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Investigating Tiron, a Mitochondrially Targeted Antioxidant


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#1 reason

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Posted 13 January 2014 - 12:15 PM


Mitochondria are important in aging, and the process by which they become damaged and contribute to degenerative aging starts with the fact that they emit reactive oxidants as a byproduct of their normal operation. The best approaches to removing this cause of aging involve repair of mitochondrial damage or altering cells to make the damage irrelevant, but researchers are also investigating ways to target antioxidants to the mitochondria. Additional antioxidants to augment natural ones soak up more of the oxidants and thus in theory slow down the pace of damage and the pace of aging. Studies carried out with plastinquinone mitochondrially targeted antioxidants seem to bear this out.

Mitochondrially targeted antioxidants are nowhere near as effective a strategy as repair, however. They cannot reverse or halt this contribution to aging, they can only somewhat slow it. But here is news of another type of mitochondrial antioxidant in early studies:

describe how in laboratory tests, they compared the protection offered against either UVA radiation or free radical stress by several antioxidants, some of which are found in foods or cosmetics. While UVB radiation easily causes sunburn, UVA radiation penetrates deeper, damaging our DNA by generating free radicals which degrades the collagen that gives skin its elastic quality.

The [team] found that the most potent anti-oxidants were those that targeted the batteries of the skin cells, known as the mitochondria. They compared these mitochondrial-targeted anti-oxidants to other non-specific antioxidants such as resveratrol, found in red wine, and curcumin found in curries, that target the entire cell. They found that the most potent mitochondrial targeted anti-oxidant was Tiron - 4,5-Dihydroxy-1,3-benzenedisulfonic acid disodium salt monohydrate - which provided 100%, protection of the skin cell against UVA sun damage and the release of damaging enzymes causing stress-induced damage.

Resveratrol, the antioxidant found in red wine, was found to protect against 22% of both the ultraviolet A radiation and stress-induced damage. NAC, a frequently used laboratory-based anti-oxidant, offered 20% protection against oxidative stress and 8% against UVA and curcumin offered 16% protection against oxidative stress and 8% against UVA. In comparison Tiron offered 100% protection against UVA radiation and 100% protection against oxidative stress

The team intends to take the work forward by further understanding the mechanism of how Tiron works, developing a compound similar to Tiron and testing for toxicity in humans. They say it will be several years before it is ready for use as a skin product or supplement.

If this interests you, bear in mind that other injected or ingested mitochondrially targeted antioxidants have far more work done on them, have more impressive effects at the cellular level, are shown to prevent or slow a range of age-related conditions, and yet still cannot extend life greatly in laboratory animals: 10% in flies, for example, far less than the extension of life obtained through calorie restriction.

Link: http://www.ncl.ac.uk...nger-for-longer


View the full article at FightAging
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#2 SuicidalTraveler

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Posted 25 February 2016 - 10:49 AM

Have you tried Tiron yet?

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#3 Logic

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Posted 25 February 2016 - 02:47 PM

You forgot to mention C60oo Reason.
Its strange that this mitochondrial antioxidant isn't being studied or even mentioned by SENS despite 1000s of people taking it and the 90% max life extension seen in Baati's study.  Why is that???

 

Tiron has been mentioned often in the past:
https://cse.google.c...b=0&gsc.q=tiron

It's worth also mentioning that it chelates released Iron in the mitochondria where the released iron would normally damage mtDNA.
Metals like iron and copper also catalyse the reactions that lead to Advanced Glycation Endproducts and Tiron looks to be effective, in vivo, here too.
http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/17585685

Begging the question: Can the resulting iron-Tiron complex then leave the mitochondria - cell - body?

It has also undergone tox studies in pregnant rats with fetal size issues showing up at 3000 mg/kg/day,making the no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) for maternal and developmental toxicity; 1500 mg Tiron/kg/day.

http://www.ncbi.nlm..../pubmed/1882131

(The HED of 3000mg/kg/day is 486mg/kg/day, or 3400 mg per day in a 70 kg human.)

So it's way past news and closer to group buy time IMHO!?


Edited by Logic, 25 February 2016 - 02:56 PM.


#4 SuicidalTraveler

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Posted 27 February 2016 - 02:13 AM

Yeah I wish more people would be involved in this because Tiron gives 100% protection towards UV radiation and oxidative stress. This is a game changer.

