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Feeding Rats Activated Charcoal Gives 43% Greater Longevity

nitrogen carbon c60 longevity enterosorption

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#1 treonsverdery

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Posted 16 July 2012 - 06:32 PM


well, the first thing about this is that something called nitrogen-containing carbon makes rats live noticeably longer
also when I click on the researchers names (Frolkis, Muradian) at pubmed I found aging theories completely new to me.
The N on this study is not described, a similar study used 155 "vistar" rats.


Biomater Artif Cells Artif Organs. 1989;17(3):341-51.
Effect of enterosorption on animal lifespan.

Frolkis VV, Nikolaev VG, Paramonova GI, Shchorbitskaya EV, Bogatskaya LN, Stupina AS, Kovtun AI, Sabko VE, Shaposhnikov VM, Muradian KK, et al.

Source

Institute of Gerontology AMS USSR.

Abstract

Experiments were performed on Wistar male rats, starting from the 28th month of age. The effect of dietary sorbent (non coated nitrogen-containing carbon administered as 10 day courses at 1 month intervals in dosage of 10 ml/kg) on lifespan and a number of biological indices were studied. Enterosorption resulted in the increase of mean and maximal lifespan by 43 and 34% respectively. Analysis of the effect of enterosorption on activity of microsomal enzymes, intensity of total RNA and protein biosynthesis, lipid metabolism, formation of free radicals etc. showed that it produced a positive influence on the functional state of the studied systems and increased the organism's adaptive capacities. Enterosorption was found to delay the rate of onset of age-related structural changes in the organs and tissues.

PMID: 2479433


another journal article, a russian review of enteroabsorbents www.ngcrussia.org/Articles/Enterosorption.doc says
There is direct evidence that shows the effects of enterosorption on the prolonging of life. When carbon sorbent SKN was added to the ration of 20-month-old

rats, it resulted in an increase in average life (AL) and maximum life (ML) expectancy of 43.4 and 34.4%, respectively [1]. The 16-month treatment of enterosorption with an active nitrogen-containing carbon employed on 155 Vistar rats led to an AL and ML increase of 35.7 and 36.8%, respectively, and, further, to an increase in spontaneous motor activity and muscle working capacity

the highest longevity number described at the ngcrussia.org enetersorption article is

The prolonging influence of enterosorption on lifespan is similar to that of a low-calorie diet (LCD). While using enterosorption simultaneously (but not separately) with carbon enterosorbent aerosil and LCD (50% of norm) on male Vistar rats (22 months old), an increase of 56-60% in average life duration was shown [30].




so apparently eating activated carbon sorbent makes rats live a lot longer. also, although n=6 at the c60 study, n= 155 at a study ncreasing lifespan 43 pct.


Edited by treonsverdery, 16 July 2012 - 07:11 PM.

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#2 zorba990

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Posted 16 July 2012 - 07:45 PM

I wonder if Zeolite would work just as well:
http://www.wulliebul...n-enterosorbent
http://www.iherb.com...-g-Powder/19357

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#3 treonsverdery

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Posted 16 July 2012 - 08:31 PM

although I described this at a different c60 forum area, a possibly similar material, Nitrogen containing carbon, caused N=155 "vistar" rats to live 36.8 pct longer www.ngcrussia.org/Articles/Enterosorption.doc

so there is a very strong effect from enteroabsorbtive carbon, with two studies supporting it, as well as the c60 study.
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#4 Turnbuckle

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Posted 16 July 2012 - 08:50 PM

although I described this at a different c60 forum area, a possibly similar material, Nitrogen containing carbon, caused N=155 "vistar" rats to live 36.8 pct longer www.ngcrussia.org/Articles/Enterosorption.doc

so there is a very strong effect from enteroabsorbtive carbon, with two studies supporting it, as well as the c60 study.



The "vistar" is a mistranslation. See pubmed, which references the Russian experiment--

Effect of enterosorption on animal lifespan.

