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"Confidence is key" What creates and sustains confidence?

confidence dopamine cocaine reward mental success

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#1 Rior

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Posted 15 July 2012 - 03:41 AM


We have all heard people say the phrase "confidence is key." It is said often, because often times it is very true. Having confidence in your ability to do something or speak to someone will almost always lead to a better outcome. It's having this confidence alone that can make things go better or worse, in almost anything that a person does. That said, some people have inherently more confidence than others. This confidence may be due to past success establishing confidence, or perhaps having an inherently elevated confidence due to genetics.

Having said all this, I'm curious as to what it is that may be responsible neurologically, in terms of neurotransmitters/enzymes etc, as well as specific strategies people have for maintaining confidence in their life.

While I understand on the whole that confidence is often a combination of many different neurological events, I also know that dopamine in particular can be partially held responsible for increased confidence. A great example of this would be cocaine use. Cocaine increases confidence in just about everyone. That said, reduced inhibitions due to increased GABA can also substantially increase confidence in an individual, as can be seen with alcohol or benzodiazepine use. Increased levels of testosterone have also been seen to greatly increase confidence. On the whole, it seems that there are a large number of factors that can come into play. That said, I'm curious to explore the basis of confidence and the means by which a person may increase their confidence overall.


Anyone know of anything in particular related to the subject?

#2 Algernoot

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Posted 15 July 2012 - 08:14 PM

Like you said, confidence is likely a combination of several different neurological events. What we call "confidence" may correspond to several different processes. For example, having a self-assured swagger may be somewhat different from situational confidence (i.e. feeling prepared and at ease at a job interview, or taking a test). If you can narrow down what you are actually trying to achieve, that can help direct your research.

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#3 kevinspaceyisunderrated

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Posted 15 July 2012 - 08:19 PM

A few years ago I noticed forcing myself to do little things like look people directly in the eye, walk with my head up, etc helped me become much more assertive.

Edited by kevinspaceyisunderrated, 15 July 2012 - 08:31 PM.

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#4 tritium

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Posted 15 July 2012 - 08:57 PM

I believe dopamine is mainly involved in confidence. I have been prescribed amphetamine for a while and had extrordinary confinence to a level I have never felt or rarely seen in other people. Then again, I would advise against others taking this medication due to other negative side effects.

#5 Luminosity

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Posted 16 July 2012 - 03:26 AM

Confidence is key. You don't get it from a pill. Unfortunately, people either are born with it or develop it confidence due to their upbringing. How do you develop it after? I'm not sure, but it's worth looking into.

#6 Raza

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Posted 16 July 2012 - 10:17 AM

I think it's mostly the inhibitory D2-like dopamine receptors, D2 itself in particular. It fits the effects associated with it, as well as the observation that confidence induced by dopaminergics comes mostly at the event of dopamine release, rather than during periods of constant activity in the synapse. Dopamine's autoreceptors are all the D2 type, which means that those receive disproportional stimulation during release.

Confidence is key. You don't get it from a pill. Unfortunately, people either are born with it or develop it confidence due to their upbringing. How do you develop it after? I'm not sure, but it's worth looking into.

You can get it temporarily from a pill. Probably help it a bit long-term too, if you're patient and calculated about it.

And I would say by constantly setting goals for yourself that are at the top of the U-shaped skill-level/reward curve. Things that're challenging enough to learn from and keep you engaged, but easy enough that you're more or less certain to succeed at them if you keep at it.

Of course, doing that consistently all but requires prescience... it's just something to keep in mind and approximate as best as possible.
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#7 Algernoot

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Posted 17 July 2012 - 12:45 AM

Confidence is a personality trait. You can probably emulate it with a pill, but I think it is probably best to do some psychological self-discovery and intervention first. Are there environmental causes of poor confidence? Are there certain situations where confidence is lacking or needed? Can these be changed with behavioral modification techniques (and assisted pharmacologically?) I don't think you can tweak confidence levels with a prescription like "Take 20mg Ritalin with some piracetam and horny goat weed three times a day for two weeks" -- at least not in a sustainable way.

#8 Luminosity

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Posted 17 July 2012 - 03:35 AM

There is a history of people using substances to bolster their courage going back thousands of years, hence the term, "Dutch courage" for liquor (apologies to Dutch people). It never ends well.

There is no way over under or around the need to confront your issues.