#5 niner

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Posted 27 February 2016 - 03:09 AM

Meh.  It was an in vitro experiment. It would be great if it was a game changer, but the odds are against it.


Edited by Mind, 06 March 2016 - 01:45 PM.


#6 Logic

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Posted 27 February 2016 - 01:04 PM

Meh.  It was an in vivo experiment. It would be great if it was a game changer, but the odds are against it.

 

:)

yep it was.

in vivo studies: (I'm just dumping them - not read)

Developmental toxicity evaluation of tiron (sodium 4,5-dihydroxybenzene-1,3-disulfonate) in mice.

http://www.ncbi.nlm..../pubmed/1882131

 

Prevention by Tiron (sodium 4,5-dihydroxybenzene-1,3-disulfonate) of vanadate-induced developmental toxicity in mice

http://onlinelibrary...480207/abstract

 

Protective effect of Tiron (4,5-dihydroxybenzene-1,3-disulfonic acid disodium salt) against beryllium-induced maternal and fetal toxicity in rats

https://www.research...oxicity_in_rats

 

Chelation therapy and vanadium: Effect on reproductive organs in rats

http://nopr.niscair....(6) 515-523.pdf

 

Cotherapy of Tiron and selenium against vanadium induced toxic effects in lactating rats

http://www.ncbi.nlm....les/PMC4575759/

 

Acute superoxide scavenging reduces sympathetic vasoconstrictor responsiveness in short-term exercise-trained rats

http://jap.physiolog...ent/114/11/1511

 

Cytoprotective potential of tiron and methyl palmitate against acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury

http://www.nrcresear.../cjpp-2015-0270

 

Prevention by Tiron (sodium 4,5-dihydroxybenzene-1,3-disulfonate) of vanadate-induced developmental toxicity in mice

http://onlinelibrary...480207/abstract

 

Superoxide Anions Contribute to Impaired Regulation of BloodPressure by Nitric Oxide During the Development ofCardiomyopathy

http://jpet.aspetjou...3/1643.full.pdf

 

Efficacy of Tiron for Enhancing the Excretion of Uranium from the Rat

http://het.sagepub.c.../3/195.abstract

 

Role of combined administration of Tiron and glutathione against aluminum-induced oxidative stress in rat brain.

http://sci-hub.io/10...emb.2006.12.001

(Due to your interest in Al; this one's from http://sci-hub.io/  full access to all papers ;) )

 

 


Edited by Logic, 27 February 2016 - 01:37 PM.


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#7 niner

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Posted 27 February 2016 - 07:50 PM

 

Meh.  It was an in vivo experiment. It would be great if it was a game changer, but the odds are against it.

 

:)

yep it was.

in vivo studies: (I'm just dumping them - not read)

 

Logic, you read my mind, (rather than what I wrote)!  I meant to type "in vitro", but for some reason I typed "in vivo"...  I see that my membership has expired, and taken with it my mod superpowers, so I can't fix it at the moment.  Thanks for the refs.  It does look like a nice mitochondrial antioxidant that ought to be added to the list.  In particular, note how much better it is in this particular experiment than MitoQ.   Pharmacokinetics of Tiron is still a question mark-- they seem to use huge doses in rodents, like 1g/kg*d.


Edited by niner, 27 February 2016 - 08:04 PM.


#8 pone11

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Posted 27 February 2016 - 08:18 PM

 

Meh.  It was an in vivo experiment. It would be great if it was a game changer, but the odds are against it.

 

:)

yep it was.

in vivo studies: (I'm just dumping them - not read)

Developmental toxicity evaluation of tiron (sodium 4,5-dihydroxybenzene-1,3-disulfonate) in mice.

http://www.ncbi.nlm..../pubmed/1882131

 

Prevention by Tiron (sodium 4,5-dihydroxybenzene-1,3-disulfonate) of vanadate-induced developmental toxicity in mice

http://onlinelibrary...480207/abstract

 

Protective effect of Tiron (4,5-dihydroxybenzene-1,3-disulfonic acid disodium salt) against beryllium-induced maternal and fetal toxicity in rats

https://www.research...oxicity_in_rats

 

Chelation therapy and vanadium: Effect on reproductive organs in rats

http://nopr.niscair....(6) 515-523.pdf

 

