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Neuravena® (EFLA® 955) wild green oat extract and other green oat extr


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#1 Jacovis

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Posted 02 January 2009 - 10:43 AM


http://www.nutraceut...BT_NovDec08.pdf

activate yOur mind!

The wild green oat herb extract, Neuravena, is scientifically proven to enhance stress resistance, learning ability and alertness.

Although green oat herb preparations have traditionally been used tosupport mental fitness and cognitive function since medieval times, the ability to utilize these properties in modern-day nutraceuticals, food supplements andfunctional foods is contingent on solid scientific evidence. Efficacy, safety and quality take centre stage in the herbal extractsmarket and formulators are increasingly demanding ingredients with product-specific data to substantiate health-related claims. Common bibliographic data are often not sufficient, as the pharmacological profile of different herbal extracts can vary dramatically.

Using modern scientific methods, Frutarom has been able to substantiate the beneficial effects of the wild green oat herb extract, Neuravena EFLA 955, derived from a specific oat variety. Initially, Neuravena was selected from a large range of different oat varieties, because of its superior bioactivity, using abioassay-guided development approach. Its selective effects on brain enzymes were then backed up by convincing evidence from animal studies and, most recently, from a human clinical trial. The results indicated a promising avenue for using Neuravena as a safe and natural ingredient for food supplements, nutraceuticals and functional foods targeted at improving mental fitness, stress resistance and learning abilities.

Bioassay-Guided Approach: Screening for Evidence
The clinical effect of a herbal extract cannotbe attributed to one single substance; it is the result of the synergistic interplay of allof the extract’s constituents. The genetic and phenotypic variability of a plant, as wellas the extraction and refining technologies used when developing a multicomponent herbal extract, are critical when it comes to maximizing the health benefits and minimizing the side-effects of the final product. Bioassay-guided development is a state-of-the-art research method for the rational development of efficacious and safe herbal extracts. The impact of different plant varieties and extract preparation methods on the efficacy of the extract can be assessed by screening its bioactivity profile from the raw material up tothe final product in vitro (Figure 1). Similarly, safety and tolerance aspects of possible concern, such as liver toxicity and the presence of unwanted enzyme activities (such as cytochrome P450 oxygenases) can be monitored. These are important for determiningthe extract’s drug interaction potential and safety profile. Hence, bioassay-guided development is not just used to substantiate traditional or novel areas of indication, it also provides a scientific basis for the rational selection of raw materials and processtechnologies that are best suited to design safe and efficient herbal extracts

Activity Profile
In line with Frutarom’s drive for safety and quality, dozens of different varieties of green oats were screened for their activity in various Central Nervous System (CNS) test systems that examined various targets associated with the traditional uses of green oats. The activity screening focused on 36 old and wild type varieties with high secondary or ‘traditional’ plant metabolite profiles. The bioassay screenings of these oat varieties revealed a clinically significant inhibitory effect on two enzymes that are closely connected to mental health and cognitive function: monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) and phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE 4). Depending on which variety was used to source the raw material, the inhibitory activity of the extract on the two enzymes varied dramatically (Figure 2). Using the best performing green oat variety, Neuravena, the bioassay-oriented process was further developed: extraction procedures and key manufacturing parameters were evaluated to identify critical steps. In the meantime, the contract growing of Neuravena ensured consistent raw material quality. The dual activity profile of bioactivity-tested green oat extracts on MAO-B and PDE 4 provided a reliable, pharmacological basis on which to confirm the traditional indication profile of green oat extracts.

Animal Trial Results
To assess the activity profile of Neuravena in further detail, the impact of an oral application of the extract on the brain’s electrical activity was investigated in freely moving rats using a continuous in vivo analysis of brain field potentials (Tele-Stereo-EEG). The extract was found to attenuate brain activity in nearly all frequency ranges, indicating activated behaviour. Neuravena seems to stimulate the dopaminergic (DA) transmitter system, which is implicated in cognitive functioning and motivation and is related to depression. The main changes were observed within the hippocampus, a brain area closely connected to memory (Figure 3). In the model used in this study, the extract approached the results obtained from drugs used to treat dementia. Additionally, the results of placebo-controlled trials in rats investigating the effects of Neuravena on behaviour concluded that the extract improves general learning performance and speed of learning, ameliorates stress-coping abilities and increases alertness. Moreover, test animals clearly displayed increased social interest and improved reactions to social signals, indicating Neuravena’s positive effect on ‘soft’ skills such as social intelligence. The findings of both in vivo trials revealed a strong correlation with the pharmacological activity profile of Neuravena on MAO-B and PDE 4 found in the bioassay-guided development process, reinforcing its mode of action as well as its indications.

Human Study: Significant Changes in Brain Activity
Following the successful in vitro and animaltrials, the impact of Neuravena on mental fitness and cognitive performance under stressful situations was assessed in humans using quantitative measurements of electrical brain activity. This study was conducted in Germany by Prof. Dr Dimpfel, Neurocode AG (see sidebar), according to GCP (Good Clinical Practice). The randomized, double-blind,placebo-controlled, crossover clinical studycomprised 20 healthy men and women, aged46.5 ± 8.2 years, who ingested one single dose of 2500 mg Neuravena or a placebo. During a period of 4 hours, their baseline brainactivity signals were recorded and analysed. Brain activity was also measured while the participants were subjected to mental pressure during standardized concentration stress and performance tests.