#9 vtrader

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Posted 17 July 2012 - 05:13 AM

Confidence, is about not worrying about every detail, not over-analyzing, it's about being in the moment, it's about reducing the c/w/s/ould's. It's about having no regrets.
Testostorone is a easy confidence booster, being horny helps. Stop wasting time on what the world thinks about you, focus on metaphoroically speaking wanting to fuck its brains out.
Lack of confidence stems from poor beliefs installed over the years. Fear of the future/unkown/what ifs is a big killer, you need to own your life, take responsibility for your actions and reactions. Look fear in the face and have that feeling of bring it on. Challenges in life needs to become your friend.
Own the space around you.
Anyway in a hundred years no one is going to remember you, so stop trying to please the circumstances in your life. Fuck yeah.
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#10 Raza

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Posted 17 July 2012 - 08:54 AM

There is a history of people using substances to bolster their courage going back thousands of years, hence the term, "Dutch courage" for liquor (apologies to Dutch people). It never ends well.

There is no way over under or around the need to confront your issues.

Does the absence of confidence necessarily stem from issues? In many cases it simply seems a genetic predisposition.

And well, most of those thousands of years worth of people just used alcohol. Certainly not many of them knew about receptor downregulation and the available ways to circumvent it that we discuss here on longecity.

I definitely think behavioral changes and personal revelations have at least as much to offer as drugs here (as most anywhere else when it comes to daily life enhancement), but to discount the latter entirely this quickly seems lazy.

Edited by Raza, 17 July 2012 - 08:55 AM.


#11 medievil

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Posted 17 July 2012 - 10:45 AM

Exposure, CBT etc..

I do beleive in drugs but real confidence comes from things like that, amp takes away my sa so i managed to build a confidence on it.

Wheter you need drugs depends on the root cause of your anxiety.

#12 Raptor87

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Posted 17 July 2012 - 01:47 PM

I think having an overactive amygdala (fearresponse) that triggers old memories or rather programs in the mind is a reason.

Other thoughts...

Confidence/Selfesteem.

Dopamine.
Norepinephrine.
Amygdala (fight response), although being calm is the key. But being fearsome tends to create bad memories.
Monoamine oxidase A.
Dopamine.
Great upbringing.
Being socially fluent. (Being able to attract partners and friends.)
Quick thinking, Being witty.
Selfishness. (Not the bad kind.)
Being skilled. (Having personal strength such as being good at a hobby.)
Having a great metabolism.
Not caring too much about what other people think of you!

OT : Selfesteem comes before confidence! I recommend Nathaniel Branden´s book, the six pillars of selfesteem on the subject!

Edited by Brainfogged, 17 July 2012 - 01:48 PM.


#13 Junk Master

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Posted 17 July 2012 - 04:15 PM

High testosterone level. A ten inch penis doesn't hurt, either. Hence the phrase, "Cocky."
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#14 nito

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Posted 18 July 2012 - 11:53 PM

Confidence, is about not worrying about every detail, not over-analyzing, it's about being in the moment, it's about reducing the c/w/s/ould's. It's about having no regrets.
Testostorone is a easy confidence booster, being horny helps. Stop wasting time on what the world thinks about you, focus on metaphoroically speaking wanting to fuck its brains out.
Lack of confidence stems from poor beliefs installed over the years. Fear of the future/unkown/what ifs is a big killer, you need to own your life, take responsibility for your actions and reactions. Look fear in the face and have that feeling of bring it on. Challenges in life needs to become your friend.
Own the space around you.
Anyway in a hundred years no one is going to remember you, so stop trying to please the circumstances in your life. Fuck yeah.


I loved this! I have tried this method many times, but it seems to get out of the window now and then. Time to put this game on again.
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#15 abelard lindsay

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Posted 19 July 2012 - 03:14 AM

Enjoy:

Neuropeptide Y

http://en.wikipedia....stress_and_diet

Higher levels of NPY may be associated with resilience against and recovery from posttraumatic stress disorder[20] and with dampening the fear response, allowing individuals to perform better under extreme stress.[21]



http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/10807963

Biol Psychiatry. 2000 May 15;47(10):902-9.
Plasma neuropeptide-Y concentrations in humans exposed to militarysurvival training.
Morgan CA 3rd, Wang S, Southwick SM, Rasmusson A, Hazlett G, Hauger RL, Charney DS.


