proteins was first discovered with Hemoglobin A1c. This molecule is still used for the long-term management of diabetics. The formation of glycated proteins is a significant source of damage to the proteome and genome and is thought to play a central part in the development of diabetic complications and atherosclerosis. Hyperglycemic conditions such as diabetes accelerate the formation of modified proteins because increased levels of glucose in the blood accelerate the formation of AGE’s.

Pyridoxamine is an Amadorin; a post-Amadori AGE inhibitor. It prevents the conversion of protein Amadori intermediates to protein AGE’s. The vitamin can inhibit post Amodori steps of the Maillard reaction (the non-enzymatic reaction of sugars with amino acids) by sequestering catalytic metal ions and preventing the oxidative degradation of Amadori intermediates. Pyridoxamine prevents the formation of diabetic complications in animal models. In vitro, the molecule prevented the degradation of protein glycation intermediates, which would inhibit the chemical modification of tissue proteins.

Benfotiamine is a lipid soluble derivative of thiamine, with much better bioavailability, and it also interferes with the formation of AGE. In vitro experiments on human cells showed that the presence of benfotiamine in a high glucose environment reduced AGE formation to levels similar to the ones expected at normal blood glucose levels. It also allows normal cellular growth, a process normally impeded by the presence of high amounts of glucose. Benfotiamine’s value is related to its ability at inhibiting the three major pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of hyperglycemia. Benfotiamine stimulates transketolase activity and diverts excess metabolites towards the pentose pathway. In animals, the vitamin prevented diabetic retinopathy. An important finding for the treatment and prevention of complications associated with diabetes.

The health benefits associated with AGE inhibitors are significant. Advanced B Complex prevents the formation of glycated proteins. The synergistic combination of ingredients found in Advanced B Complex makes it a promising candidate for the treatment of diabetes and other conditions where oxidative reactions and carbonyl compounds convey pathogenicity. If you suffer from hyperglycemia, this supplement is a must; it is the most advanced supplement available for the prevention of glucose-mediated damage. If you do not suffer from elevated glucose levels, Advanced B Complex will lend you a hand for years to come, adverting tissue damage caused by AGE formation and accumulation.

References

P Ulrich, X Zhang. "Pharmacological reversal of advanced glycation end-product-mediated protein crosslinking," Diabetologia. 40: S157-S159 (1997).

M F Usta, M Kendirci, T J Bivalacqua, S Gur, W J G Hellstrom, N A Foxwell, S Cellek. "Delayed Administration of ALT-711, but not of Aminoguanidine, Improves Erectile Function in Streptozotocin Diabetic Rats: Curative Versus Preventive Medicine," 11th World Congress of the International Society for Sexual and Impotence Research, Buenos Aires (October 2004).

G Perry, M A Smith. "Active Glycation in Neurofibrillary pathology of Alzheimer's Disease: N-(Carboxymethyl) Lysine and Hexitol-Lysine", Free Radical Biology & Medicine Vol. 31 (2), pp. 175-180, (2001).

Forbes JM, et.al. "The breakdown of pre-existing advanced glycation end products is associated with reduced renal fibrosis in experimental diabetes," The FASEB Journal express article 10.1096/fj.02-1102fje. (Published online: July 18, 2003)

Khalifah RG, Baynes JW, Hudson BG. Amadorins: novel post-Amadori inhibitors of advanced glycation reactions. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999 Apr 13;257(2):251-8.

Voziyan PA, Hudson BG. Pyridoxamine as a multifunctional pharmaceutical: targeting pathogenic glycation and oxidative damage. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2005 Aug;62(15):1671-81.

Hammes HP, Du X, Edelstein D, Taguchi T, Matsumura T, et al. Benfotiamine blocks three major pathways of hyperglycemic damage and prevents experimental diabetic retinopathy. Nat Med. 2003 Mar;9(3):294-9. Epub 2003 Feb 18.

Pomero F, Molinar Min A, La Selva M, Allione A, Molinatti GM, Porta M. Benfotiamine is similar to thiamine in correcting endothelial cell defects induced by high glucose. Acta Diabetol. 2001;38(3):135-8.

Obrenovich ME, Monnier VM. Vitamin B1 blocks damage caused by hyperglycemia. Sci Aging Knowledge Environ. 2003 Mar 12;2003(10):PE6.

Khalifah RG, Baynes JW, Hudson BG. Amadorins: novel post-Amadori inhibitors of advanced glycation reactions. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999 Apr 13;257(2):251-8. Review.

Voziyan PA, Hudson BG. Pyridoxamine: the many virtues of a maillard reaction inhibitor. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005 Jun;1043:807-16.

Voziyan PA, Metz TO, Baynes JW, Hudson BG. A post-Amadori inhibitor pyridoxamine also inhibits chemical modification of proteins by scavenging carbonyl intermediates of carbohydrate and lipid degradation. J Biol Chem. 2002 Feb 1;277(5):3397-403. Epub 2001 Nov 29.

Voziyan PA, Hudson BG. Pyridoxamine as a multifunctional pharmaceutical: targeting pathogenic glycation and oxidative damage. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2005 Aug;62(15):1671-81. Review



#6 LSS

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Posted 30 April 2008 - 07:23 AM

If one were to put sunscreen on, which again is a recent phenomena, you are preventing these metabolic reactions from occurring, especially if you block out the wavelengths areound 300nm. I'm not advocating total unfiltered sun expsoure for the the whole population, but it's something to discuss. Just my 2c.