By convention, brain activity signals are expressed in six different frequency ranges: delta, theta, alpha 1 and 2, and beta 1 and 2. As each frequency range characterizes the activity of specific signalling substances in the brain, and different brain regions are related to certain tasks, the overall pattern of how brain activity is influenced by Neuravena can be related to changes in human behaviour. Whereas delta wave brain activity seems to be modulated by the cholinergic transmitter system, theta brain activity is related to the neurotransmitter, noradrenaline. In humans, delta and theta waves have been linked to cognitive and memory performance. Neuravena was found to significantly change the brain activity of the study participants. A considerable decrease in delta and theta baseline wave activity was observed, particularly in brain regions closely connected to cognitive performance. In addition, alpha 2 wave activity increased.

These changes are related to improved concentration, learning and memory, as well as stimulatory properties. It can therefore be concluded that Neuravena improves overall mental fitness in everyday life and can help to avoid dips in cognitive performance during the course of the day. Both theta and delta wave activity was significantly increased during the concentration stress and performancetests in the Neuravena group (Figure 4). As activity levels at resting conditions are low, greater increases in delta and theta wave activity can be achieved during mental work, corresponding to better performance. This finding confirms that Neuravena positively influences brain activity under pressure and thus helps to improve concentration, learning and alertness during stressful situations.

A different way to look at the brain’s communication structure is to transform the results of the frequency analysis into spectral colours. With this special kind of “brain mapping” (see sidebar), the impact of Neuravena on brain activity during the performance of different mental tasks can be visualized in an “Electropsychogram.” The changes occurring during the performance of the concentration stress and performance testsconfirm that Neuravena specifically affects the left temple/forefront area of the brain, which is implicated in cognitive function (Figure 5).

Tailored Product Concepts for a Growing Market
Looking at the evidence presented in this article, it can be concluded that bioactivity-tested green oat extracts, such as Neuravena, are safe and natural new candidates for the emerging market of products that support mental fitness and cognitive function. Because of its strengthening and balancing effects on the brain, Neuravena offers potentially lucrative positioning possibilities for nutraceuticals, food supplements and functional foods that target cognitive support and stress coping abilities. Depending on the specific indication, there are several opportunities to combine Neuravena with other functional ingredients. For example, products targeting “Learning and Concentration” may profit from Neuravena in combination with magnesium, L-glutamine or phosphatidylserine. “Memory” could be enhanced with a Neuravena product enriched with vitamin E, omega-3 or selenium, to mention just a few possibilities.


Edited by Visionary7903, 02 January 2009 - 10:56 AM.


#2 Jacovis

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Posted 02 January 2009 - 10:54 AM

http://www.nutraceut...BT_NovDec08.pdf

Animal Trial Results
To assess the activity profile of Neuravena in further detail, the impact of an oral application of the extract on the brain’s electrical activity was investigated in freely moving rats using a continuous in vivo analysis of brain field potentials (Tele-Stereo-EEG). The extract was found to attenuate brain activity in nearly all frequency ranges, indicating activated behaviour. Neuravena seems to stimulate the dopaminergic (DA) transmitter system, which is implicated in cognitive functioning and motivation and is related to depression. The main changes were observed within the hippocampus, a brain area closely connected to memory (Figure 3). In the model used in this study, the extract approached the results obtained from drugs used to treat dementia. Additionally, the results of placebo-controlled trials in rats investigating the effects of Neuravena on behaviour concluded that the extract improves general learning performance and speed of learning, ameliorates stress-coping abilities and increases alertness. Moreover, test animals clearly displayed increased social interest and improved reactions to social signals, indicating Neuravena’s positive effect on ‘soft’ skills such as social intelligence. The findings of both in vivo trials revealed a strong correlation with the pharmacological activity profile of Neuravena on MAO-B and PDE 4 found in the bioassay-guided development process, reinforcing its mode of action as well as its indications.



I doubt tangozero and graatch were using the Neuravena® (EFLA® 955) extract specifically (as it isn't sold on its own anywhere on the net it seems) but they too noticed a smooth, calming, centering vibe to Avena Sativa (Green Oat extract). Perhaps the 'James Bond' smooth effect that tangozero mentioned is similar to the effects in the trial above where "test animals clearly displayed increased social interest and improved reactions to social signals, indicating Neuravena’s positive effect on ‘soft’ skills such as social intelligence."

http://www.mindandmu...p...p;st=0&p=52
tangozero (November 26, 2008):
"Another one... avena sativa

strangely enough this ingredient makes me feel very smooth and calm - I know its just some sort of oat extract - but I feel a 'james bond' kinda smooth when I'm on it - like I'm somewhat centered and in control - more of a SUBTLE feel to it tho."

graatch (November 28, 2008):
"...It feels calming/centering to me also..."

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#3 graatch

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Posted 04 January 2009 - 03:28 PM

Yeah this is interesting. Nice find. I can't locate details on what Neuravena's special formula entails, I suppose that is intentional on the company's part. I reaffirm the effects I described from pretty high doses (like 3-6g) of 1fast400's simple 10:1 extract ... I thought that a probable mechanism might be effects on cortisol similar to DHEA or just mediated by testosterone via SHBG inhibition. I was quite unaware of effects on MAO-B, or PDE-4 (that one is especially intriguing), or really any body of hard research with wild green oats (avena sativa) at all. So this is good. On a quick scan I can't offer my sorting of hype from meaningful information in your quoted material, there is definitely a bit of gibberish but ... hmm ...