Source

National Center for PTSD, VA Connecticut Healthcare Systems, West Haven, Connecticut 06516, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:
Neuropeptide-Y (NPY) is present in extensive neuronal systems of the brain and is present in high concentrations in cell bodies and terminals in the amygdala. Preclinical studies have shown that injections of NPY into the central nucleus of the amygdala function as a central anxiolytic and buffer against the effects of stress. The objective of this study was to assess plasma NPY immunoreactivity in healthy soldiers participating in high intensity military training at the U.S. Army survival school. The Army survival school provides a means of observing individuals under high levels of physical, environmental, and psychological stress, and consequently is considered a reasonable analogue to stress incurred as a result of war or other catastrophic experiences.

METHODS:
Plasma levels of NPY were assessed at baseline (prior to initiation of training), and 24 hours after the conclusion of survival training in 49 subjects, and at baseline and during the Prisoner of War (P.O.W.) experience (immediately after exposure to a military interrogation) in 21 additional subjects.

RESULTS:
Plasma NPY levels were significantly increased compared to baseline following interrogations and were significantly higher in Special Forces soldiers, compared to non-Special Forces soldiers. NPY elicited by interrogation stress was significantly correlated to the subjects' behavior during interrogations and tended to be negatively correlated to symptoms of reported dissociation. Twenty-four hours after the conclusion of survival training, NPY had returned to baseline in Special Forces soldiers, but remained significantly lower than baseline values in non-Special Forces soldiers. NPY was positively correlated with both cortisol and behavioral performance under stress. NPY was negatively related to psychological symptoms of dissociation.

CONCLUSIONS:
These results provide evidence that uncontrollable stress significantly increases plasma NPY in humans, and when extended, produces a significant depletion of plasma NPY. Stress-induced alterations of plasma NPY were significantly different in Special Forces soldiers compared to non-Special Forces soldiers. These data support the idea that NPY may be involved in the enhanced stress resilience seen in humans.



Hmm... Maybe I should start a thread investigating how to increase NPY. Maybe if I have time you know...

Edited by abelard lindsay, 19 July 2012 - 03:19 AM.

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#16 Raza

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Posted 19 July 2012 - 03:45 PM

Hmm... Maybe I should start a thread investigating how to increase NPY. Maybe if I have time you know...

Interesting idea.

#17 Junk Master

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Posted 19 July 2012 - 09:12 PM

I'd love to see that thread. Great post and great find.

#18 Luminosity

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Posted 21 July 2012 - 03:35 AM

Response to Raza:

Does the absence of confidence necessarily stem from issues? In many cases it simply seems a genetic predisposition.

Lack of confidence is not a chemical imbalance. What gene? What is the evidence for that? When I was young almost all males asked women out regularly; now very few do. Have genetics changed that much in a few decades?

And well, most of those thousands of years worth of people just used alcohol. Certainly not many of them knew about receptor downregulation and the available ways to circumvent it that we discuss here on longecity.

People have done a lot of things for thousands of years: slavery, surgery without anesthesia, not bathing. Not sure how that bolsters your argument. Yes, we have more sophisticated ways to drug ourselves these days, but I personally experienced a world where most people interacted socially with each other daily without drugs, including dating. Almost everyone found someone to date. Because they tried. If a half-way attractive young woman left the house, at least two men would approach her every day. That had a bad side, for sure, but clearly, people are capable of much higher levels of social courage than they have now. These are the parents of today's young people, so they have the same "genetics."

I definitely think behavioral changes and personal revelations have at least as much to offer as drugs here (as most anywhere else when it comes to daily life enhancement), but to discount the latter entirely this quickly seems lazy.

Lazy? Where do you get that? Pretty insulting. And weird.

Look forward to the information on which "gene" is responsible for social courage. This generation does have less testosterone but to reduce this problem to chemistry seems like an avoidance mechanism. No matter how crisply and pseudo-scientifically people here talk about bio-chemistry, I recognize a giant flight from emotional issues.

Edited by Luminosity, 21 July 2012 - 04:09 AM.


#19 Rior

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Posted 21 July 2012 - 05:46 AM

Yeah, I'm not particularly a fan of the social dynamics of this day and age. Although I myself am only 20 years old, I look back to how things used to be as documented through history, and the general state of social constructs in current society is just terrible in comparison. I mean yes, all the terrible things like slavery and other social injustices are gone (which is wonderful), but it feels like there's generally less passion, less humanity in people that I see.

