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Alpha-Ketoglutarate as an Anti-Aging, Anti-Frailty Compound

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#1 VP.

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Posted 15 May 2014 - 05:42 PM


http://www.scientifi...ement-compound/

 

http://www.dailymail...ists-claim.html

 



#2 VP.

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Posted 15 May 2014 - 07:28 PM

A compound available in some dietary supplements extends lifespan in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans by interfering with cellular energy production and mimicking the effects of severe calorie restriction. The results, published online in Nature today, suggest that the compound, called α-ketoglutarate, could provide a way to increase longevity.

Though intriguing, data linking the compound to longevity are limited to short-term studies in a worm and should not lead people to start taking α-ketoglutarate supplements, cautions Matt Kaeberlein, who studies ageing at the University of Washington in Seattle. “I'm not sure I would characterize α-ketoglutarate as an anti-ageing drug yet,” says Kaeberlein, who was not involved in the study. “It’s premature.” 



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#3 ta5

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Posted 17 May 2014 - 01:32 PM

Apparently it's increasing lifespan by decreasing ATP:
 
Nature. 2014 May 14.
Metabolism and ageing are intimately linked. Compared with ad libitum feeding, dietary restriction consistently extends lifespan and delays age-related diseases in evolutionarily diverse organisms. Similar conditions of nutrient limitation and genetic or pharmacological perturbations of nutrient or energy metabolism also have longevity benefits. Recently, several metabolites have been identified that modulate ageing; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this are largely undefined. Here we show that α-ketoglutarate (α-KG), a tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate, extends the lifespan of adult Caenorhabditis elegans. ATP synthase subunit β is identified as a novel binding protein of α-KG using a small-molecule target identification strategy termed drug affinity responsive target stability (DARTS). The ATP synthase, also known as complex V of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, is the main cellular energy-generating machinery and is highly conserved throughout evolution. Although complete loss of mitochondrial function is detrimental, partial suppression of the electron transport chain has been shown to extend C. elegans lifespan. We show that α-KG inhibits ATP synthase and, similar to ATP synthase knockdown, inhibition by α-KG leads to reduced ATP content, decreased oxygen consumption, and increased autophagy in both C. elegans and mammalian cells. We provide evidence that the lifespan increase by α-KG requires ATP synthase subunit β and is dependent on target of rapamycin (TOR) downstream. Endogenous α-KG levels are increased on starvation and α-KG does not extend the lifespan of dietary-restricted animals, indicating that α-KG is a key metabolite that mediates longevity by dietary restriction. Our analyses uncover new molecular links between a common metabolite, a universal cellular energy generator and dietary restriction in the regulation of organismal lifespan, thus suggesting new strategies for the prevention and treatment of ageing and age-related diseases.
PMID: 24828042
 
I recently started supplementing with AKG because it's a precursor for collagen production:
 
J Invest Dermatol. 1987 Oct;89(4):405-9.
"The enzymatically catalyzed formation of 4-hydroxyproline plays a key role in the intracellular biosynthesis of collagen, since a critical number of 4-hydroxyprolyl residues is required for synthesis and secretion of triple-helical procollagen molecules under physiologic conditions. The enzyme catalyzing the conversion of prolyl residues to 4-hydroxyproline, prolyl 4-hydroxylase, requires ferrous ion, alpha-ketoglutarate, and ascorbate for its activity."
PMID: 2822818 
 
Good for bones:
 
Scand J Gastroenterol.
"alpha-Ketoglutarate (AKG) is a precursor of hydroxyproline--the most abundant amino acid in bone collagen."
PMID: 18415747
 
Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2007 Mar;77(2):89-97.
"Several studies have shown that alpha-ketoglutaric acid (AKG) increases serum levels of proline and has beneficial effects on skeletal development."
PMID: 17896582
 
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2010 Oct;94(5):e86-95.
PMID: 20487101
 
Good for skin:
 
