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Microbiome – health & life span

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#211 albedo

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Posted 26 May 2018 - 03:12 PM

Another good read and list of references on probiotics supplementation on humans regarding the gut brain axis:

 

"...This review explores the evidence demonstrating how the gut microbiome may affect brain function in adults, thereby having an impact on
stress, anxiety, depression, and cognition. In vitro, in vivo, and human studies reporting an association between a change in the gut microbiome and functional changes in the brain are highlighted, as are studies outlining the mechanisms by which the brain affects the microbiome and the gastrointestinal tract. Possible modes of action to explain how the gut microbiome and the brain functionally affect each other are proposed. Supplemental probiotics to combat brain-related dysfunction offer a promising approach, provided future research elucidates their mode of action and possible side effects. Further studies are warranted to establish how pre- and probiotic interventions may help to balance brain function in healthy and diseased individuals...
"

 

"...Communication between the brain and the microbiota involves epithelial receptor– mediated signaling, immune modulation, and stimulation of enteric neurons by bacterial metabolites. Important for this crosstalk is the ability of the microbiota to regulate the availability of circulating tryptophan, which affects serotonin synthesis, and to alter the expression of some CNS receptors, thereby enabling them to directly influence brain excitability and function as well as to exert epigenetic control of gene expression..."

 

Mohajeri MH, La fata G, Steinert RE, Weber P. Relationship between the gut microbiome and brain function. Nutr Rev. 2018

https://www.ncbi.nlm...pubmed/29701810

 

Attached File  brain gut studies.PNG   133.09KB   0 downloads



#212 pamojja

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Posted 26 May 2018 - 04:43 PM

For anyone not aware yet, one can upload one's ubiome result to this private site: http://microbiomepre...rewebsites.net/

which is a huge data-base (in development), which for example identifies over- or undergrowth of particular bacteria and its food, supplemental or prescription modifier found reverences for.


Edited by pamojja, 26 May 2018 - 04:44 PM.


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#213 albedo

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Posted 12 June 2018 - 05:49 PM

The following is an extremely interesting study on the longevity effect of acarbose (used to treat diabetes) mediated by the gut microbiota, even though there are obvious difficulties to translate to humans due to the vast variety of composition of microbiota between different organisms.

 

Changes in the gut microbiota and fermentation products associated with enhanced longevity in acarbose-treated mice.

“…We have demonstrated a correlation between fecal SCFAs and lifespan in mice, suggesting a role of the gut microbiota in thelongevity-enhancing properties of acarbose. Treatment modulated the taxonomic composition and fermentation products of the gut microbiome, while the site-dependence of the microbiota illustrates the challenges facing reproducibility and interpretation in microbiome studies. These results motivate future studies exploring manipulation of the gut microbial community and its fermentation products for increased longevity, and to test a causal role of SCFAs in the observed effects of acarbose…”

https://www.biorxiv....311456.full.pdf

 

I am also puzzled by the fact that it is the second time I meet a drug, typically used for diabetes, investigated for lifespan or healthspan effects We know about metformin and his modulation of the human gut microbiota, e.g. increasing the population of Akkermansia muciniphila. We know about the potential beneficial effect of metformin on healthspan (possibly on longevity?) and I just speculate about this similitude maybe due to both drugs affecting morbidity and diabetes?

 

Attached File  acarbose.PNG   28.6KB   0 downloads


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#214 albedo

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Posted 30 July 2018 - 09:19 AM

A short small review on microbiota impact on health and longevity.

 

I found interesting the concept of functional core microbiome, the changes associated to age and dysbiosis, the emphasis on "biological age" vs. chronological age and the required homeostasis in the short fatty acid production. Also quoted are small molecules such as rapamycin and metformin.

 

Kim S, Jazwinski SM. The Gut Microbiota and Healthy Aging: A Mini-Review. Gerontology. 2018;:1-8.

 

Attached File  dysbiosis homeostasis.PNG   74.61KB   0 downloads


Edited by albedo, 30 July 2018 - 09:31 AM.