I look forward to the day when regular face-to-face social interaction is widely acknowledged for being as important as it truly is. Without the need for drugs or alcohol. When relationships between people define success and happiness, rather than wealth. There's quite a bit that humanity still needs to learn.
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#20 Raptor87

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Posted 21 July 2012 - 12:16 PM

Confidence, is about not worrying about every detail, not over-analyzing, it's about being in the moment, it's about reducing the c/w/s/ould's. It's about having no regrets.
Testostorone is a easy confidence booster, being horny helps. Stop wasting time on what the world thinks about you, focus on metaphoroically speaking wanting to fuck its brains out.
Lack of confidence stems from poor beliefs installed over the years. Fear of the future/unkown/what ifs is a big killer, you need to own your life, take responsibility for your actions and reactions. Look fear in the face and have that feeling of bring it on. Challenges in life needs to become your friend.
Own the space around you.
Anyway in a hundred years no one is going to remember you, so stop trying to please the circumstances in your life. Fuck yeah.

Response to Raza:

Does the absence of confidence necessarily stem from issues? In many cases it simply seems a genetic predisposition.

Lack of confidence is not a chemical imbalance. What gene? What is the evidence for that? When I was young almost all males asked women out regularly; now very few do. Have genetics changed that much in a few decades?

And well, most of those thousands of years worth of people just used alcohol. Certainly not many of them knew about receptor downregulation and the available ways to circumvent it that we discuss here on longecity.

People have done a lot of things for thousands of years: slavery, surgery without anesthesia, not bathing. Not sure how that bolsters your argument. Yes, we have more sophisticated ways to drug ourselves these days, but I personally experienced a world where most people interacted socially with each other daily without drugs, including dating. Almost everyone found someone to date. Because they tried. If a half-way attractive young woman left the house, at least two men would approach her every day. That had a bad side, for sure, but clearly, people are capable of much higher levels of social courage than they have now. These are the parents of today's young people, so they have the same "genetics."

I definitely think behavioral changes and personal revelations have at least as much to offer as drugs here (as most anywhere else when it comes to daily life enhancement), but to discount the latter entirely this quickly seems lazy.

Lazy? Where do you get that? Pretty insulting. And weird.

Look forward to the information on which "gene" is responsible for social courage. This generation does have less testosterone but to reduce this problem to chemistry seems like an avoidance mechanism. No matter how crisply and pseudo-scientifically people here talk about bio-chemistry, I recognize a giant flight from emotional issues.


Yes you guy´s are right. Not all aspects are genetic nor reduced to chemistry. The OP distilled the question to these things.

I am aware of what you mention. But it would be better for you guy´s if you could hand out some more information on detachment as I interpret it.

E.g I don´t care what people think of me and I do it by...(details)

Thank you!

#21 deeptrance

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Posted 24 July 2012 - 05:31 PM

I think that a lack of self-confidence comes primarily from being overly concerned about what people think of you. This spills over into our own self-image, because we construct a self-image from what we believe others think about us. So it's all social, the image part. On a more primitive level, if you were brought up in the wild by animals and never had humans around to judge you or approve of you, there would still be a level of courage and confidence that would vary from one person to the next. I think that's mostly genetic but of course it's also affected by experiences in early life.

Chemicals that make us care less about what others think of us, help us feel less inhibited and maybe more confident. Alcohol, boom. Alcohol also has the effect of detaching us from our constant self-monitoring, self-doubt, the stories we tell ourselves about who we are, which are limiting to our behavior and speech. But alcohol takes away our capacity to make good judgment, of course.

There are quite a few substances I've used which have confidence-boosting properties as well as performance improvement. The racetams and some other nootropics are good examples. Small doses of psychedelics can do the job, as they tend to act in the same manner as certain anti-depressants. Depression has a lot of its roots in negative self-awareness and bad social interactions. If we can treat those problems chemically then we can achieve greater confidence. I've seen people blossom just from taking something as simple as Buspar, which is a 5HT1-A agonist and has downstream effects on releasing oxytocin. Oxytocin boosts one's sense of being connected to others and is heavily involved in parent-child bonding (breast-feeding mothers, in particular, experience oxytocin release while nursing). When we feel connected to one another rather than separate and less than others, our confidence increases in highly functional and appropriate ways. Alcohol's confidence-boosting mechanism isn't very functional, especially after the first drink. But other chemicals can be very worthwhile.