Too bad it's not available standalone, as you say.

Edited by graatch, 04 January 2009 - 03:28 PM.


#4 Jacovis

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Posted 16 January 2009 - 02:52 PM

Yeah this is interesting. Nice find. I can't locate details on what Neuravena's special formula entails, I suppose that is intentional on the company's part. I reaffirm the effects I described from pretty high doses (like 3-6g) of 1fast400's simple 10:1 extract ... I thought that a probable mechanism might be effects on cortisol similar to DHEA or just mediated by testosterone via SHBG inhibition. I was quite unaware of effects on MAO-B, or PDE-4 (that one is especially intriguing), or really any body of hard research with wild green oats (avena sativa) at all. So this is good. On a quick scan I can't offer my sorting of hype from meaningful information in your quoted material, there is definitely a bit of gibberish but ... hmm ...

Too bad it's not available standalone, as you say.


Thanks for the comment graatch!

Here is some more info on this 'EFLA 955, a bioactivity-tested Wild Green Oat Neuravena Special Extract'...


http://www.foodbever.....arom oats.pdf

Green Oat Extracts for Mental Health and Cognitive Function

Green oat preparations have traditionally been used to treat fatigue, poor concentration and irritable moods since medieval times. Using a bioassay-guided development approach, the activity profile of green oat extracts can be substantiated for a wild type green oat variety. Their effect on neurotransmittal enzymes indicates a promising avenue for using these extracts as safe functional ingredients for mood enhancement and recovery.


HIGHER, faster, better. In today’s intensely competitive workplaces, we are making increasingly greater demands on ourselves in order to excel, or simply to survive. We work longer hours, take fewer vacations, invest in further professional education while trying to balance family with work at the same time. No wonder this lifestyle jeopardises our mental and emotional wellbeing; we feel stressed, tired and exhausted, have difficulty concentrating and suffer from mood changes. Fatigue, neurocognitive impairment and irritable moods are features of several diseases connected to mental health and cognitive function, such as depression, anxiety, neurasthenia/chronic fatigue syndrome or dementia (see Fig. 1).

An underestimated problem
A survey by the consultancy Grant Thornton of industry decision makers in 30 countries revealed that in 2005 executives felt even more stressed than in the previous year. Managers are not the only people putting their mental health at risk. Students, housewives, mothers and senior citizens are affected as well. In the United States, nearly a quarter of the adult population have suffered from fatigue lasting 2 weeks or longer.2 Approximately 5.8% of men and 9.8% of women will experience a depressive episode in any given year worldwide.3 In a recent study, 13.6% of European inhabitants reported a lifetime history of an anxiety disorder and one new case of dementia is diagnosed every 7 seconds.

The burden of mental illness on society has been heavily underestimated. Data from the Global Burden of Disease study conducted by the World Health Organization reveal that mental illness, including suicide, accounts for over 15% of the burden of disease in established market economies such as the US. This exceeds the disease burden caused by all cancers. The projections show that with an ageing population and the conquest of infectious diseases, psychiatric and neurological conditions could increase their share of the global disease burden by almost half, from 10.5% of the total burden to almost 15% in 2020.

A market for mental remedies
Looking at these figures, it is no surprise that the market for mental health and cognitive function products has been declared an emerging and promising health platform in a recent report by analysts Frost and Sullivan. The report identifies an untapped market for mental health products, particularly for memory enhancers, energisers and mood balancers. The primary target market consists of stressed-out individuals 20 years and above.

Pharmaceuticals have been the traditional first choice for consumers to treat depression, stress or cognitive impairment. But consumers are becoming wary due to possible side effects or the negative consequences of prolonged use. In contrast, herbal preparations are regarded as efficient, natural and safe alternatives to support mental health and cognitive health, particularly in treating mild cases.

While Ginkgo is well established in its ability to improving cognitive function, many common botanicals studied for treating mood disorders have been overshadowed by concerns about drug interactions and negative effects on the body. St. John’s Wort, widely used to treat mild to moderate depression, has been shown to affect the potency of various other drugs taken concomitantly. Kava Kava, a herbal extract useful in treating
mild to moderate cases of anxiety, has been associated with hepatotoxicity, prompting a number of countries to take regulatory action.

Rational extract development via bioassays
The botanical extract market has lately placed a greater emphasis on product efficacy, safety and quality. There is increasing demand ingredients with product-specific data in order to substantiate possible claims. However, the existing pool of common bibliographic data is losing weight as the pharmacological profile of different botanical extracts can vary drastically.

The clinical effect of a herbal extract cannot be attributed to any one substance but is the results of a synergistic interplay of all its constituents. The geno-typic and phenotypic variability of a plant as well as the extraction and refining technology used for the development of a multi-component botanical extract are critical to maximise the health benefits and minimise the possible side-effects of the final product.

