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Melatonin...is it really a good idea?


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#61 opales

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Posted 16 January 2007 - 11:05 AM

Don't know if anyone has seen this but here is quite extensive safety review on melatonin

http://www.iom.edu/O...onograph.v2.pdf

A. Summary
Melatonin, a substance normally produced in the human body, is a dietary supplement
available in the U.S. in a synthetic form. Upon stimulation by norepinephrine, pinealocytes
synthesize melatonin from serotonin. In humans, under normal circumstances, the synthesis of
melatonin has a circadian rhythm. The levels of endogenous melatonin can be decreased due to
various disease states or physiological conditions. It is common to find decreased levels of
melatonin in people with insomnia.
The literature on melatonin includes reports of adverse effects reported with human
melatonin use at 10 mg/day or less include central nervous system effects (somnolence,
headaches, increased frequency of seizures, nightmares), cardiovascular effects (hypotension or
hypertension), gastrointestinal effects (diarrhea, abdominal pain) and dermatologic effects. In
addition, melatonin use at higher doses (240-1,000 mg/day) in a small number of subjects was
associated with hormonal changes that were inconsistent among the different reports. This
summary explores the quality and other factors that may have contributed to the adverse events
of a serious nature.

The available data on melatonin safety in humans are based mostly on reports of studies with
small numbers of participants that were not designed to evaluate the safety of melatonin. The
monograph is based on 48 studies and reports of melatonin use in humans that included over one
thousand subjects (in the melatonin arms). The range of melatonin doses used in these studies is
wide, 0.1-1000 mg. These studies vary from one time ingestion of melatonin to 6 months of daily
ingestion. Many studies omit statements about adverse effects or state that no adverse effects
were observed without describing the safety parameters monitored. Moreover, there is
insufficient information on interactions of melatonin with drugs or other dietary supplements.
Most available studies were conducted with adults and little information is available in infants
and young children regarding adverse effects, specifically concerning possible melatonininduced
alterations of pubertal development. Likewise, there is no information on safety of
melatonin use in pregnant or lactating women.

The LD50 of melatonin in animal models (1-3 g/kg body weight for oral doses in rats and
mice) far exceeded the typical doses used as a dietary supplement in humans (0.5-10 mg/d). At a
dose of 20 mg/L in the drinking water, melatonin was associated with an increased rate of
spontaneous tumors in female CBA mice. However, more recent studies by the same group
showed the same amount of melatonin administered to female SHR mice had no effect on tumor
rate. Thus, the effect of melatonin on tumor incidence in mice has not be shown conclusively and
this area of investigation should continue to be monitored (this report did not focus on
understanding and interpreting these data, as limited resourses were instead focused on human
data). In addition, it has been well established that melatonin has significant effects on the
reproductive axis in animals (Reiter, 1991;Rivest, 1986). If similar effects occur in humans these
effects may be undesirable.

B. Conclusions and Recommendations about the Safety of the Ingredient Based on the
Strength of the Scientific Evidence

Based on the available data, it appears that short-term use of melatonin in a daily amount of
10 mg or less does not raise concern of harm for healthy adults who are not taking concurrent
medications or other dietary supplements.
The basis for each of these qualifications is explained
below. Long term use of melatonin increases the level of concern of harm because use of
melatonin for periods longer than a few weeks has not been documented except in a small
number of subjects or for therapeutic uses (e.g., entrainment of blind individuals). Use of
amounts of melatonin above 10 mg per day increases the level of concern because there are few
clinical studies using amounts in excess of 10 mg and serious adverse effects were observed in
some of these studies. Use of melatonin in populations other than healthy adults increases the
level of concern based in part on the observation that serious adverse effects reported at 10 mg or
less of melatonin per day generally occurred in humans with pre-existing medical or
psychological conditions that may have contributed to the ill effects. Specifically, concern of
harm exists for individuals with one or more of the following: 1) past or current depression;
2) cardiovascular problems; 3) seizure disorders; 4) immune system disorders; 5) chronic liver
disease; 6) chronic kidney disease; 7) predisposition to headaches especially migraine headaches;
and 8) concurrent use of anticonvulsant, sedative, hypnotic, or psychotropic medications. One
exception to the lack of concern of harm in healthy adults is that women attempting to become
pregnant should be aware that melatonin may affect reproductive function including possible
effects on hormone levels (Forsling et al., 1999; Ninomiya at al., 2001; Okatani et al., 1993;
Pawlikowski et al., 2002). Use of melatonin by children cannot be recommended without
supervision by a physician due to the lack of data available for individuals below the age of
18 years and possible effects on hormone levels (Forsling et al., 1999; Luboshitzky et al., 2002;
Ninomiya at al., 2001; Okatani et al., 1993; Pawlikowski et al., 2002; Valcavi et al., 1987).
Even among healthy adults caution about use of melatonin should be considered for:
1) individuals participating in functions that require alertness (e.g., operating a motor vehicle or
machinery), 2) lactating women, and 3) individuals ingesting medications or other dietary
supplements.

C. Unresolved Issues and Uncertainties in the Available Data

Uncertainty about potential for harm with the use of melatonin remains because of the
following factors:
• Human data are from very short-term and relatively short-term treatment studies that
were not designed to examine safety. Few studies included children.
• Many of the available studies in humans included small numbers of participants and vary
greatly in duration of treatment, from single dose to a few weeks or months.
• Only few investigators described systematic collection of adverse effects in clinical trials.
• There is uncertainty in the dose-response relationship for adverse effects.
• The risk of harm from doses greater than 10 mg/day is unknown.