I don't see any harm in looking for a pill that can boost confidence. It just has to be a smart pill, not one that gives false confidence or that creates tolerance and dependency. Sometimes we have to have a chemical assist to get us started on our journey toward greater mental health, and eventually we might find that our confidence has improved even after we stop taking the pill.

#22 Raza

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Posted 25 July 2012 - 07:41 PM

Lack of confidence is not a chemical imbalance. What gene? What is the evidence for that? When I was young almost all males asked women out regularly; now very few do. Have genetics changed that much in a few decades?

Genes encoding the sensitivity and baseline density of specific receptors are a pretty basic, recurring mechanism for genetic personality differences. The DRD2 gene determines the sensitivity of the D2 receptor, for one, the weak expression of which is linked to social anxiety.

Anyway, evidence of differences in confidence that are most likely not genetic in nature is not evidence against differences in confidence that are. I never said that nothing else affected it.

People have done a lot of things for thousands of years: slavery, surgery without anesthesia, not bathing. Not sure how that bolsters your argument. Yes, we have more sophisticated ways to drug ourselves these days, but I personally experienced a world where most people interacted socially with each other daily without drugs, including dating. Almost everyone found someone to date. Because they tried. If a half-way attractive young woman left the house, at least two men would approach her every day. That had a bad side, for sure, but clearly, people are capable of much higher levels of social courage than they have now. These are the parents of today's young people, so they have the same "genetics."

That's delightfully idealistic, but somewhat beside the point. You said that people have been trying to increase confidence through drugs for thousands of years, and getting mostly bad results. I said that they didn't try very intelligently compared to what we're capable of today. That doesn't help my case outright, but it does counter your argument against it.

I'm also not sure that keeping people from having to think about what they're doing by firmly establishing behavioural patterns and social roles through cultural norms counts as improving social courage in general. You'd have to measure that against an equal mix of familiar and unfamiliar social challenges. I doubt people from that generation would've done half as well at, Iunno, asking directions from a drag queen, or maintaining a reasonable working relationship with a woman who didn't accept their at-that-time suggested role in society.

Lazy? Where do you get that? Pretty insulting. And weird.

You're discounting a whole scientific discipline worth of approaches to a problem, without having exhausted or even tried any of its options, on account of your general preference for another discipline. That is lazy at best; quite possibly outright prejudist.

Look forward to the information on which "gene" is responsible for social courage. This generation does have less testosterone but to reduce this problem to chemistry seems like an avoidance mechanism. No matter how crisply and pseudo-scientifically people here talk about bio-chemistry, I recognize a giant flight from emotional issues.

Testosterone is chemistry, on one of its levels. Avoidance might be one motivation for seeking it there, but genuine curiosity and sound reasoning lead there just as well, and it's just plain unsporting to accuse people of unflattering motivations when justifiable ones are available to explain their choices all the same.

Anyway, there's absolutely no reason why neurological and psychological approaches can't both be used towards objectives like increasing confidence. They're not competitive in any way other than the sheer limit on time we have available to invest in the problem, and generally highly synergistic when combined.

Edited by Raza, 25 July 2012 - 07:43 PM.


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#23 brainslugged

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Posted 29 July 2012 - 07:03 AM

I would be careful saying that confidence is the key. I think it is correlation often mistaken for causation.

someone is good at what they do + they have a healthy brain which has allowed them to be good at what they do and make rational decisions > People praise them + they are able to accept the praise correctly > The person becomes confident

And while I do acknowledge that the confidence itself adds a bit of a boost in interacting with people, I think it only applies to deserved confidence, and unconfidence can, at times, have a good effect.

We ignore all of the overconfident jerks and idiots who are hated for most people, and we assign different words to them.

I don't think you should worry so much about being confident, but you should try to see the world realistically. Everyone has or can have something that they are good at. Be confident in that and learn to balance criticism with complement so that you can know the RIGHT amount of confidence, which I think is the key, knowing when to say "I am not good at this," but also being able to take the lead when you are best for it.