Biol Pharm Bull. 2007 Aug;30(8):1395-9.
Alpha-ketoglutarate is a key intermediate in the Krebs cycle, and a rate-limiting cofactor of prolyl-4-hydroxylase. It also has a potent effect on increasing the proline pool during collagen production, but the details underlying the boosting effect on collagen production by alpha-ketoglutarate remain as yet unreported. To investigate the effects of alpha-ketoglutarate on procollagen production and wrinkle formation, we conducted experiments in cultured human dermal fibroblasts and UVB-irradiated hairless mice. Based on ELISA measurements, alpha-ketoglutarate (10 microM) stimulated procollagen production in fibroblasts by 25.6+/-4.6% compared to vehicle (dH(2)O)-treated control cells. Also, we demonstrated that alpha-ketoglutarate increased activities of prolidase, which is known to play an important role in collagen metabolism, in fibroblasts and N-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-proline (Cbz-Pro), prolidase inhibitor, inhibited procollagen synthesis by alpha-ketoglutarate in fibroblasts. To determine the effect of topically applied alpha-ketoglutarate on wrinkle formation, alpha-ketoglutarate (1%) and vehicle (70% propylene glycol, 30% ethanol) were applied on the dorsal skin of UVB-induced hairless mice for twelve weeks. We found that alpha-ketoglutarate decreased wrinkle formation upon long-term topical application. These results suggest that alpha-ketoglutarate diminishes UVB-induced wrinkle formation by increasing collagen production, through a pathway that involves prolidase activation. Therefore, application of alpha-ketoglutarate may represent an effective anti-wrinkle agent for the cosmetic field.
PMID: 17666792
 
Good for cataracts:
 
Varma SD, Hegde KR.
Exp Eye Res. 2004 Dec;79(6):913-8.
PMID: 15642329 
 
Jain RM, Bulakh PM.
Indian J Clin Biochem. 2003 Jan;18(1):91-5. doi: 10.1007/BF02867672.
PMID: 23105378
 
Atalay A, Ogus A, Bateman O, Slingsby C.
Biochimie. 1998 Apr;80(4):283-8.
PMID: 9672746 
 
Good for tendons:
 
Curr Med Res Opin. 2012 Nov;28(11):1767-74.
"Literature data indicate that each of the components present in a commercial supplement sold in Italy as Tenosan * (arginine L-alpha-ketoglutarate, methylsulfonylmethane, hydrolyzed type I collagen and bromelain) have a potential role in tendon healing and mitigating the pain due to tendonitis."
PMID: 23043451
 
Good for lipids:
 
Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2009;69(2):175-80. 
"The serum concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides in both the experimental groups receiving AKG decreased (days 60 to 120) (p<0.05), while the HDL concentration tended to increase. The body gain in all groups receiving AKG was significantly lower than in the control group. These observations clearly prove that oral treatment with AKG can decrease the risk of hypercholesterolaemia developing and can lower the body weight. The relative concentrations of the plasma LDL and HDL changed to a more favourable ratio promoting good health."
PMID: 18932049

 


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#4 Iporuru

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Posted 17 May 2014 - 02:55 PM

A word of caution:

http://www.ergo-log....o-boosters.html



#5 SearchingForAnswers

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Posted 17 September 2019 - 06:35 PM

Has anybody tried Alpha-Ketoglutarate?

 

I see this company advertising the product, but I can't find anecdotes of anybody taking it. Going by the name of rejuvant, and others, I believe.

 

It's quite expensive so I wouldn't want to try it without reading somebody elses' experience first.



#6 Oakman

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Posted 19 September 2019 - 01:07 AM

If you're speaking of Arginine Alpha Ketoglutarate (AAKG), then I do take that for its nitric oxide production potential, along with several other compounds. BTW, it's quite inexpensive, such as here.



#7 brosci

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Posted 19 September 2019 - 07:15 PM

I've been on the lookout for Glycine-AKG but haven't come across it.

 

https://www.ergo-log...supplement.html



#8 SearchingForAnswers

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Posted 15 October 2019 - 04:29 PM

The ingredient is listed as calcium alpha-ketoglutarate monohydrate.



#9 TMNMK

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Posted 16 October 2019 - 07:32 PM

I've been trying it out but not as the salt: https://www.longecit...ivate-autophagy (few posts down) both topically and by dissolving in water and drinking. Nothing shocking to report yet. It's pretty water soluble so I don't know what is the advantage of the calcium salt beyond perhaps stability or taste. Although there is  one paper that describes sodium vs calcium salt.