Abstract


Experiments were performed on Wistar male rats, starting from the 28th month of age. The effect of dietary sorbent (non coated nitrogen-containing carbon administered as 10 day courses at 1 month intervals in dosage of 10 ml/kg) on lifespan and a number of biological indices were studied. Enterosorption resulted in the increase of mean and maximal lifespan by 43 and 34% respectively. Analysis of the effect of enterosorption on activity of microsomal enzymes, intensity of total RNA and protein biosynthesis, lipid metabolism, formation of free radicals etc. showed that it produced a positive influence on the functional state of the studied systems and increased the organism's adaptive capacities. Enterosorption was found to delay the rate of onset of age-related structural changes in the organs and tissues.

Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm....t SKN longevity


Edited by Turnbuckle, 16 July 2012 - 09:12 PM.


#5 maxwatt

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Posted 16 July 2012 - 09:42 PM

"V" substitutes for "W" in Russian. Hence we can drink Wodka vhile studying our Vistar rats.

#6 Junk Master

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Posted 16 July 2012 - 09:49 PM

Or plain old activated charcoal.

" In one animal study, Russian gerontologist Dr. V.V. Frolkis demonstrated that the use of Activated Charcoal increases the mean lifespan of older test animals by approximately 40% and their maximum lifespan by approximately 34%.
1 V. Frolkis, et al. Enterosorption in prolonging old animal life. Exp. Gerontol. 19; 217-25, 1984
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#7 Turnbuckle

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Posted 16 July 2012 - 10:09 PM

Could the Russian carbon product contain enough fullerenes to produce this effect?

#8 Turnbuckle

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Posted 16 July 2012 - 10:46 PM

It's interesting that the only natural mineral that contains fullerenes--shungite, which was laid down before the earth had an oxygen atmosphere and C60 could easily form--is associated with good health, along with spring water flowing through formations. One place that sells it--
http://www.bestmdm.c...g/?object_id=59

Attached Files


Edited by Turnbuckle, 16 July 2012 - 11:00 PM.

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#9 maxwatt

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Posted 16 July 2012 - 11:30 PM

We are getting perilously close to magical thinking here.
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#10 Turnbuckle

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Posted 16 July 2012 - 11:52 PM

We are getting perilously close to magical thinking here.


How so?

#11 Turnbuckle

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Posted 16 July 2012 - 11:57 PM

Fullerenes are not found in all samples of shungite, mostly the glassy variety. This may be because it is less likely to be exposed to the atmosphere for millions of years.

As has been pointed out by many people, Mossman et al. (2003)
among them, Karelian shungite is highly heterogeneous. Fullerenes
have only been found in the glassy variety of bright shungite (Buseck
et al., 1992; Parthasarathy et al., 1998).

Source: http://geology.gsapu...t/31/1/e32.full



#12 JohnD60

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Posted 17 July 2012 - 01:02 AM

Perhaps I am just cynical, but it is my observation that Russian scientists frequently make discoveries that no one else is able to reproduce. It appears that this one was one of those discoveries. Fullerenes and activated carbon are very different chemically, I do not see any cross connection. I suppose there is a small chance that their source of Carbon had a small percentage of fullerenes (via lightening strikes, or some very high temperature point source ) in it. But since the study was published in 1989, and fullerenes were discovered in 1985, it is highly unlikely that they even heard of fullerenes when they were doing the lab study. (84-89?), let alone tested for them.

#13 treonsverdery

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Posted 17 July 2012 - 09:16 PM

perhaps somebody could feed some c elegans some activated carbon, ground up charcoal briquettes, nanodiamonds of C60 radius, zeolites, along with the C60 to publish new material quite rapidly

I actually think they should test ground up charcoal briquettes, if this works the people at the developing world would have a 40 to 100pct longevity drug they could easily make as well as afford.
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#14 AgeVivo

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Posted 24 July 2012 - 11:32 PM

someone downrated the previous post. I updated because even if it is a creative mixture of many things / not serious to go directly from c elegans to people I think it would be an interesting experiment, with --why not-- surprises. clearly we lack someone at LongeCity to play with c elegans lifespans like that
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#15 NMDAstronaut

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Posted 25 July 2012 - 06:55 AM

Unfortunately my days in the lab with the nematode are years past. This would be an exceedingly easy experiment however. Funny, just two days ago I had the same thought about testing C60 with my old friends.