Bioassay-guided development is a state-of-the-art research method for the development of efficient and safe herbal extracts. The impact of different plant varieties as well as different extract preparation methods can be assessed by screening the bio activity profile of an extract from the raw material up to the final product in in-vitro test systems connected to the target indication. Similarly, safety aspects of concern such as cytotoxic, hepototoxic or enzyme-inducing properties (e.g. cytochrome 450 monooxygenase) can be monitored.

Hence, bioassay-guided development cannot only be used to substantiate traditional or new areas of indication. It serves primarily as a scientific basis for the rational selection of raw material and process technologies best suited to design a safe and efficient herbal extract.

Green oat: a traditional remedy for mental maladies
Preparations of the aerial parts of green oat have traditionally been used to support mental health and cognitive function since medieval times. Numerous sources praise the tonifying, stimulating, antidepressant and anxiolytic properties of Avena sativa L. Hildegard von Bingen (1098-1179), for example, a great medieval healer, reported that the herbal extract contributes to a cheerful and sharp mind.

The German Commission E monograph summarises the use of green oat preparations as follows: acute and chronic anxiety, stress and excitatory states, in cases of nervous exhaustion and as a tonic and restorative. The herb is considered safe and well tolerated in therapeutic dosages but activity against these indications has not been proved medically.

There are a handful of green oat preparations available on the market, targeting the traditional indications mentioned above. But currently, oats are primarily used for nutritional and dietary purposes, serving as a breakfast cereal or value-adding ingredient in bakery products. Due to a high content of soluble fibre, oats produce a cholesterol-lowering effect and have made their entry into the Functional Food arena. Moreover, oats are used as an additive in cosmetics and as a strengthening fodder.

Screening for evidence
In line with the drive for safety and quality and using a bioassay-guided development approach, Frutarom recently sought to substantiate the beneficial effect of green oats on mental health and cognitive function. Dozens of Avena sativa L. varieties were screened in various Central Nervous System test systems. The screenings included different targets connected to the traditional areas of usage of green oats.

The current trend in primary usage of oats for nutritional and dietary purposes has led to the breeding of strains that produce high yields of carbohydrates rather than high levels of the medically important secondary plant metabolites such as flavonoids or steroid saponines. Therefore, the activity screening focused on old and wild type oat varieties with a high secondary or ‘traditional’ substance profile of the plant.

Differences in oat varieties: the impact of raw material
The bioassay screenings revealed a clinically significant inhibitory effect on monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) and phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE 4), two enzymes closely connected to mental health and cognitive function for selected green oat varieties. Depending on the raw material and extract preparation process used, the inhibitory activity on PDE 4 and MAO-B varied dramatically (see Fig. 3). These findings underpin the importance of raw material selection, contract cultivation as well as process optimisation in the development of herbal extracts.

MAO B and PDE 4: roles in neurotransmission
MAO B is responsible for metabolising dopamine. The levels of this neuro-transmitter in the brain are important for the regulation of mental and cognitive functions. Inhibitors of MAO-B are being used for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s Diseases. The inhibition of MAO-B is associated with stimulatory, mood enhancing and potentially neuro-protective properties.

PDE 4, on the other hand, is responsible for the degradation of the key second messenger molecule cAMP (cyclic adenosinmonophosphat). cAMP is a key second messenger used for intracellular signal transduction such as transferring the effects of neuro-transmitters like noradrenalin. PDE 4 inhibitors increase cAMP levels in the brain, acting as signal enhancers. They are currently being investigated in clinical research for treating depression and their role in cognitive enhancement.

Given this indication of a dual activity profile on MAO-B and PDE 4 bioactivity, green oat preparations can exert a strengthening as well as balancing effect on the brain and mind. Thus, they can be used as a preventive measure to help alleviate moodiness and nervousness or as a supportive measure to increase mental drive and concentration levels.


Bioactivity-tested extracts for better moods and mental boosts
A commercial result of this work is EFLA 955, a bioactivity-tested Wild Green Oat Neuravena Special Extract that offers attractive positioning possibilities with regard to emotional and cognitive functions. Acting as a cognitive enhancer, the extract can support memory performance and help improve concentration. Due to its stimulating and energising effect it can help restore mental alertness and wakefulness in cases of chronic fatigue – without the negative impacts of alter-natives such as caffeine or ephedra. The extract can work as a mood balancer and nervine tonic, alleviating nervous irritability, exhaustion and mood changes. Finally, it boosts the individual’s ability to work under pressure and cope with stress and burnout.

Looking at the evidence presented, bioactivity-tested green oat extracts are safe and natural new candidates for tapping the emerging market for products that offer mental health and cognitive functionalities. Due to their dual activity profile on MAO-B and PDE 4, green oat extracts are ideally suited for treating stress, burnout syndrome and chronic fatigue. They can help support cognitive functions, mood balancing and nerves tonification, provided the bioactivity of the final extract can be assured. The scientific selection of raw material and extraction technology using bioassay-guided development as well as the consecutive contract growing of raw material are keys to assure the bioactivity of the final product. Using bioactivity-tested green oat extracts, functional food manufacturers have a new tool to add a mental health dimension to their products, offering a safe and natural alternative to the pharmaceutical antidepressants and benzodiazepines that are better suited to treating more persistent and severe cases of mental illness.