Piracetam has helped me with this, I think. I think it has made me much less neurotic and able to not dismiss complements as being false without evidence to back that dismissal.
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#24 nupi

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Posted 29 July 2012 - 09:55 AM

Testosterone is chemistry, on one of its levels. Avoidance might be one motivation for seeking it there, but genuine curiosity and sound reasoning lead there just as well, and it's just plain unsporting to accuse people of unflattering motivations when justifiable ones are available to explain their choices all the same.

Anyway, there's absolutely no reason why neurological and psychological approaches can't both be used towards objectives like increasing confidence. They're not competitive in any way other than the sheer limit on time we have available to invest in the problem, and generally highly synergistic when combined.


Additionally, most psychologists/psychiatrists worth their salt will try to rule out physiological sources of complaints before embarking on a treatment (and for good reasons, too). Fixing, e.g., testosterone for sure would qualify as addressing physiological imbalances. I did not know about the DRD2 point (will investigate for sure) but that would also suggest that physiological/medical intervention would be quite appropriate, whatever one's views are on some of the less well-founded approaches (e.g., SSRI).

Flat out labeling chemical interventions as avoidance is at the very least moralistic/dogmatic but quite possibly just dumb.

#25 1thoughtMaze1

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Posted 29 July 2012 - 12:27 PM

Confidence really does nothing on a math exam, even though thats what they tell you to believe.

#26 Purpose

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Posted 30 July 2012 - 09:14 PM

"your brain wants proof, not promises"

mindfulness meditation is great for learning to take your thoughts less seriously and become internally validated (core confidence) instead of looking externally for reasons to feel good (situational confidence).

see rsdnation.com :)

#27 Raptor87

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Posted 30 July 2012 - 10:38 PM

http://www.psycholog...f-esteem?page=2

#28 Raptor87

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Posted 30 July 2012 - 10:43 PM

Confidence really does nothing on a math exam, even though thats what they tell you to believe.


Who tells what?

http://scialert.net/...474.2477&org=11

#29 Jdtrain

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Posted 31 July 2012 - 12:00 PM

I think its important to consider what you mean by confidence. There are many different types of confidence and all are separate neuro-chemical states.

1) Confidence as a sense of high-social rank or dominance. In primates, as in humans, dominance seems to be mediated by high levels of serotonin. Take a high ranking chimpanzee, give him a serotonin depleting drink, and he'll be a low-ranking chimpanzee before you know it.

After reading dozens of books on depression, neuroscience, and "confidence" I like the explanation from Cesar Milan (the dog whisperer) the best - "calm-assertive."

Agression is not normally a sign of confidence.

2) Confidence as a sense of centeredness. This I believe is very difficult state to create pharmacologically. I think that this state comes from a strong sense of purpose, strong relationships, and perhaps years of meditation.

3) Dopamine mediated confidence (like that produced by amphetamines, or cocaine) I believe to be a false analogue of the previous two. Put a guy on cocaine in a bar and he'll seem confident and other intoxicated people will be attracted to him. Put a guy on cocaine in front of a classroom, or leading a group through the wilderness, and others will quickly see how unbalanced he is. Using dopaminergic agents to generate a feeling of confidence I believe to be a short term "hack" with many, many downsides.
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#30 Jdtrain

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Posted 31 July 2012 - 12:00 PM

I think its important to consider what you mean by confidence. There are many different types of confidence and all are separate neuro-chemical states.

1) Confidence as a sense of high-social rank or dominance. In primates, as in humans, dominance seems to be mediated by high levels of serotonin. Take a high ranking chimpanzee, give him a serotonin depleting drink, and he'll be a low-ranking chimpanzee before you know it.

After reading dozens of books on depression, neuroscience, and "confidence" I like the explanation from Cesar Milan (the dog whisperer) the best - "calm-assertive."

Agression is not normally a sign of confidence.

2) Confidence as a sense of centeredness. This I believe is very difficult state to create pharmacologically. I think that this state comes from a strong sense of purpose, strong relationships, and perhaps years of meditation.

3) Dopamine mediated confidence (like that produced by amphetamines, or cocaine) I believe to be a false analogue of the previous two. Put a guy on cocaine in a bar and he'll seem confident and other intoxicated people will be attracted to him. Put a guy on cocaine in front of a classroom, or leading a group through the wilderness, and others will quickly see how unbalanced he is. Using dopaminergic agents to generate a feeling of confidence I believe to be a short term "hack" with many, many downsides.





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