Cotherapy of Tiron and selenium against vanadium induced toxic effects in lactating rats

http://www.ncbi.nlm....les/PMC4575759/

 

Acute superoxide scavenging reduces sympathetic vasoconstrictor responsiveness in short-term exercise-trained rats

http://jap.physiolog...ent/114/11/1511

 

Cytoprotective potential of tiron and methyl palmitate against acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury

http://www.nrcresear.../cjpp-2015-0270

 

Prevention by Tiron (sodium 4,5-dihydroxybenzene-1,3-disulfonate) of vanadate-induced developmental toxicity in mice

http://onlinelibrary...480207/abstract

 

Superoxide Anions Contribute to Impaired Regulation of BloodPressure by Nitric Oxide During the Development ofCardiomyopathy

http://jpet.aspetjou...3/1643.full.pdf

 

Efficacy of Tiron for Enhancing the Excretion of Uranium from the Rat

http://het.sagepub.c.../3/195.abstract

 

Role of combined administration of Tiron and glutathione against aluminum-induced oxidative stress in rat brain.

http://sci-hub.io/10...emb.2006.12.001

(Due to your interest in Al; this one's from http://sci-hub.io/  full access to all papers ;) )

 

 

I can't help but notice that most of these studies are positioning Tiron as a chelator rather than as a direct antioxidant.   Not having read the studies in depth, can you summarize the theories that are out there about Tiron's mechanism of action as both a chelator and an antioxidant?



#9 Logic

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Posted 28 February 2016 - 04:40 AM

Niner
You'r right;  I read 'in vitro' when reading your post!   :)

The oral doses are huge.  I seem to remember something about very little of it getting through the stomach lining while scanning those papers to make sure they were all in vivo.
 
 
Pone11
My interest in Tiron is in its ability as a chelator.
In skin you get 100% protection from UVA (and UVB IIRC).

 

From here:
http://www.longecity...w-anti-oxidant/
 

It seems that iron is freed from iron-sulphur enzymes within themitochondria by UVA.
The free iron reacts with ROS causing irreversible oxidative damage to mtDNA
Tiron is able to chelate the iron inside the mitochondria.


"...In terms of mechanism, our study shows that UVA irradiation enhanced the increase in ROS production caused by the presence of the RC inhibitors. In this context, it has been postulated that iron may play a critical role in the modulation of UVA-induced oxidative damage. An increased presence of free iron further exacerbates oxidative damage through interaction with reactive oxygen intermediates via Fenton reactions. Studies have reported an increased level of iron subsequent to UVA irradiation, which has been shown to potentiate irreversible oxidative damage [43], [44] and [45]. Enzymes with iron–
sulphur (Fe–S) centres have been shown to be sensitive to modification by UVA rendering the enzyme inactive [46] and consequently resulting in the release and accumulation of free intracellular iron [47]. Interestingly, Fe–S centres are integral to the RC complexes I, II and III [48] which may make them vulnerable targets for photosensitisation and a potential hotspot for iron-mediated oxidative damage. Indeed our group has recently shown that tiron (4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzenedisulfonic) which chelates iron (and other metals), exhibits ROS scavenging properties and enters mitochondria, is able to prevent UVA and hydrogen peroxide induced mitochondrial DNA damage in human skin cells..."

http://www.sciencedi...213231714000950

 

So is the iron-triton product then able to leave the mitochondria, then the cell and be excreted, or are we just swapping the immediate problem for a buildup of molecules that will cause issues later?


Similar types of reactions catalyse the formation of Advanced Glycation Endproducts inside and outside cells, making AGEs faster than the body can clear them, causing an increase in bad NF-kB etc, which causes just about all the biological markers of aging.

(The other causes of increased NF-kB seem to be low level chronic infection and a more and more leaky gut with age.)

 

The other reasons for aging seem to be caused by:

Mitochondrial DNA damage mainly. Tiron may be a better prophylactic for this issue than C60oo.

DNA damage in the nucleus that's normally easily fixed if there's enough NAD+ and selenium etc,

or changes by virii.  (see other causes above)

 

So Tiron seems like it could cover a lot of bases..!?


Edited by Logic, 28 February 2016 - 05:38 AM.


#10 SuicidalTraveler

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Posted 28 February 2016 - 09:09 PM

So when do we start the group buys?