References
1. Loblay R et al. (2002). Med. J. Aust. 179 (8):
17-55
2. Fukuda et al (1994). Ann. Intern. Med. 121
(12): 953-959
3. The World Health Report 2001. WHO,
Geneva, 2001
4. Alonso J et al. (2004). Acta Psychiatr. Scand.
Suppl. 420:21-7
5. Ferri CP et al. (2002). Lancet 366 (9503):
2112-7
6. Murray CJL, Lopez AD, eds. The global
burden of disease and injury series, volume 1.
Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA,
1996
7. Canter PH et al. (2005).Trends Biotechnology
23 (4): 180-5
8. Müller I. Die pflanzlichen Heilmittel bei
Hildegard von Bingen. Otto Müller Verlag,
Salzburg, 1928
9. Wichtl M, 3rd,edition. Herbal Drugs and
Phytopharmaceuticals. Medpharm Scientific
Publishers, Stuttgart, 2002
10. Riederer P et al.(2004). Curr. Med. Chem.
11:2033-2043
11. O’Donell JM et al. (2004). Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 25 (3):
158-163
12. Houslay MD et al. (2006). Drug Discovery Today 10 (22):
1503-1519
Enquiry No: 013

Carla Wullschleger is Product Manager Pharma, Frutarom Switzerland Ltd.



#5 bgwithadd

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Posted 16 January 2009 - 07:35 PM

This is why this place is so great. Almost every day I learn of something promising and about half the time I get noticable results. Thanks for this post.

#6 Jacovis

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Posted 18 April 2009 - 06:26 AM

Thanks bgwithadd - I have learnt a lot from your posts too!

http://www.nutraceut...BT_NovDec08.pdf

Animal Trial Results
To assess the activity profile of Neuravena in further detail, the impact of an oral application of the extract on the brain’s electrical activity was investigated in freely moving rats using a continuous in vivo analysis of brain field potentials (Tele-Stereo-EEG). The extract was found to attenuate brain activity in nearly all frequency ranges, indicating activated behaviour. Neuravena seems to stimulate the dopaminergic (DA) transmitter system, which is implicated in cognitive functioning and motivation and is related to depression. The main changes were observed within the hippocampus, a brain area closely connected to memory (Figure 3). In the model used in this study, the extract approached the results obtained from drugs used to treat dementia. Additionally, the results of placebo-controlled trials in rats investigating the effects of Neuravena on behaviour concluded that the extract improves general learning performance and speed of learning, ameliorates stress-coping abilities and increases alertness. Moreover, test animals clearly displayed increased social interest and improved reactions to social signals, indicating Neuravena’s positive effect on ‘soft’ skills such as social intelligence. The findings of both in vivo trials revealed a strong correlation with the pharmacological activity profile of Neuravena on MAO-B and PDE 4 found in the bioassay-guided development process, reinforcing its mode of action as well as its indications.



I doubt tangozero and graatch were using the Neuravena® (EFLA® 955) extract specifically (as it isn't sold on its own anywhere on the net it seems) but they too noticed a smooth, calming, centering vibe to Avena Sativa (Green Oat extract). Perhaps the 'James Bond' smooth effect that tangozero mentioned is similar to the effects in the trial above where "test animals clearly displayed increased social interest and improved reactions to social signals, indicating Neuravena’s positive effect on ‘soft’ skills such as social intelligence."

http://www.mindandmu...p...p;st=0&p=52
tangozero (November 26, 2008):
"Another one... avena sativa

strangely enough this ingredient makes me feel very smooth and calm - I know its just some sort of oat extract - but I feel a 'james bond' kinda smooth when I'm on it - like I'm somewhat centered and in control - more of a SUBTLE feel to it tho."

graatch (November 28, 2008):
"...It feels calming/centering to me also..."


Note sure whether the following is related to the above quotes on Neuravena and another brand of Green Oat extract
"Moreover, test animals clearly displayed increased social interest and improved reactions to social signals, indicating Neuravena’s positive effect on ‘soft’ skills such as social intelligence" and "but I feel a 'james bond' kinda smooth when I'm on it - like I'm somewhat centered and in control." Neuravena (and Green Oat extracts in general) are said to stimulate the dopaminergic (DA) transmitter system.
Could the positive social effects be to do with the relationship between D2-receptor binding in some parts of the brain and the social desirability personality trait?
"a relationship between striatal D2-receptor binding and socially desirable responding"
"D2-receptor binding in the hippocampal-amygdala complex showed statistically significant negative correlations to social desirability, whereas a trend-level association in the same direction was found for the striatum."


http://www.mondofact...al desirability
social desirability medical dictionary
A personality trait rendering the individual acceptable in social or interpersonal relations. It is related to social acceptance, social approval, popularity, social status, leadership qualities, or any quality making him a socially desirable companion.
(12 Dec 1998)

http://diss.kib.ki.s...56-7/thesis.pdf
From THE DEPARTMENT OF CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCE
Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
DOPAMINE D2-RECEPTOR MAPPING IN RESTLESS LEGS SYNDROME AND HUMAN BEHAVIOUR
Simon Cervenka
Stockholm 2008



"...In the final study, D2-receptor binding was examined in relation to a measure of the personality trait social desirability. A negative relationship was shown for hippocampus-amygdala, whereas a trend-level correlation in the same direction was found for the striatum. The results add to recent evidence in support of a role for the DA system in socially desirable behaviour, and extend this research into brain regions of relevance for emotional processing and learning...
Cervenka S, Halldin C, Farde L Association between D2-receptor binding in the mesolimbic dopamine system and social desirability. Submitted...