#10 TMNMK

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Posted 29 October 2019 - 01:19 AM

I'm stupefied as to how people are ignoring α-ketoglutarate here on this site (if you're google scholar-ing, it is the conjugate base of α-ketoglutaric acid, aka AKG sometimes written αKG or α-KG). There's a lot of very interesting literature on it, the more I dig the more I'm impressed. And it is super cheap, no need to buy it from that vendor mentioned above unless you dig fancy packaging or have issues with measuring dosage.

 

People, YO!

 

 

 

Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG), an endogenous intermediary metabolite in the Krebs cycle, is a molecule involved in multiple metabolic and cellular pathways. It functions as an energy donor, a precursor in the amino acid biosynthesis, a signalling molecule, as well as a regulator of epigenetic processes and cellular signalling via protein binding. AKG is an obligatory co-substrate for 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases, which catalyse hydroxylation reactions on various types of substrates. It regulates the activity of prolyl-4 hydroxylase, which controls the biosynthesis of collagen, a component of bone tissue. AKG also affects the functioning of prolyl hydroxylases, which, in turn, influences the function of the hypoxia-inducible factor, an important transcription factor in cancer development and progression. Additionally, it affects the functioning of enzymes that influence epigenetic modifications of chromatin: ten–eleven translocation hydroxylases involved in DNA demethylation and the Jumonji C domain containing lysine demethylases, which are the major histone demethylases. Thus, it regulates gene expression. The metabolic and extrametabolic function of AKG in cells and the organism open many different fields for therapeutic interventions for treatment of diseases. This review presents the results of studies conducted with the use of AKG in states of protein deficiency and oxidative stress conditions. It also discusses current knowledge about AKG as an immunomodulatory agent and a bone anabolic factor. Additionally, the regulatory role of AKG and its structural analogues in carcinogenesis as well as the results of studies of AKG as an anticancer agent are discussed.

 

 

 

Alpha-ketoglutarate is a precursor of glutamine which contributes to muscle repair, prevents protein catabolism, improves nitrogen retention, functions as an immunomodulatory molecule, and takes part in proper function of intestines. AKG is also involved in cell protection against oxidative stress and cyanide poisoning. It can also influence bone strength and density and inhibit carcinogenesis induced by oncometabolites or hypoxia by activating enzymes from the 2-OGDD family (2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases). Their action involves epigenetic regulation such as histone and DNA demethylation carried out by KDM 2–7 (Jumonji C domain containing lysine demethylases) and TET 1–3 (10–11 translocation hydroxylases), respectively, and non-epigenetic regulation, which includes activation of prolyl hydroxylases: P4H (prolyl 4-hydroxylase) involved in type I collagen biosynthesis and PHD2 (prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing protein 2) responsible for hydroxylation and thus inactivation of HIF-1α (hypoxia-inducible factor). Other cofactors for the 2-OGDD enzymes are Fe2+, O2, and ascorbate while their inhibitors known as oncometabolites include succinate, fumarate, and 2-HG (R(−)-2-hydroxyglutarate)

 

Also inhibits mTOR and has allowed some lucky mature mice (from what I've read) to date well out of their league.


Edited by TMNMK, 29 October 2019 - 02:07 AM.


#11 TMNMK

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Posted 29 October 2019 - 02:53 AM

Also, Alpha-ketoglutarate, an endogenous metabolite, extends lifespan and compresses morbidity in aging mice

 

So not just worms fortunately.


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#12 Oakman

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Posted 29 October 2019 - 01:38 PM

Amino Acid Alpha-Ketoglutarates are amino acids with an alpha-ketoglutaric acid (AKG) molecule attached. This AKG transport molecule helps the amino acid bypass the gut and enter the muscle cell directly giving you superior absorption. Unlike L- form amino acids, AKGs are shuttled directly to the muscle cells rather than being absorbed and used by the small intestines for nucleotide synthesis. This makes AKG aminos the perfect choice if your goal is building muscle, but maybe not the best choice if you have more generalized health goals. AKG drives the amino acid into muscle cells creating a pro-anabolic environment.

 

https://www.nutrabio.../aminoacid-akg/

 

This above seems to lead to using pure AKG rather than the protein or salt forms if interested in some of the additional benefits of AKG mentioned in TMNMK's link, rather than focusing on muscle. While not as popular as the other forms, pure AKG (example), is also fairly expensive vs. the other forms.