#16 niner

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Posted 25 July 2012 - 06:51 PM

Just out of curiosity, I did a medline search using the word "enterosorption". There were 291 hits, and about 95% of them were Russian. That's kind of weird. Is this "not invented here syndrome"? Curious. It's kind of surprising that a paper claiming this level of life extension wouldn't see some attempt at replication in the west in over two decades. It came out of the Soviet Union in 1989, kind of a rough time there, so that's at least one strike against it, in terms of the way Western scientists will receive it. On the other hand, look at the number of rats in the second study! N=155. This ain't no Baati N=6. What if there was something to this? Below, yet another Russian paper deals with results in humans.

Klin Med (Mosk). 2005;83(4):31-4.
[Enterosorption in complex therapy of bronchial asthma].
[Article in Russian]
Farkhutdinov UR.

Generation of active oxygen forms in whole blood was studied in 84 patients with bronchial asthma (BA) by luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (Chl) registration. Chl intensity depended on inflammatory process expression; groups of patients with high and low blood Chl (the 1st and the 2nd group, respectively) were distinguished. Enterosorption was used in complex therapy of 8 patients of the 1st group and 15 patients of the 2nd group. Indices of free radical oxidation and content of average molecular oligopeptides in blood serum normalized in the patients who took enterosorbent; the remission in these cases was more complete. The results of the study suggest that enterosorption increases effectiveness of treatment in patients with BA.

PMID: 15941139



#17 johnross47

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Posted 25 July 2012 - 07:06 PM

Can someone please explain to we non scientists what sorbent, enterosorbent, enterosorption mean.

#18 Turnbuckle

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Posted 25 July 2012 - 07:58 PM

Can someone please explain to we non scientists what sorbent, enterosorbent, enterosorption mean.


Think of activated carbon. It is a sorbet that absorbs things by the process of absorption. Entero is a prefix meaning in the intestines, so once you swallow the activated charcoal it becomes an enterosorbent that absorbs things by the process of enterosorption.

Edited by Turnbuckle, 25 July 2012 - 08:02 PM.

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#19 johnross47

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Posted 25 July 2012 - 10:28 PM

Can someone please explain to we non scientists what sorbent, enterosorbent, enterosorption mean.


Think of activated carbon. It is a sorbet that absorbs things by the process of absorption. Entero is a prefix meaning in the intestines, so once you swallow the activated charcoal it becomes an enterosorbent that absorbs things by the process of enterosorption.


....and specifically absorbs what; and why is that absorption important? There seem to be a lot of unspoken assumptions about background knowledge going on here.

#20 niner

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Posted 25 July 2012 - 10:41 PM

....and specifically absorbs what; and why is that absorption important? There seem to be a lot of unspoken assumptions about background knowledge going on here.


Your guess is as good as mine on this point. It's presumably absorbing "something bad"...

#21 Turnbuckle

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Posted 25 July 2012 - 11:04 PM

....and specifically absorbs what; and why is that absorption important? There seem to be a lot of unspoken assumptions about background knowledge going on here.


It's whatever you want, according to this manufacturer--

How is CarboRx different from conventional sorbents?

The CarboRx technology allows us to tune the properties of carbon sorbent for specific application...Our technology enables us not only to tune the physical but also the surface properties of carbon. CarboRx can be manufactured with various degrees of surface hydrophilicity or hydrophobicity and can be further functionalized to provide the most efficient surface conditions for adsorption of specific molecules...Our technology allows us to manufacture CarboRx with the properties optimized for adsorption of specific molecule(s). We have the sorbents specifically developed for hemofiltration and enterosorbent application.


Edited by Turnbuckle, 25 July 2012 - 11:05 PM.


#22 Logan

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Posted 26 July 2012 - 05:18 AM

When would we want to take activated charcoal if we, in our silly musings, decided that it might be beneficial for life extension? You would have to think away from meals, or at least far enough away so as to not inhibit the absorption of beneficial nutrients. Anyone have any thoughts on this?