...1.6.1 Social desirability
Animal research supports a role for the dopamine system in social behaviour. DA neurotransmission has been demonstrated to be involved in displays of social dominance and social submission (Grant et al., 1998; Morgan et al., 2002) as well as aggressive confrontation (Tidey and Miczek, 1996; van Erp and Miczek, 2000). In two recent SPECT and PET studies, these observations have been extended to man by showing a relationship between striatal D2-receptor binding and socially desirable responding (Huang et al., 2006; Reeves et al., 2007). The scale used in these studies was originally constructed to control for subjects underreporting negative aspects of behaviour (Eysenck and Eysenck, 1975; Nederhof, 1985), however social desirability can also be viewed as a personality trait in itself, representing social adjustment in order to gain approval or acceptance (McCrae and Costa, 1983).

In the personality trait social desirability, emotional processing as well as different aspects of learning and memory may be viewed as components at a behavioural level. These are functions engaging cortical as well as subcortical regions of the brain, in particular limbic structures such as hippocampus and amygdala (Nyberg et al., 1996; Vargha-Khadem et al., 1997; Garcia et al., 1999; Öhman, 2005). However, DA biomarkers in extrastriatal brain regions have hitherto not been examined in relation to social desirability.


...2 AIMS

The general objective of the present thesis was to examine functional roles of the dopamine system, by performing a detailed regional mapping of D2-receptor binding in the human brain using PET. Specifically, we aimed to examine:

...Striatal and extrastriatal D2-receptor binding in relation to the personality trait social desirability (study V) =...


...3.10 PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT (STUDY V)
The personality trait of social desirability was assessed using the Swedish Universities Scales of Personality (SSP) inventory (Gustavsson et al., 2000). Subjects were given SSP questionnaires to fill out in their own time between PET experiments. SSP is a revision of the Karolinska Scales of Personality (Schalling et al., 1987), and consists of 91 items which are rated from 1 (“does not apply at all”) to 4 (“applies completely”). The SSP social desirability scale contains 7 items, which have been adapted from the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (Crowne and Marlowe, 1960)...


...4.5 STUDY V: THE MESOLIMBIC DA SYSTEM AND SOCIAL DESIRABILITY

The dopamine system is involved in the expression of social behaviour and personality, as demonstrated by animal research and molecular imaging studies in human subjects. Recent studies employing PET and SPECT have shown a negative correlation between striatal D2-receptor binding and socially desirable responding. However, the emotional and cognitive aspects of social behaviour suggest involvement also of limbic brain regions. We examined associations between striatal and extra-striatal D2-receptor binding and the personality trait social desirability in the inventory Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP). D2-receptor binding in the hippocampal-amygdala complex showed statistically significant negative correlations to social desirability, whereas a trend-level association in the same direction was found for the striatum. The results were demonstrated using both region-of-interest based and voxel-based approaches (Fig. 13).

[actual image in figure omitted here]
Figure 13. (a) Sagittal summation image of [11C]FLB 457 uptake in a control subject, showing binding in the hippocampus. (b) SPM analysis demonstrating voxel-based negative correlations between social desirability and D2-receptor binding in hippocampus. © Relationship between ROI-based hippocampus-amygdala binding and social desirability. Age-and education-corrected correlation coefficient is shown, and two-tailed p-value.

The findings and add to previous evidence in support of a role for the DA system in socially desirable behaviour, and extend this research into brain regions of relevance to emotional processing and learning.

Patients with social phobia experience fear of negative judgement - a disposition which could be underlying also the personality trait of social desirability. SPECT studies have shown reduced striatal D2-receptor binding in patients with social phobia (Schneier et al., 2000; Schneier et al., 2008) suggesting common neurobiological pathways for this personality trait and specific psychiatric disorder. fMRI studies have confirmed a role for hippocampus and amygdala in social phobia (Birbaumer et al., 1998; Furmark et al., 2002; Stein et al., 2002) however the molecular underpinnings for this involvement are unclear. Taken together, these observations motive a detailed mapping of D2-receptor binding in clinical samples such as social phobia...


...8 REFERENCES

...Birbaumer, N., Grodd, W., Diedrich, O., Klose, U., Erb, M., Lotze, M., Schneider, F., Weiss, U., Flor, H., 1998. fMRI reveals amygdala activation to human faces in social phobics. Neuroreport 9, 1223-1226...

...Crowne, D.P., Marlowe, D., 1960. A new scale of social desirability independent of psychopathology. J Consult Psychol 24, 349-354.

...Eysenck, H.J., Eysenck, S.G.B. (1975) Manual of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. London: University of London Press.

...Furmark, T., Tillfors, M., Marteinsdottir, I., Fischer, H., Pissiota, A., Langstrom, B., Fredrikson, M., 2002. Common changes in cerebral blood flow in patients with social phobia treated with citalopram or cognitive behavioral therapy. Arch Gen Psychiatry 59, 425-433

...Garcia, R., Vouimba, R.M., Baudry, M., Thompson, R.F., 1999. The amygdala modulates pref294-296.