#11 pone11

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Posted 28 February 2016 - 11:21 PM

Niner
You'r right;  I read 'in vitro' when reading your post!   :)

The oral doses are huge.  I seem to remember something about very little of it getting through the stomach lining while scanning those papers to make sure they were all in vivo.
 
 
Pone11
My interest in Tiron is in its ability as a chelator.
In skin you get 100% protection from UVA (and UVB IIRC).

 

From here:
http://www.longecity...w-anti-oxidant/
 

It seems that iron is freed from iron-sulphur enzymes within themitochondria by UVA.
The free iron reacts with ROS causing irreversible oxidative damage to mtDNA
Tiron is able to chelate the iron inside the mitochondria.


"...In terms of mechanism, our study shows that UVA irradiation enhanced the increase in ROS production caused by the presence of the RC inhibitors. In this context, it has been postulated that iron may play a critical role in the modulation of UVA-induced oxidative damage. An increased presence of free iron further exacerbates oxidative damage through interaction with reactive oxygen intermediates via Fenton reactions. Studies have reported an increased level of iron subsequent to UVA irradiation, which has been shown to potentiate irreversible oxidative damage [43], [44] and [45]. Enzymes with iron–
sulphur (Fe–S) centres have been shown to be sensitive to modification by UVA rendering the enzyme inactive [46] and consequently resulting in the release and accumulation of free intracellular iron [47]. Interestingly, Fe–S centres are integral to the RC complexes I, II and III [48] which may make them vulnerable targets for photosensitisation and a potential hotspot for iron-mediated oxidative damage. Indeed our group has recently shown that tiron (4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzenedisulfonic) which chelates iron (and other metals), exhibits ROS scavenging properties and enters mitochondria, is able to prevent UVA and hydrogen peroxide induced mitochondrial DNA damage in human skin cells..."

http://www.sciencedi...213231714000950

 

So is the iron-triton product then able to leave the mitochondria, then the cell and be excreted, or are we just swapping the immediate problem for a buildup of molecules that will cause issues later?


Similar types of reactions catalyse the formation of Advanced Glycation Endproducts inside and outside cells, making AGEs faster than the body can clear them, causing an increase in bad NF-kB etc, which causes just about all the biological markers of aging.

(The other causes of increased NF-kB seem to be low level chronic infection and a more and more leaky gut with age.)

 

The other reasons for aging seem to be caused by:

Mitochondrial DNA damage mainly. Tiron may be a better prophylactic for this issue than C60oo.

DNA damage in the nucleus that's normally easily fixed if there's enough NAD+ and selenium etc,

or changes by virii.  (see other causes above)

 

So Tiron seems like it could cover a lot of bases..!?

 

Okay, but chelators chelate good minerals and not just bad ones.    With a mercury chelator like DMPS, or mercury/lead chelator like DMSA, there is a long history administering these and safety studies have been done.   People understand which good minerals are being chelated and can supplement those.   If you take Tiron, are there long term mineral safety studies, and what is the supplementation required to overcome any good minerals it chelates out of you?  

 

Chelators are normally taken on cycles, such as three days on and four days off.    What's the appropriate cycle to Tiron?

 

Extrapolating on the good work of Andrew Cutler, chelators normally require you to take the chelator at a constant level, once each half-life of the chelator.    So DMSA chelation under a Cutler protocol is taken once every three hours continuously for four days, at extremely low doses, to maintain constant blood levels.  If you don't do that, you end up just moving mercury around and it resettles after each chelator dose wears off.    What's the chelator dose schedule for Tiron, and has anyone actually studied it in such a protocol?

 

If what you care about specifically is iron, why don't you donate blood and start a program to bring your ferritin levels to conservative values as per guidelines linked here:

http://www.irondisorders.org/


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#12 Logic

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Posted 29 February 2016 - 09:35 AM

Okay, but chelators chelate good minerals and not just bad ones.    With a mercury chelator like DMPS, or mercury/lead chelator like DMSA, there is a long history administering these and safety studies have been done.   People understand which good minerals are being chelated and can supplement those.   If you take Tiron, are there long term mineral safety studies, and what is the supplementation required to overcome any good minerals it chelates out of you?  
 
Chelators are normally taken on cycles, such as three days on and four days off.    What's the appropriate cycle to Tiron?
 