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#23 Logan

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Posted 26 July 2012 - 06:00 AM

http://www.google.co...EvAMtZ2a4yiWwrA

This was discussed all the way back in 2000 on CR Society International. I wonder if anyone attempted this regimen?

Forward 12 years, after finding a bottle of activated charcoal in his closet, a 39 year old man, desparate to live as long as possible, impulsively dumped ten 560 mg capsules in his grill and swallowed them down to his center with pure ease.

Edited by Logan, 26 July 2012 - 06:08 AM.


#24 tintinet

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Posted 26 July 2012 - 08:04 AM

I've taken some intermittently for years, probably in doses low enough to have no effect whatsoever, at night, empty stomach, just before going to sleep.

#25 johnross47

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Posted 26 July 2012 - 09:21 AM

I've taken some intermittently for years, probably in doses low enough to have no effect whatsoever, at night, empty stomach, just before going to sleep.

What were you hoping to remove?

#26 tintinet

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Posted 26 July 2012 - 01:01 PM

I've taken some intermittently for years, probably in doses low enough to have no effect whatsoever, at night, empty stomach, just before going to sleep.

What were you hoping to remove?


Evil spirits! ;)

Actually (actually the most overused English word, ISTM), I had read charcoal ingestion had been associated with life extension in some studies. I wasn't really aiming at any specific toxin.

#27 niner

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Posted 27 July 2012 - 03:21 AM

I've been thinking about how activated charcoal might be working to improve longevity. It must be absorbing something bad, and since it has a big effect when started late in life, it must be something whose level climbs with age. One possibility is Indoxyl Sulfate:


Indoxyl sulfate is a dietary protein metabolite, and also the metabolite of the common amino acid tryptophan. Indoxyl sulfate is a circulating uremic toxin stimulating glomerular sclerosis and interstitial fibrosis. Indoxyl sulfate is one of the well known substances of a group of protein-bound uremic retention solutes. Indoxyl sulfate increases the rate of progression of renal failure. In plasma, indoxyl sulfate is a protein-bound uremic solute that induces endothelial dysfunction by inhibiting endothelial proliferation and migration in vitro. Some studies suggest that indoxyl sulfate is also involved in oxidative stress. In hemodialyzed patients, serum levels of indoxyl sulfate are associated with levels of pentosidine, a marker of carbonyl and oxidative stress; in vitro, indoxyl sulfate increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in tubular cells, and increases NAD(P)H oxidase activity in endothelial cells. Indoxyl sulfate impairs osteoblst function and induces abnormalities of bone turnover. Indoxyl sulfate strongly decreases the levels of glutathione, one of the most active antioxidant systems of the cell. (PMID: 10681668, 14681860, 17471003, 17403109)


This stuff is really a bad actor. Its level rises as kidney function declines. Here's some information on its undesirable effects:

J Ren Nutr. 2012 Jan;22(1):102-6.
Indoxyl sulfate induces nephrovascular senescence.
Niwa T, Shimizu H.

Department of Advanced Medicine for Uremia, Nagoya University School of Medicine, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Japan. tniwa@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp

Indoxyl sulfate is markedly accumulated in the serum of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The oral sorbent AST-120 reduces serum levels of indoxyl sulfate in CKD patients by adsorbing indole, a precursor of indoxyl sulfate, in the intestine. Indoxyl sulfate is taken up by proximal tubular cells through organic anion transporters (OAT1, OAT3), and it induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) with impairment of cellular antioxidative system. Indoxyl sulfate stimulates progression of CKD by increasing renal expression of profibrotic cytokines such as transforming growth factor beta 1. Further, it promotes the expression of p53 by ROS-induced activation of nuclear factor kappa B, thereby accelerating senescence of proximal tubular cells with progression of CKD. Administration of indoxyl sulfate to hypertensive rats reduces renal expression of Klotho and promotes cell senescence, with expression of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase, p53, p21, p16, and retinoblastoma protein, accompanied by kidney fibrosis. Indoxyl sulfate downregulates Klotho expression in the kidneys through production of ROS and activation of nuclear factor kappa B in proximal tubular cells. It promotes cell senescence, with expression of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase, p53, p21, p16, and retinoblastoma protein, in the aorta of hypertensive rats. It also promotes aortic calcification and aortic wall thickening in hypertensive rats with expression of osteoblast-specific proteins, induces ROS in vascular smooth muscle cells and vascular endothelial cells, stimulates proliferation and osteoblastic transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells, and inhibits viability and nitric oxide production of vascular endothelial cells. Thus, indoxyl sulfate accelerates the progression of not only CKD but also of cardiovascular disease by inducing nephrovascular cell senescence.
PMID: 22200425


