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Oregano:Neuro- immuno-modulatory,Anti-depressant,Mood-enhancing,cannabinoidergic anti-bacterial plant.

oregano neuromodulation cb2

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#1 Ruth

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Posted 05 August 2018 - 09:47 PM

https://onlinelibrar...06.2010.00850.x Antidepressant‐like effect of carvacrol (5‐Isopropyl‐2‐methylphenol) in mice: involvement of dopaminergic system
Carvacrol (5‐isopropyl‐2‐methylphenol) is a monoterpenic phenol present in the essential oil of many plants. It is the major component of the essential oil fraction of oregano and thyme. In this study, the effect of carvacrol was investigated in two behavioral models, the forced swimming and tail suspension tests in mice, to investigate the possible antidepressant effect of this substance. Additionally, the mechanisms involved in the antidepressant‐like effect of carvacrol in mice were also assessed. Carvacrol (cvc) was administered orally at single doses of 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg. The acute treatment of cvc decreased the immobility time in the forced swimming and tail suspension tests without accompanying changes in ambulation in the open‐field test. The anti‐immobility effect of carvacrol (25 mg/kg) was not prevented by pretreatment of mice with p‐chlorophenylalanine, prazosin and yohimbine. On the other hand, the pretreatment of mice with SCH23390 or sulpiride completely blocked the antidepressant‐like effect of carvacrol (25 mg/kg) in the forced swimming test. These results show that carvacrol presents antidepressant effects in the forced swimming and tail suspension tests; this effect seems to be dependent on its interaction with the dopaminergic system, but not with the serotonergic and noradrenergic systems. Keywords: Carvacrol; Antidepressant; Forced swimming; Tail suspension; Dopaminergic system.

http://file.scirp.or...00097_17749.htm Modulation of Neurotransmission by a Specified Oregano Extract Alters Brain Electrical Potentials Indicative of Antidepressant-Like and Neuroprotective Activities*
Different behavioral states are characterized by distinct patterns of global brain activity. Therefore, the biological effects of herbal extracts on brain functions can be assessed by analyzing the local field potentials, the so-called electropharmacogram analysis. Inspired by our recent findings that a specified oregano extract (OE) exhibited a triple-reuptake activity in vitro, this extract was tested in model of Tele-Stereo-electroencephalogram (EEG) to elucidate how OE affects the electrical brain activity in freely moving rats. Furthermore, discriminant analysis was performed to compare the electric brain activity of four standardized brain regions with those produced by several reference compounds, representing a whole variety of clinical indications. Oral intake of OE produced fast and robust dose and time dependent EEG alterations consisting of significant changes of spectral power in comparison to controls. Strongest effects were seen with respect to alpha1, alpha2 and beta1 waves representing an activation of serotonergic, dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission, respectively. Moreover, the discriminant analysis revealed that OE’s pattern of activity locates in close vicinity to antidepressant and neuroprotective compound. The presented data support the hypothesis suggesting the use of OE as a neuroprotective dietary supplement to promote mood, motivation and mental wellbeing.

Screening of the isolated constituents identified the sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene (BCP; see Figure 3) as the first natural, selective agonist for CB2 receptors with Ki values of the (E)-BCP isomer in the nM range (Ki = 155 + 4 nM). The (Z)-BCP isomer also showed a slight binding affinity (Ki = 485 + 36 nM), while the oxidation product BCP oxide and the openedring isomer α-humulene did not show binding affinities to CB2 receptors (Gertsch et al., 2008). Besides its occurrence in cannabis, BCP is among the most widespread plant volatiles and is also found in large amounts in the essential oils of different spice and food plants, such as oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum spp.), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), thyme (Thymus serpyllum) and black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) among many others (Zheng et al., 1992; Mockute et al., 2001; Hudaib et al., 2002; Jayaprakasha et al., 2003; Orav et al., 2004; Bernardes et al., 2010). Thus, it represents a novel dietary phytocannabinoid. BCP and related sesquiterpenes have insecticidal and anti-viral properties, and constitute part of the plant defense system against pathogens (Dunkić et al., 2011; Maffei et al., 2011; Huang et al., 2012). Due to its weak aromatic taste, it is also commercially used as a food additive (Gertsch et al., 2008). As such, it is approved by several independent agencies with no known toxicity (US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), US Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA), Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA)). Several health effects have been attributed to BCP or plants containing BCP, including anti-inflammatory (Gertsch et al., 2008), local anaesthetic (Ghelardini et al., 2001) and anti-carcinogenic (Legault and Pichette, 2007; Di Sotto et al., 2010) activity. The natural source of BCP makes it surely an interesting compound, also for the treatment of chronic pain conditions.