...Grant, K.A., Shively, C.A., Nader, M.A., Ehrenkaufer, R.L., Line, S.W., Morton, T.E., Gage, H.D., Mach, R.H., 1998. Effect of social status on striatal dopamine D2 receptor binding characteristics in cynomolgus monkeys assessed with positron emission tomography. Synapse 29, 80-83.

...Gustavsson, J.P., Bergman, H., Edman, G., Ekselius, L., von Knorring, L., Linder, J., 2000. Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP): construction, internal consistency and normative data. Acta Psychiatr Scand 102, 217-225...

...Huang, C.L., Yang, Y.K., Chu, C.L., Lee, I.H., Yeh, T.L., Chen, P.S., Chiu, N.T., 2006. The association between the Lie scale of the Maudsley personality inventory and striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability of healthy Chinese community subjects. Eur Psychiatry 21, 62-65.

...McCrae, R., Costa, P.J., 1983. Social desirability scales: More substance than style. J Consult Clin Psychol 51, 882-888.

...Morgan, D., Grant, K.A., Gage, H.D., Mach, R.H., Kaplan, J.R., Prioleau, O., Nader, S.H., Buchheimer, N., Ehrenkaufer, R.L., Nader, M.A., 2002. Social dominance in monkeys: dopamineNeurosci 5, 169-174.

...Nederhof, A.J., 1985. Methods of coping with social desirability bias. Eur J Soc Psychol 15, 263-280.

...Nyberg, L., McIntosh, A.R., Houle, S., Nilsson, L.G., Tulving, E., 1996. Activation of medial temporal structures during episodic memory retrieval. Nature 380, 715-717...

...Reeves, S.J., Mehta, M.A., Montgomery, A.J., Amiras, D., Egerton, A., Howard, R.J., Grasby, P.M., 2007. Striatal dopamine (D2) receptor availability predicts socially desirable responding. Neuroimage 34, 1782-1789.

...Schalling, D., Asberg, M., Edman, G., Oreland, L., 1987. Markers for vulnerability to psychopathology: temperament traits associated with platelet MAO activity. Acta Psychiatr Scand 76, 172-182

...Schneier, F.R., Liebowitz, M.R., Abi-Dargham, A., Zea-Ponce, Y., Lin, S.H., Laruelle, M., 2000. Low dopamine D(2) receptor binding potential in social phobia. Am J Psychiatry 157, 457-459.

Schneier, F.R., Martinez, D., Abi-Dargham, A., Zea-Ponce, Y., Simpson, H.B., Liebowitz, M.R., Laruelle, M., 2008. Striatal dopamine D(2) receptor availability in OCD with and without comorbid social anxiety disorder: preliminary findings. Depress Anxiety 25, 1-7.

...Stein, M.B., Goldin, P.R., Sareen, J., Zorrilla, L.T., Brown, G.G., 2002. Increased amygdala activation to angry and contemptuous faces in generalized social phobia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 59, 1027-1034...

...Tidey, J.W., Miczek, K.A., 1996. Social defeat stress selectively alters mesocorticolimbic dopamine release: an in vivo microdialysis study. Brain Res 721, 140-149.

...van Erp, A.M., Miczek, K.A., 2000. Aggressive behavior, increased accumbal dopamine, and decreased cortical serotonin in rats. J Neurosci 20, 9320-9325.

...Vargha-Khadem, F., Gadian, D.G., Watkins, K.E., Connelly, A., Van Paesschen, W., Mishkin, M., 1997. Differential effects of early hippocampal pathology on episodic and semantic memory. Science 277, 376-380."

Edited by Visionary7903, 18 April 2009 - 07:06 AM.


#7 Jacovis

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Posted 09 May 2009 - 09:32 AM

http://www.nutraingr...ngs-Pilot-study
Oat extract may cut cigarette cravings: Pilot study
By Stephen Daniells, 17-Apr-2009

Related topics: Research, Phytochemicals, plant extracts, Cognitive and mental function

A standardised oat extract may reduce cravings for smoking and offer would-be quitters an alternative to the patches and gums, suggests research from Japan.
A daily supplement of an oats herb extract was found to reduce tobacco consumption from about 20 to fewer than nine cigarettes per day, according to results of a pilot study published in the journal Pharmacometrics.

The ingredient, extracted from an ancient type of wild oats, was developed by Frutarom and is being marketed under the name Neuravena.

“Although further studies are needed, we think that Neuravena extract has potential as a novel food ingredient that can effectively aid smoking cessation,” wrote the researchers, led by Fumitaka Fujii from ASK Intercity Company, the Japanese distributor of the ingredient.

“To successfully quit smoking, the first few weeks after quitting are thought to be the most significant, and we think that the use of supplements such as Neuravena extract can be a useful means of successfully stopping smoking if taken while reducing consumption or in the early stages after quitting.”

Jocelyn Mathern, MS, RD, Technical Health Manager for Frutarom USA told NutraIngredients.com that the ingredient does not contain nicotine. “Rather, Neuravena works on enzymes in your brain and also affects brain waves in a way that may relieve stress and improve cognitive performance,” she said.

Study details

In collaboration with researchers from Tokyo Medical and Dental University and Meiji Pharmaceutical University, Fujii recruited eight Japanese smokers (average age 32.5) and given daily supplements of 900 mg of Neuravena for 28 months. The participants were told that the aim of the study was to test the efficacy of supplements in reducing smoking.