Can oral activated charcoal, which is restricted to the GI tract, do anything about a systemic toxin? Apparently so:

PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e41281. Epub 2012 Jul 19.
Chronic kidney disease-induced cardiac fibrosis is ameliorated by reducing circulating levels of a non-dialysable uremic toxin, indoxyl sulfate.
Lekawanvijit S, Kompa AR, Manabe M, Wang BH, Langham RG, Nishijima F, Kelly DJ, Krum H.

Centre of Cardiovascular Research and Education in Therapeutics, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
Cardiovascular death commonly occurs in patients with chronic kidney disease. Indoxyl sulfate (IS), a uremic toxin, has been demonstrated in vitro as a contributory factor in cardiac fibrosis, a typical pathological finding in uremic cardiomyopathy. This study aimed to determine if cardiac fibrosis is reversible by lowering serum IS levels using an oral charcoal adsorbent, AST-120. Subtotal-nephrectomized (5/6-STNx) Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to receive either AST-120 (AST-120, n=13) or no treatment (vehicle, n=17) for 12 weeks. Sham operated rats (n=12) were used as controls. Early left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction was demonstrated by an increase in peak velocity of atrial filling [A and A' waves] and a decrease of E/A and E'/A' ratios obtained by echocardiography. This was accompanied by a 4.5-fold increase in serum IS (p<0.001) as well as elevated tail-cuff blood pressure (p<0.001) and heart weight (p<0.001). Increased LV fibrosis (p<0.001), gene expression of pro-fibrotic (TGF-β, CTGF) and hypertrophic (ANP, β-MHC and α-skeletal muscle actin) markers, as well as TGF-β and phosphorylated NF-κB protein expression were observed in STNx + vehicle rats. Treatment with AST-120 reduced serum creatinine (by 54%, p<0.05) and urine total protein (by 27%, p<0.05) vs vehicle whilst having no effect on blood pressure (AST-120 = 227±11 vs vehicle = 224±8 mmHg, ns) and heart weight. The increase in serum IS was prevented with AST-120 (by 100%, p<0.001) which was accompanied by reduced LV fibrosis (68%, p<0.01) and TGF-β and phosphorylated NF-κB protein expression (back to sham levels, p<0.05) despite no significant change in LV function. In conclusion, STNx resulted in increased cardiac fibrosis and circulating IS levels. Reduction of IS with AST-120 normalizes cardiac fibrosis, in a blood pressure independent manner.
PMID: 22829936 Free full text


AST-120 is a Japanese activated charcoal product also known as Kremezin. Note that I'm not claiming indoxyl sulfate is "the answer", but it's an example of a very nasty metabolite that is reduced by oral activated charcoal. Recently there was a lot of discussion around senescent cells, which actively pump out molecules that cause a lot of damage to their surroundings. In an important paper that came out recently, it was shown that selective killing of senescent cells was able to reverse the aging phenotype. That shows the degree of damage caused not by the senescent cells themselves, but by the junk they emit. I was wondering if any of these compounds could be reduced by oral activated charcoal, but that might be a tall order, since the senescent cells are dumping those compounds into circulation. Only if they found their way into the gut would the charcoal be able to absorb them. It's possible that some of them might do that, at least to some extent. Small molecules are known to "exsorb" from circulation into the gut lumen, though generally at a low level. There are eflux pumps that actively transport certain small molecules back into the gut, and a number of compounds are excreted via the bile, some of which are later reabsorbed. Given the variety of ways a molecule could get from circulation to the gut, I couldn't rule out such compounds as being involved in the activated charcoal LE effect.