#215 albedo

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Posted 16 November 2018 - 04:25 PM

Insightful study, trying to meet some of the authors. Comments/questions?

 

"Dietary interventions to manipulate the human gut microbiome for improved health have received increasing attention. However, their design has been limited by a lack of understanding of the quantitative impact of diet on a host's microbiota. We present a highly controlled diet perturbation experiment in a healthy, human cohort in which individual micronutrients are spiked in against a standardized background. We identify strong and predictable responses of specific microbes across participants consuming prebiotic spike-ins, at the level of both strains and functional genes, suggesting fine-scale resource partitioning in the human gut. No predictable responses to non-prebiotic micronutrients were found. Surprisingly, we did not observe decreases in day-to-day variability of the microbiota compared to a complex, varying diet, and instead found evidence of diet-induced stress and an associated loss of biodiversity. Our data offer insights into the effect of a low complexity diet on the gut microbiome, and suggest that effective personalized dietary interventions will rely on functional, strain-level characterization of a patient's microbiota."

 

Gurry T, Gibbons SM, Nguyen LTT, et al. Predictability and persistence of prebiotic dietary supplementation in a healthy human cohort. Sci Rep. 2018;8(1):12699.

 



#216 albedo

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Posted 03 January 2019 - 09:39 PM

I was just waiting for this to happen. Here is in my view a quite pioneering work on biological age determination using ML/AI on microbiota. The study is still at level or preprint as per today:

 

"...Our most accurate DNN regressor achieved the MAE of 3.94 years. This performance is comparable with the 1.9 MAE of the PhotoAgeClock, 2.7 of the state of art methylation aging clock, 7.8 MAE transcriptomic aging clock and 5.5 MAE of the hematological aging clock published previously. We also developed a method for microbiological feature selection and annotation..."

 

Quite fascinating is that: "...Interestingly, while it contains both beneficial (e.g. Bifidobacterium) and pathogenic (e.g. Pseudomonas aeruginosa) microbes, seno-positive or seno-negative status is not determined by the nature of host-microbe interactions (Figure 12)..."

 

Fedor Galkin, Alexander Aliper, Evgeny Putin, Igor Kuznetsov, Vadim N Gladyshev, Alex Zhavoronkov

bioRxiv 507780; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/507780



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#217 albedo

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Posted 21 February 2019 - 09:55 PM

Interesting study including casual relationships made on humans with normal glycemic levels looking at the SCFA impact on metabolic diseases risks and finding different roles between butyrate and propionate:

 

"Microbiome-wide association studies on large population cohorts have highlighted associations between the gut microbiome and complex traits, including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity1. However, the causal relationships remain largely unresolved. We leveraged information from 952 normoglycemic individuals for whom genome-wide genotyping, gut metagenomic sequence and fecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels were available2, then combined this information with genome-wide-association summary statistics for 17 metabolic and anthropometric traits. Using bidirectional Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to assess causality3, we found that the host-genetic-driven increase in gut production of the SCFA butyrate was associated with improved insulin response after an oral glucose-tolerance test (P = 9.8 × 10−5), whereas abnormalities in the production or absorption of another SCFA, propionate, were causally related to an increased risk of T2D (P = 0.004). These data provide evidence of a causal effect of the gut microbiome on metabolic traits and support the use of MR as a means to elucidate causal relationships from microbiome-wide association findings."

 

Sanna S, Van zuydam NR, Mahajan A, et al. Causal relationships among the gut microbiome, short-chain fatty acids and metabolic diseases. Nat Genet. 2019;



#218 albedo

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Posted 04 April 2019 - 07:37 AM

A company to follow on Akkermansia muciniphila (sorry if old news to you)

University of Louvain and Wageningen University launch their new spin-off A-Mansia: a microbiome company

https://uclouvain.be...in-off-ucl.html

 



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#219 albedo

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Posted 01 May 2019 - 01:45 PM

Good review of the current thinking about the relationship between aging and the host microbiota:

https://www.leafscie...binar-released/







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