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#13 TMNMK

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Posted 29 October 2019 - 02:03 PM

Ah good info, thanks Oakman I wasn't entirely sure what the reason was for that combination. I purchased mine from a chemical supplier instead of a supplement maker so it was much cheaper. But that raises a very important point. It should not be recommended that people eat chemicals that are sent to them from a chemical supplier (not a supplement provider), so forgive me I'm going to walk back that statement entirely.

 

The good news is that once the supplement providers start getting calls for this, the price should drop. I purchased 100g for ~50 USD including shipping iirc (from a re-packager, not even from a direct supplier).


Edited by TMNMK, 29 October 2019 - 03:00 PM.


#14 Andey

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Posted 19 November 2019 - 01:09 PM

Looks like people using pure AKG with Deanna protocol for ALS.

 

https://www.simplesa...osing-Guide.pdf

One 300mg capsule every waking hour plus 9 gr of AAKG.

 



#15 TMNMK

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Posted 19 November 2019 - 02:02 PM

Nice find Andey, and in addition to arginine α-ketoglutarate (AAKG), indeed it looks like they also have the free α-ketoglutaric acid (α-KG) in a mixture with caprylic acid as part of that protocol also along with glutathione and some other things. I had not heard of this treatment for ALS.


Edited by TMNMK, 19 November 2019 - 02:02 PM.


#16 Andey

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Posted 19 November 2019 - 02:40 PM

Nice find Andey, and in addition to arginine α-ketoglutarate (AAKG), indeed it looks like they also have the free α-ketoglutaric acid (α-KG) in a mixture with caprylic acid as part of that protocol also along with glutathione and some other things. I had not heard of this treatment for ALS.

 

 am I right that this topic is about free α-ketoglutaric acid?

 

AAKG is abundant in bodybuilding and if it is substantially beneficial for longevity we would heard about it already. 

if I understand the study for this Deanna protocol correctly, they use AAKG at max dosage as it shown to increase AKG levels.

https://www.ncbi.nlm...les/PMC4111621/

Study that shows that "AAKG at max dosage as it shown to increase AKG levels" is not available though (reference #18)

 

Then in a human protocol they increase AKG levels even more with direct AKG. 


Edited by Andey, 19 November 2019 - 02:46 PM.


#17 TMNMK

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Posted 19 November 2019 - 02:56 PM

 am I right that this topic is about free α-ketoglutaric acid?

 

AAKG is abundant in bodybuilding and if it is substantially beneficial for longevity we would heard about it already. 

if I understand the study for this Deanna protocol correctly, they use AAKG at max dosage as it shown to increase AKG levels. Then they increase it even more with direct AKG.

https://www.ncbi.nlm...les/PMC4111621/

Study that shows that "AAKG at max dosage as it shown to increase AKG levels" is not available though (reference #18)

 

Well maybe that's for the OP but personally I'm open o discussing any formulation or salt. Different salts apparently have different results in the literature - calcium, disodium, etc. Also there's arginine, ornithine, and others I believe in the literature.

Going to have to research the Deanna protocol more, very interesting!


Edited by TMNMK, 19 November 2019 - 03:09 PM.


#18 mkp6019

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Posted 21 November 2019 - 01:27 PM

This newly packaged supplement is interesting but at $150 a month is quite the leap of faith IMO. I would be curious to see if one of you guys can nail down a cheaper formulation at the right dose and at  right price to make this worth experimenting with. I am tempted to try a 30 day trial and see if I feel anything beyond subtle.



#19 albedo

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Posted 23 January 2020 - 12:09 PM

There are new results being published (on mice models only), could not find info on different forms, probably in the reference list, sorry if  am overlooking. Tempted to try as several folks here ...

 

"...Interestingly, in humans plasma AKG levels decline 10 folds between the ages of 40 and 80 [28]. The molecule is not available in the human diet, making direct supplementation the only feasible route to restore levels. AKG has been used in human clinical studies linked to diseases without associated adverse effects [29-31]. More studies will be needed to determine whether chronic AKG consumption can affect other parameters of aging. Given its GRAS status and human safety record, our findings point to a potential safe human intervention that may impact important elements of aging and improve quality of life in the elderly population..."