Extrapolating on the good work of Andrew Cutler, chelators normally require you to take the chelator at a constant level, once each half-life of the chelator.    So DMSA chelation under a Cutler protocol is taken once every three hours continuously for four days, at extremely low doses, to maintain constant blood levels.  If you don't do that, you end up just moving mercury around and it resettles after each chelator dose wears off.    What's the chelator dose schedule for Tiron, and has anyone actually studied it in such a protocol?
 
If what you care about specifically is iron, why don't you donate blood and start a program to bring your ferritin levels to conservative values as per guidelines linked here:
http://www.irondisorders.org/


Yep;  chelators inevitably chelate some good metals/minerals along with the bad, necessitating cycling and supplementation with them.
I believe the form of mineral is very important here too.

I doubt the studies you mention exist unfortunately, as they would probably have come up in the above search.
Its still worth another look however using search terms suggested in your above post.

 

As mentioned before:

It has also undergone tox studies in pregnant rats with fetal size issues showing up at 3000 mg/kg/day,making the no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) for maternal and developmental toxicity; 1500 mg Tiron/kg/day.
So a NOAEL level has been set for humans.
I would have to research exactly what that means, but get the impression that it implies that it is considered safe for human consumption at up to 1500mg/day?

http://www.ncbi.nlm..../pubmed/1882131

The fact that it chelates released Iron in the mitochondria where the released iron would normally damage mtDNA is what makes it so very interesting and what sets it apart from other chelators IMHO.
You are aware of the great significance of this?
Even if the test was in vitro, Tiron obviously has a way of  getting into mitochondria once inside live cells.
It also does get into cells if taken orally, even if it has low bioavailability.

 

That said, it could certainly do with more in vivo testing, of the type you suggest, in animal models.
I stated that it's closer to group buy status than news... Not that we should all be popping it like B vitamins! :)

 

Personally;  I would experiment with it, starting topical experiments and probably with a small, one-off, dose,  if I had some in hand.
But that's just me.  

And SuicidalTraveler it would  seem!   :laugh: That name does not bode well for Tiron use! :)


Edited by Logic, 29 February 2016 - 09:53 AM.


#13 SuicidalTraveler

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Posted 01 March 2016 - 01:41 AM

Yeah I'd be in if we do a group buy.

#14 Logic

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Posted 02 March 2016 - 08:35 AM

Yeah I'd be in if we do a group buy.

 

:) ok-ok!

 

I'll Email some suppliers and see if its available or makeable.
 



#15 SuicidalTraveler

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Posted 06 March 2016 - 07:30 AM

Alright man thanks.

#16 Logic

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Posted 07 March 2016 - 08:04 PM

Alright man thanks.

 

"...We can offer at USD87.50/25g+USD40 (Courier fee), CNF courier door to door, 25g/bottle, T/T in advance, prompt shipment..."



#17 niner

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Posted 08 March 2016 - 02:06 AM

"...We can offer at USD87.50/25g+USD40 (Courier fee), CNF courier door to door, 25g/bottle, T/T in advance, prompt shipment..."

 

USD4.50/gram.  That's not too bad for an obscure RC.  How much of this would you take per day?  Do we know anything about PK and effective dose?



#18 Logic

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Posted 08 March 2016 - 05:36 PM

 

"...We can offer at USD87.50/25g+USD40 (Courier fee), CNF courier door to door, 25g/bottle, T/T in advance, prompt shipment..."

 

USD4.50/gram.  That's not too bad for an obscure RC.  How much of this would you take per day?  Do we know anything about PK and effective dose?

 

 

Nope!  I don't have a clue!  :)
 



#19 SuicidalTraveler

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Posted 17 April 2016 - 01:39 AM

Push it.
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#20 adamh

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Posted 07 May 2016 - 11:46 PM

A little searching came up with this source at 53 pounds per 100gm but only available to uk residents.

 

http://www.scientifi...uct/172553-100G



#21 richard hnry

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Posted 19 July 2016 - 04:48 AM

A little searching came up with this source at 53 pounds per 100gm but only available to uk residents.

 

http://www.scientifi...uct/172553-100G

 

I am interested in taking part in group buy.


