In desperation over the years at times when nootropics were not quite keeping me awake during the day, I researched safe stimulants (not caffeine) and found several that fit the bill - including Amfonelic acid and Prolintane. Have not tried them yet. This post will have the data on Amfonelic acid only because from the many I have researched it's the safest and fits the bill best.
It is able to mobilize Dopamine from non-vesicular storage pools and can provide stimulant effects even after other stimulants such as amphetamines have completely depleted vesicular dopamine. It is very safe and is available to purchase online now though currently out of stock. It is also unregulated in all countries of this World:
Amfonelic acid (AFA; WIN 25,978; Oxaprozin) is a drug used in scientific studies. It was discovered while researchers were investigating novel antibiotics. In studies it proved to be a potent and highly selective dopamine reuptake inhibitor (DRI) in rat brain preparations. A study found a moderately long half-life of approximately 12 hours and a dopaminergic potency approximately 50 fold that of methylphenidate in rat brain preparations.
- Nalidixic acid (WIN 18,320)
- Oxolinic acid
- ^ US patent 3590036, "Naphthyridine-3-carboxylic Acids, Their Derivatives and Preparation Thereof"
- ^ Fuller, R. W.; Perry, K. W.; Bymaster, F. P.; Wong, D. T. (1978). "Comparative effects of pemoline, amfonelic acid and amphetamine on dopamine uptake and release in vitro and on brain 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid concentration in spiperone-treated rats.". Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 30 (3): 197–198. PMID 24701.
- ^ McMillen, B. A.; Shore, P. A. (1978). "Amfonelic acid, a non-amphetamine stimulant, has marked effects on brain dopamine metabolism but not noradrenaline metabolism: Association with differences in neuronal storage systems". Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 30 (7): 464–466. PMID 27622.
- ^ Izenwasser, S.; Werling, L. L.; Cox, B. M. (1990). "Comparison of the effects of cocaine and other inhibitors of dopamine uptake in rat striatum, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, and medial prefrontal cortex". Brain Research 520 (1–2): 303–309. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(90)91719-W. PMID 2145054.
Similarity Between (+)-Amphetamine and Amfonelic Acid [Free Full PDF]
Other workers [12,14] showed that although AFA and AMPH released dopamine, they promoted mobilization of dopamine from different pools; AFA preferentially releases the older stored catecholamine while AMPH is dependent on the newly synthesized transmitter.
Further, AFA enhances impulse-induced flow . Another intriguing difference between the two stimulants has also been reported . AFA does not produce aggregate group toxicity in mice, which has been shown for AMPH by many investigators [1, 5, 9].
As the Mercedes-Benz of stimulants and due to its difficult synthesis it is very pricey: NewMind: Amfonelic Acid - 1 Gram $88.88 [Out of stock as of posting date]
This looks very interesting.....maybe we could set up a group for this? Looks very promising