Sensitive skin syndrome is a challenging and important condition in the domain of disease management and also in skin care products and cosmetic manufacturing. Conditions like Psoriasis, Rosacea, Contact and Atopic Dermatitis are associated with it. The perception of itch is translated to our brain by neuronal depolarization signals initiated by aberrant Transient Receptor Potential (TRV) Channels; mainly TRPV1, TRPV3, TRPV4 and TRPA1 through a complex inflammatory cascades and mediators. The discovery of these mediators and pathways not only broaden our understanding of the skin-nervous system interaction during the body innate response to adversity but also may provide therapeutic solution to a number of diseases which share similar pathogenesis and aetiology.


A healthy, balanced diet is essential for both physical and mental well-being. Such a diet must include an adequate intake of micronutrients, essential fatty acids, amino acids and antioxidants. The monoamine neurotransmitters, serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline, are derived from dietary amino acids and are involved in the modulation of mood, anxiety, cognition, sleep regulation and appetite. The capacity of nutritional interventions to elevate brain monoamine concentrations and, as a consequence, with the potential for mood enhancement, has not been extensively evaluated. The present study investigated an extract from oregano leaves, with a specified range of active constituents, identified via an unbiased, high-throughput screening programme. The oregano extract was demonstrated to inhibit the reuptake and degradation of the monoamine neurotransmitters in a dose-dependent manner, and microdialysis experiments in rats revealed an elevation of extracellular serotonin levels in the brain. Furthermore, following administration of oregano extract, behavioural responses were observed in mice that parallel the beneficial effects exhibited by monoamine-enhancing compounds when used in human subjects. In conclusion, these data show that an extract prepared from leaves of oregano, a major constituent of the Mediterranean diet, is brain-active, with moderate triple reuptake inhibitory activity, and exhibits positive behavioural effects in animal models. We postulate that such an extract may be effective in enhancing mental well-being in humans


The genus Origanum includes two economically significant aromatic species, Sweet Marjoram (Origanum majorana), which is native to Cyprus and southern Turkey but widely introduced across the Mediterranean region, and the widely distributed Oregano (Origanum vulgare). The aromatic quality of Marjoram is present in just a single species in the genus. In contrast, oregano-like qualities may be found in a number of Origanum species, but the widespread O. vulgare is the main species of economic importance.

According to recent taxonomic treatments (Ietswaart 1980, as cited in Kokkini 1997), O. vulgare is represented by six subspecies collectively distributed widely across Eurasia and North Africa. It has also been introduced by humans to North America. Oregano contains an essential oil with characteristic monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes that account for its aromatic qualities. The three subspecies with a more northerly distribution are less rich in essential oils than are the the three more southerly distributed subspecies.

Oregano was used by the Ancient Greeks and Romans. It is a familiar herb used on pizza and in a range of tomato and meat dishes and salads. Mexico and Turkey are major exporters (Italy is a major producer as well, but consumes most of this production domestically) (Olivier 1997). Oregano's essential oil (which is high in carvacrol) is used in a number of foods and liqueurs.

Oregano is an erect perennial, 30 to 60 cm tall, with stalked, ovate leaves that are 1 to 4.5 cm long. The purplish flowers are borne in dense, rounded terminal panicles with purplish bracts. The flowers have a tubular 5-toothed calyx, never becoming turbinate (top-shaped) in fruit (unlike some related species). Calyx shape is important in the taxonomy of the genus Origanum. The calyx shape is highly variable between, but stable within, Origanum species and appears to be largely controlled by 5 independent genes with simple Mendelian inheritance, potentially allowing plant breeders to reliably distinguish naturally occurring hybrids rather than always having to perform painstaking hand pollinations. (Novak et al. 2002)

#2 hazy

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Posted 06 August 2018 - 02:39 AM

i was taking the oregano oil caps big doses with none of such effects. seems questionable

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#3 Ruth

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Posted 10 August 2018 - 11:49 AM



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