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#22 Logic

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Posted 20 July 2016 - 10:29 PM

http://sci-hub.bz/10.1139/y02-106

Tiron exerts effects unrelated to its role as ascavenger of superoxide anion: effects on calcium binding and vascular responses

 

...Insulin  treatmentsignificantly  increased  intracellular  superoxide  anion(O2)  production,  an  effect  completely  abolished  byTiron...

http://diabetes.diab...5/1344.full.pdf


Edited by Logic, 20 July 2016 - 10:33 PM.


#23 richard hnry

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Posted 26 July 2016 - 03:25 AM

So when do we start the group buys?

 

Count me in when doing a group buy.
 



#24 Logic

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Posted 28 July 2016 - 12:36 PM

A little searching came up with this source at 53 pounds per 100gm but only available to uk residents.

 

http://www.scientifi...uct/172553-100G

 

I Emailed this company in the hope of acquiring Tiron through a friend in the UK.  I got no reply. ie: They pissed me off!

 

Tiron group Buy:

 

I will be getting a 25 gram bottle of Tiron from the same suppliers as Nilotinib (3rd buy) for $ 87.50.
Adding it to the the Nilotinib Parcel will negate the $ 40 courier fee to the USA.  

USPS Priority Mail Small Flat Rate Box is $ 6.80.  International price calculator.

 

If anyone else wants Tiron, contact me.

I will need your address to work postage and PayPal fees and will give you my PayPal/Email address to make payment.



#25 Logic

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Posted 28 July 2016 - 08:37 PM

 

A little searching came up with this source at 53 pounds per 100gm but only available to uk residents.

 

http://www.scientifi...uct/172553-100G

 

I Emailed this company in the hope of acquiring Tiron through a friend in the UK.  I got no reply. ie: They pissed me off!

 

Tiron group Buy:

 

I will be getting a 25 gram bottle of Tiron from the same suppliers as Nilotinib (3rd buy) for $ 87.50.
Adding it to the the Nilotinib Parcel will negate the $ 40 courier fee to the USA.  

USPS Priority Mail Small Flat Rate Box is $ 6.80.  International price calculator.

 

If anyone else wants Tiron, contact me.

I will need your address to work postage and PayPal fees and will give you my PayPal/Email address to make payment.

 

 

Main Group Buy thread here:

http://www.longecity...ator-group-buy/



#26 adamh

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Posted 28 July 2016 - 08:53 PM

Logic, $6.80 sounds way too low for int priority. I think that is the domestic rate. Int priority starts at about $25 last time I used it and is probably around $30+ for a flat rate box. I would recommend int first class which is only about $13



#27 Logic

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Posted 29 July 2016 - 03:56 PM

Logic, $6.80 sounds way too low for int priority. I think that is the domestic rate. Int priority starts at about $25 last time I used it and is probably around $30+ for a flat rate box. I would recommend int first class which is only about $13

 

Oops; I meant to say the local/USA USPS Priority Mail Small Flat Rate Box is $ 6.80.  Thx for catching that Adamh.

The calculator for the international cost is linked.

 

 

I looked up First-Class Mail International which brings one to this page:

https://www.usps.com...ternational.htm

But clicking on 'calculate a price' takes one to the same calculator page where the is no 'First-Class Mail International' option I can find??

https://postcalc.usps.com/



#28 adamh

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Posted 29 July 2016 - 09:10 PM

There is international first class but the post office would rather you pay the higher rate for priority or express. Same deal on the domestic usps site, you can send priority or express but no way to print first class postage. Go through paypal, stamps.com or other services and you can find rates for int first class. Its cheap to canada from usa, europe is more, like around $13 but not bad. Depends on the weight of course and max of 4 lb. Don't even look at ups or other carriers, they are as high as the sky.


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#29 SuicidalTraveler

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Posted 10 August 2016 - 03:51 PM

Any progress with Tiron?

Alternatives?

UVA damage can be horrible...

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#30 Logic

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Posted 23 August 2016 - 12:52 AM

Some interesting Tiron anti cancer links I found while looking for half life info on Tiron, but no useful halflife info as yet. 

 

Effects of Tiron, 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzene disulfonic acid, on human promyelotic HL-60 leukemia cell differentiation and death.

http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/16635542

 

NAC, Tiron and Trolox Impair Survival of Cell Cultures Containing Glioblastoma Tumorigenic Initiating Cells by Inhibition of Cell Cycle Progression

http://journals.plos...al.pone.0090085

 


 






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