At the end of the study, the Japanese researchers reported that the average cigarette smoking decreased from 19.5 per day to 8.9 per day.

Furthermore, the carbon monoxide levels in the breath of the participants decreased from 17 ppm to 11.9 ppm.

The verbal and general memory of the participants also improved, but not the visual memory.

Limitations and active ingredients

The study was a pilot study and therefore has several limitations, including no blinding and no placebo controlling.

“Although additional placebo-controlled study is essential, supplemental uptake of Neuravena extract could be helpful in the reduction of cravings for smoking,” wrote the researchers.

Oats versus patches

Carla Wullschleger, product manager EFLA-Line for Frutarom Switzerland told NutraIngredients.com that the ingredient, regulated as a dietary supplement in both the US and Europe, is different from products such as Nicorette since this is an OTC drug due to the nicotine content.

“There already are various finished products available on the European market containing Neuravena in the indication cognitive support/mental wellbeing,” she said.

Formulation options

Mathern told this website that the ingredient can be used in capsules and tablets as well as other dietary supplement applications, such as bars.

While many people looking for cigarette reduction may turn to gums, Wullschleger said: “We have no experience of using Neuravena in a gum and are not aware of any customers running such projects. I have checked with. According to our application lab it is possible to apply the extract in a gum from a technical point of view.

“Based on the outcome of the Japanese application study the recommended daily dosage would be 860 mg of extract, which needs to be taken into account when considering a gum application,” she added.

Source: Pharmacometrics
Volume 75, Issue 3/4, Pages 47-53
“Pilot Study of the Standardized Oats Herb Extract for Smoking Reduction”
Authors: F. Fujii, T. Hashimoto, N. Suzuki, R. Suzuki, K. Mohri



#8 William Sterog

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Posted 07 November 2014 - 05:03 PM

Sorry.

 

 

 

In summary, 12 weeks of daily WGOE supplementation did not alter cognitive performance in our healthy and cognitively-normal older adults.

 

http://www.ncbi.nlm....les/PMC3367260/



#9 chrisp2

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Posted 22 November 2015 - 07:01 PM

While there seems to be some uncertainty in terms of cognitive improvement...

 

In my mind IF this product increase cranial blood flow, it's a keeper regardless of what the latest cognition study says.  (I have yet to buy it though)



#10 Ark

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Posted 23 November 2015 - 02:33 AM

Has anyone found a source, obviously you can't buy it directly.


Thanks!!!

#11 pinnacle

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Posted 25 November 2015 - 09:44 PM

Would something like this work?

http://au.iherb.com/...100-Tablets/338

 

Each tablet contains: Oat (Avena sativa) (green Tops extract) 750 mg

Or would you need the patented, standardised ingredient EFLA®955 for it to be potent?

 

Look like the LifeExtension brand has brought out a product based on this 'Neuravena', which they call Dopa-Mind.

http://www.lifeexten...02006/dopa-mind

 

I might give these both a trial in the near future  :)


  • Informative x 2

#12 pinnacle

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Posted 26 November 2015 - 11:36 PM

See my earlier post  :)

Has anyone found a source, obviously you can't buy it directly.


Thanks!!!

 



#13 Ark

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Posted 27 November 2015 - 02:06 AM


See my earlier post :)

Has anyone found a source, obviously you can't buy it directly.


Thanks!!!



Doesn't seem like the same thing, any evidence that it would work similar to a analog.

#14 Elroy

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Posted 17 April 2017 - 07:08 AM

Look like the LifeExtension brand has brought out a product based on this 'Neuravena', which they call Dopa-Mind.
http://www.lifeexten...02006/dopa-mind

I might give these both a trial in the near future :)


This looks interesting, did you try it?

#15 airplanepeanuts

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Posted 21 May 2017 - 10:22 PM

I have tried Swanson- Passion Max Strength Avena Sativa 10:1 extract. For me it has a stimulating effect- I take it ocassionally rather than every day.

Does anyone think that the Neuravena brand product is much better than this and hence worth the higher price?



#16 naturalmatters

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Posted 27 May 2017 - 11:39 PM

Would something like this work?

http://au.iherb.com/...100-Tablets/338

 

Each tablet contains: Oat (Avena sativa) (green Tops extract) 750 mg

Or would you need the patented, standardised ingredient EFLA®955 for it to be potent?

 

Look like the LifeExtension brand has brought out a product based on this 'Neuravena', which they call Dopa-Mind.

http://www.lifeexten...02006/dopa-mind

 

I might give these both a trial in the near future  :)

 

Seems overpriced. I bought mine here for $24.99 http://www.cognitive...ylamine-levels/ and it works well kind of like low dose depreny. I use it by itself and as a booster for PEA.


I have tried Swanson- Passion Max Strength Avena Sativa 10:1 extract. For me it has a stimulating effect- I take it ocassionally rather than every day.

Does anyone think that the Neuravena brand product is much better than this and hence worth the higher price?

 

The method of extract is different and it's been clinically studied so for that it's worth it for me.



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#17 John250

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Posted 10 July 2018 - 11:58 PM

This seems to be readily available now. It’s in life extensions Dopa-Mind. Anyone use it with success?


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