The large and ever widening holes/thinning of the ozone layer and extreme climate change is a relatively recent phenomena. Just look at the skyrocketing skin cancer rates in Australia.

i agree, this was a GREAT article! i have sensitive skin and am suspicious of the stability/efficacy/long term safety of topically applied products, and for these reasons avoid them and prefer the dietary/supplemental route to skin care.



One example: Retin-A has been successfully and safely used for ~40 years for a variety of skin problems. Lanolin, which is the oil from sheep's wool has been used for a thousands of years as a skin protectant and occlusant. It is even comparable or superior to EGF from this study:

http://www.ncbi.nlm....Pubmed_RVDocSum

Even a basic moisturizer, if devoid of any actives, allows the cells to perform its metabolic processes more efficiently in a moist environment. This is true of wound healing also. And as people age, their skin gets drier and drier making moisturization a necessity.

From my experience and considerable thought, I've found that the answers are usually never black-and-white. Its never one or the other, but always in the middle. Focusing on the inside, while ignoring the outside is folly, just as the reverse is. Oral supplementation/diet and topical administration are both powerful and allows one to cover one's bases in the advent that one functions imperfectly, i.e, the supplements are not properly absorbed, taken in the right dosages, one's diet is sub-optimal, one lives in a area with an extremely high UV index, one forgets to apply sunscreen, etc... Doing both allows one to lower one's margin of error as well as attacking the problem [of skin aging] from multiple angles.

Though oral administration will pale far in comparison to the photo-protection that can be achieved by a high PPD sunscreen as UV exposure tends to overwhelm mammarian biological and antioxidant systems.

As they say "never put your eggs in one basket"...


J Cosmet Dermatol.
2004 Jul;3(3):149-55.
java script:PopUpMenu2_Set(Menu17134430);

Photodamage of the skin: protection and reversal with topical antioxidants.
Burke KE. River Court, New York, USA.

Controversy exists as to whether topical antioxidants can be effective in protecting against and reversing photodamage to the skin. Topical vitamins C and E, as well as topical selenium, protect skin against sunburn, suntan and skin cancer and also reverse the mottled pigmentation and wrinkles of photoageing. However, only certain forms of these labile antioxidants are stable and active after percutaneous absorption. For effective topical application, vitamin C must be non-esterified, acidic and optimally at 20% concentration; vitamin E must be the non-esterified isomer d-alpha-tocopherol at 2-5% concentration. Selenium is only percutaneously absorbed and active when applied topically as l-selenomethionine, optimally at 0.02-0.05%. There are two great advantages in applying an active formulation of topical antioxidants to the skin. First, the skin attains far higher levels of each antioxidant than can be achieved by only taking these vitamins orally. The level of vitamin C attained in the skin by topical application is 20-40 times that achievable with oral vitamin C. With topical application, the concentration of vitamin E in the skin increases by a factor of 10.6 and selenium by a factor of 1.7. Second, topical application arms the skin with a reservoir of antioxidants that cannot be washed or rubbed off, a protection which stays in the skin for several days after application.

PMID: 17134430 [PubMed - in process]


[/size]Biofactors. 2003;18(1-4):289-97.Posted Image

The combined use of oral and topical lipophilic antioxidants increases their levels both in sebum and stratum corneum.
Passi S, De Pità O, Grandinetti M, Simotti C, Littarru GP. Centro Invecchiamento Cellulare, I.D.I. (IRCCS), Rome, Italy. invcell@idi.it

The concentration of Vitamin E (vit E) and ubiquinone (CoQ10), which together with squalene (SQ), play a key role against external oxidative insult, has been shown to decrease significantly during ageing. The aim of the present study is to inquire the effect of the combined use of topical bio-cosmetics containing natural active principles (including sebum-like lipid fractions, sebum and epidermal lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants), and oral antioxidant supplements on the antioxidant content of sebum and stratum corneum. We therefore treated the face and the back of 50 female volunteers aged 21-40, daily for two months, with a base cream containing 0.05% ubiquinone, 0.1% vit E, and 1% squalene. In addition 50 mg of CoQ10 + 50 mg of d-RRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate + 50 microg of selenium were administered orally to half of the volunteers (Group A). Group B was represented by 25 volunteers who were treated only topically. Every 15 days during treatment the levels of CoQ10, vit E and SQ were verified in sebum, stratum corneum, and plasma. The daily topical application of the cream led to a significant increase, that peaked after 60 days, of the levels of CoQ10, d-RRR-alpha-tocopherol and SQ in the sebum (Group B), without significantly affecting the stratum corneum or plasma concentrations of the redox couple CoQ10H2/CoQ10 and vit E. The concomitant oral admistration of antioxidants produced in Group A a significant increase of the levels of CoQ10H2/CoQ10 and vit E both in plasma and stratum corneum after 15 and 30 days treatment respectively, compared to Group B. However the sebum levels of lipophilic antioxidants and SQ did not show a significant increase. After the treatments, the levels of CoQ10H2/CoQ10, vit E and SQ went back to basal levels within 6-8 days in sebum, 12-16 days in the stratum corneum, and 3-6 days in plasma. Therefore topical application of the antioxidants was able to increase their level in sebum, while the concomitant oral administration also affected the levels of vit E and CoQ10 in the stratum corneum.

[size=2]PMID: 14695946 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


LSS




Edited by LSS, 30 April 2008 - 07:25 AM.





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