Another possiblity is exogenous (dietary) AGEs. These are highly damaging to the organism, and since they enter via the gut, the activated charcoal would be positioned to intercept them.
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#28 Logan

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Posted 27 July 2012 - 05:21 AM

Since indoxyl sulfate is the most common metabolite of tryptophan, could that mean that one might start to feel better--more relaxed and focused--soon after starting treatment with it?

I know it is placebo, but I do for some odd reason feel more calm after a day of heavy dosing of activated charcoal. Tonight it has been easier to read. I've also experienced a lowering in apetite.

Thank you for this niner. That paper on AST-120 assisting in renal failure, and why, definitely helps to give at least a clue as to why activated charcoal might be beneficial to longevity.

Any thoughts on taking activated charcoal and how? What do you think about the suggestion made to take 30 mgs in divided doses two days a week? I don't know why anyone would really have an idea at this point, but I thought I'd ask.

#29 niner

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Posted 27 July 2012 - 01:47 PM

I couldn't say if feeling more calm made sense or not- Indoles are just one thing that activated charcoal might influence; there could be all sorts of things that it picks up. Indoles are involved in all sorts of psych affects though, so who knows?

I can't imagine 30 mgs two days a week doing anything; that just seems like too little. In one study I saw, sheep were given 5% by weight in their feed. That was a tox test though, so that's probably an OD. It didn't hurt them over an 84 day period, for what it's worth. Here's a dose-ranging study on AST-120 in CKD patients:

Am J Kidney Dis. 2006 Apr;47(4):565-77.
A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study of AST-120 (Kremezin) in patients with moderate to severe CKD.
Schulman G, Agarwal R, Acharya M, Berl T, Blumenthal S, Kopyt N.

Nephrology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA. gerald.schulman@vanderbilt.edu

BACKGROUND:
AST-120 (Kremezin; Kureha Chemical Industry Co Ltd, Tokyo, Japan) is an orally administered adsorbent showing adsorption ability superior to activated charcoal for certain organic compounds known to be precursors of substances that accumulate in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and that are believed to accelerate the decline in kidney function. AST-120 is approved in Japan for prolonging time to hemodialysis therapy and improving uremic symptoms in patients with CKD.
METHODS:
A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study was designed to examine the nephroprotective effects of 3 doses of AST-120 versus placebo in adult patients with moderate to severe CKD and elevated serum indoxyl sulfate levels while following an adequate protein-intake diet. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 doses of AST-120 (0.9, 2.1, or 3.0 g) or placebo 3 times daily for 12 weeks.
RESULTS:
AST-120 decreased serum indoxyl sulfate levels in a dose-dependent fashion. During the 12-week treatment period, AST-120 did not affect serum creatinine levels or 24-hour urine creatinine appearance. Significant improvements in malaise were observed in a dose-dependent fashion. All doses of AST-120 were well tolerated and did not adversely affect the general health status of patients.
CONCLUSION:
Results suggest that the dose of 3 g 3 times daily is an optimal dose for the US population, and it may be useful in the treatment of patients with CKD. Because AST-120 did not directly affect serum creatinine levels or 24-hour urine creatinine appearance, the composite end point of doubling of serum creatinine level, transplantation, and dialysis therapy would be appropriate for a confirmatory phase III therapeutic outcome study.
PMID: 16564934


I presume that they mean the US population of CKD patients, and not the US population in general, but this at least gives an idea of the amount that would be needed to bring down excessive levels of indoxyl sulfate. It's not a crazy amount, and could be done with capsules.

I would love to see a controlled mouse study that looked at activated carbon in feed, C60, and both combined. The likely mechanisms of the two are different enough that the combination would probably be better than either alone.

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#30 Logan

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Posted 27 July 2012 - 05:27 PM

The likely mechanisms of the two are different enough that the combination would probably be better than either alone.


Yeah I thought about the combination of the two.

I made a mistake and said 30 mgs instead of grams. The recommendation was for 30 grams in divided doses two consecutive days a week.

Edited by Logan, 27 July 2012 - 05:28 PM.






Also tagged with one or more of these keywords: nitrogen, carbon, c60, longevity, enterosorption

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