  • AKG extends lifespan and decrease mortality
  • AKG treatment extends health span and alleviates age-associated frailty
  • Compression of morbidity by AKG treatment
  • AKG reduces inflammation and lowers the proinflammatory SASP without preventing the senescence growth arrest

Alpha-ketoglutarate, an endogenous metabolite, extends lifespan and compresses morbidity in aging mice

Azar Asadi Shahmirzadi, Daniel Edgar, Chen-Yu Liao, Yueh-Mei Hsu, Mark Lucanic, Arash Asadi Shahmirzadi, Christopher Wiley, Rebeccah Riley, Brian Kaplowitz, Garbo Gan, Chisaka Kuehnemann, Dipa Bhaumik, Judith Campisi, Brian K Kennedy, Gordon J. Lithgow

doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/779157


Edited by albedo, 23 January 2020 - 12:19 PM.

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#20 QuestforLife

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Posted 06 February 2020 - 10:31 AM

The ingredient is listed as calcium alpha-ketoglutarate monohydrate.

 

I believe the reason the Rejuvant guys are using the calcium salt (and also adding pure calcium to the supplement), is to make it slow release. You get a gram of the alpha-keto-glutarate salt and another 190mg of calcium. 

 

I'm not sure if you could say take more arginine with arginine-AKA and make it slower release,or take more, smaller doses of AAKA throughout the day to get the same effect as a slow release version.

 

If the early reported human anecdotes are true, its astonishing. The are so confident the supplement with reduce methylation age, they even supply a DNA methylation test with it. 

 

Might be hard to patent though (good for us).


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#21 QuestforLife

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Posted 07 February 2020 - 06:11 PM

I purchased this product, which is a mix of calcium and magnesium ketoglutarate. It should be as effective as the far more expensive Rejuvant.

Alpha-Ketoglutaric Acid 300 mg -... https://www.amazon.c...op_mob_ap_share

Free or reduced methylation age testing is available if you are a Longecity Member.
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#22 ta5

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Posted 08 February 2020 - 04:42 AM

Aside from AAKG and other products mentioned above...

 

PureBulk sells Glutamine AKG, and recently back in stock:

https://purebulk.com...a-ketoglutarate

 

JoMarLabs used to sell plain AKG, but it's been out of stock for a long time:

https://www.jomarlab...taric-acid.html

 

You used to be able to get Creatine AKG a few places. I haven't seen that for awhile either.

 

I posted some old studies here:

https://www.longecit...ndpost&p=663005

 


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#23 QuestforLife

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Posted 09 February 2020 - 01:40 PM

You get a gram of the alpha-keto-glutarate (calcium) salt and another 190mg of calcium.


Sorry this is wrong.Two calcium molecules are added to the AKG molecule and there is no other calcium.

Given other supplement manufacturers make this, I don't see how this is patentenable.

#24 Engadin

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Posted 01 July 2020 - 03:07 PM

.

 

 

 

 

 

S O U R C E :   Life Extension Advocacy Foundation (LEAF)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Today, we want to highlight a press release from Ponce de Leon Health that talks about the results of a pilot consumer trial that the company has recently concluded. The company claims that it has been successful in reducing the epigenetic age of participants by an average of 8.5 years with its dietary supplement Rejuvant.
 
Ponce de Leon Health initially worked with Dr. Brian Kennedy, who was, at the time, based at the Buck Institute for Research on Aging, searching for compounds that were generally recognized as safe (GRAS) but that had the potential to influence aging in mammals. The company screened over 300 GRAS compounds and identified compounds that could modulate a number of pathways that are linked to aging. These compounds affected the mTOR pathway, blocked the proinflammatory secretions made by senescent cells, affected genomic stability pathways, aided in ammonia detoxification, and supported protein homeostasis.
 
Dr. Kennedy subsequently joined Ponce de Leon Health as its Chief Scientific Officer, and the company has been busy testing and preparing to translate these findings to people. Its strategy has been to test its products on mammalian models that closely emulate human aging in order to give the best chance of translating beneficial results to us.
 
For the consumer testing discussed in this press release, the company gave participants Rejuvant and measured their epigenetic ages using DNA methylation testing. This supplement contains a proprietary form of calcium alpha-ketoglutarate, which the FDA considers to be GRAS. The company believes that Rejuvant works by slowing down the rate of age-related DNA methylation and reducing the inflammation caused by senescent cells, two proposed reasons why we age.

 

FERNANDINA BEACH, Fla., June 29, 2020 /PRNewswire/ — Ponce De Leon Health, Inc. (“Ponce de Leon”), a longevity company focused on reversing epigenetic aging, today announced the results of pilot research suggesting that Rejuvant® LifeTabs®, reduced the biological age of customers by an average of 8.5 years. The biological age was assessed by way of a DNA biomarker test that measures DNA methylation. Of the subjects in the analysis, two-thirds showed a statistically significant reduction in biological age. The analysis was based on data from subjects who had taken Rejuvant LifeTabs for a period of four to six months. Rejuvant, a dietary supplement, is Ponce de Leon’s first commercial product.
 
The data were independently compiled by Dr. Yelena Budovskaya, Ph.D., co-founder and lead scientist of TruMe Labs, a pioneer in the emerging field of epigenetic aging testing. Ponce de Leon is a distributor of TruMe’s TruAge Index, a take-at-home, non-invasive epigenetic age test. The subjects included in the analysis represent all 17 customers who had taken a TruAge test at the time of their first purchase of Rejuvant, as well as a second test after taking the supplement for four to six months. The TruAge Index measures DNA methylation, which is growing in acceptance by longevity researchers as an important biomarker of biological aging.
 
All formulations of LifeTabs contain the proprietary active ingredient LifeAKG™, which was shown in recent preclinical animal studies to increase lifespan (the length of life) and healthspan (the length of healthy life) in mammalian models. Ponce de Leon has eight patents pending for inventions arising from its research and development activities.
 
Ponce De Leon is currently enrolling participants for a larger, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, to be conducted at Indiana University Medical Center later this year.
 
The Company’s Chief Medical Officer, Francis R. Palmer, M.D., stated that “although at this stage we only have consumer data, these findings are very promising. We are only aware of one other published trial where researchers were able to show a reduction in biological age in humans as measured by DNA methylation. In this other trial, modest reductions in biological age were observed in a small number of subjects who were treated with a combination of prescription drugs for a year. The Rejuvant results are suggestive at this time but it showed a greater average reduction in biological age, achieved in six months, using non-prescription compounds.” Added Palmer, “we expect our human clinical trial results to corroborate the encouraging data we have now, and we believe this will have a meaningful impact on both the scientific and consumer communities.”
 
The Company’s CEO and Founder, Tom Weldon, commented “the pilot research data appears to be consistent with our earlier mammal results but we appreciate the need for a more robust study to validate this data on lifespan and healthspan research. We look forward to conducting that study later this year and adding to these positive findings. The potential for Rejuvant to reverse epigenetic aging, as measured by DNA methylation testing and other measurable biological markers, may profoundly benefit not only the individuals who take the product, but also the economies and societies in which they participate and live.”
 
 

 



#25 Engadin

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Posted 01 July 2020 - 06:45 PM

.

 

 

     Rejuvenant site

 

 

Attached File  REJUVANT.jpg   148.55KB   0 downloads

 

 

 

 

 

.



#26 RWhigham

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Posted 01 July 2020 - 07:13 PM

 Mouse study from Buck Institute  Alpha-ketoglutarate, an endogenous metabolite, extends lifespan and compresses morbidity in aging mice 


Edited by RWhigham, 01 July 2020 - 07:26 PM.


#27 rodentman

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Posted 01 July 2020 - 09:02 PM

 

 

The TruAge Index measures DNA methylation, which is growing in acceptance by longevity researchers as an important biomarker of biological aging.

 

I'm not sure I agree with this.  In the case of Horvaths 'GrimAge' test, yes, there is no question it has growing acceptance, and has extraordinarily evidence to back up it's accuracy.  
 
But with all the online epiginetic tests, they are not the same thing as the 'GrimAge' test.  They have their own 'mix/algorythm' and I've seen their results swing dramatically from month to month.  Also, the 'TruAge Index', is apparently administered by the company that makes 'Rejuvant'.

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#28 albedo

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Posted 21 July 2020 - 11:05 AM

Is there someone able to report some experience with AKG supplementation?



#29 aribadabar

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Posted 21 July 2020 - 03:11 PM

Is there someone able to report some experience with AKG supplementation?

 

Just started today - so at least a month before I can report anything definitive or lack thereof.


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#30 pamojja

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Posted 21 July 2020 - 05:09 PM

Does anbody know how much by weight AAKG and OAKG powders consist in AKG alone?







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