D. Data Gaps and Future Research Recommended
• All future clinical trials should include systematic collection and evaluation of adverse
effects.
• Dose-dependent safety studies in adults and children are needed. These studies should
include investigations of the potential for harm in individuals taking more than 10 mg of
melatonin per day.
• The literature should continue to be monitored for signs of melatonin effects on tumors
and testes.
• The long-term safety of melatonin use in adults and children needs further study. These
studies should include close monitoring of individuals with cardiovascular disease,
specifically hypotension.
• More information is needed concerning possible interactions between melatonin and
drugs, particularly various cardiovascular, psychotropic, and anticonvulsant drugs.



#62 Athanasios

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Posted 16 January 2007 - 04:25 PM

does not raise concern of harm for healthy adults who are not taking concurrent
medications or other dietary supplements.


That part reads like the legal disclaimer in a SEC filing.

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#63 FunkOdyssey

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Posted 16 January 2007 - 04:31 PM

Connecting some endocrinological dots for fun:

Melatonin administration alters semen quality in healthy men.

    * Luboshitzky R,
    * Shen-Orr Z,
    * Nave R,
    * Lavi S,
    * Lavie P.

Department of Endocrinology, Haemek Medical Center, Afula, Israel. luboshitzky_r@clalit.org.il

The role of melatonin in the regulation of reproduction in humans is unknown. We conducted a 6-month, double-blind, crossover study of a daily treatment dose of 3 mg melatonin or placebo given orally at 1700 hours in 8 healthy men. Semen quality (concentration, motility, and morphology), serum and seminal plasma 17-beta-estradiol (E(2)), testosterone, melatonin, and serum gonadotropin levels were determined every 3 months throughout the study. In 6 men, there was no change in semen quality or in serum and seminal plasma hormone levels during the study period. In 2 men, during the melatonin treatment period, sperm concentration decreased to 3 x 10(6)/mL and 12 x 10(6)/mL, and motility declined to 32% and 30%. These coincided with a decline in seminal plasma and serum E(2) levels and with an increase in testosterone:E(2) ratios. Six months after the cessation of melatonin, sperm concentration and motility were normal in 1 man but remained abnormal in the other one with a still elevated testosterone:E(2) ratio. Serum gonadotropin levels were unchanged during the study in all 8 men. Our preliminary observations suggest that long-term melatonin administration is associated with decreased semen quality in a number of healthy men, probably through the inhibition of aromatase at the testicular level.

PMID: 12065466 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


I don't know how they reached such a bold conclusion with such a small number of men, but its still interesting. Could declining melatonin levels (and correspondingly increased testicular aromatase) be the cause of elevated estrogen in middle-aged and older men?

#64 FunkOdyssey

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Posted 16 January 2007 - 04:42 PM

Maybe not, if melatonin levels don't decline with age:

Am J Med. 1999 Nov;107(5):432-6.Click here to read  Links

    Comment in:
        Am J Med. 2000 Sep;109(4):343-5.

    Do plasma melatonin concentrations decline with age?

        * Zeitzer JM,
        * Daniels JE,
        * Duffy JF,
        * Klerman EB,
        * Shanahan TL,
        * Dijk DJ,
        * Czeisler CA.

    Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    PURPOSE: Numerous reports that secretion of the putative sleep-promoting hormone melatonin declines with age have led to suggestions that melatonin replacement therapy be used to treat sleep problems in older patients. We sought to reassess whether the endogenous circadian rhythm of plasma melatonin concentration changes with age in healthy drug-free adults. METHODS: We analyzed the amplitude of plasma melatonin profiles during a constant routine in 34 healthy drug-free older subjects (20 women and 14 men, aged 65 to 81 years) and compared them with 98 healthy drug-free young men (aged 18 to 30 years). RESULTS: We could detect no significant difference between a healthy and drug-free group of older men and women as compared to one of young men in the endogenous circadian amplitude of the plasma melatonin rhythm, as described by mean 24-hour average melatonin concentration (70 pmol/liter vs 73 pmol/liter, P = 0.97), or the duration (9.3 hours vs 9.1 hours, P = 0.43), mean (162 pmol/liter vs 161 pmol/liter, P = 0.63), or integrated area (85,800 pmol x min/liter vs 86,700 pmol x min/liter, P = 0.66) of the nocturnal peak of plasma melatonin. CONCLUSION: These results do not support the hypothesis that reduction of plasma melatonin concentration is a general characteristic of healthy aging. Should melatonin replacement therapy or melatonin supplementation prove to be clinically useful, we recommend that an assessment of endogenous melatonin be carried out before such treatment is used in older patients.

    PMID: 10569297 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Hmm...

#65 FunkOdyssey

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Posted 16 January 2007 - 08:29 PM

Admittedly, this study is looking at the effects of melatonin on jet lag, but the results regarding optimal dose and formulation are surprising:

Chronobiol Int. 1998 Nov;15(6):655-66.

Comparative study to determine the optimal melatonin dosage form for the alleviation of jet lag.

        * Suhner A,
        * Schlagenhauf P,
        * Johnson R,
        * Tschopp A,
        * Steffen R.

    University of Zurich Travel Clinic, Switzerland. asuhner@ifspm.unizh.ch

    To compare the impact of various dosage forms of melatonin and placebo on jet lag symptoms, 320 volunteers who had flights over 6 to 8 time zones were recruited for a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. The volunteers received either melatonin 0.5-mg fast-release (FR) formulation, melatonin 5-mg FR formulation, melatonin 2-mg controlled-release (CR) formulation, or placebo. The study medication was taken once daily at bedtime during 4 days after an eastward flight. The volunteers completed the Profile of Mood States (POMS), sleep log, and symptoms questionnaires once daily and the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) three times daily prior to departure and during the 4 days of medication intake postflight. A total of 234 (73.1%) participants were compliant and completed the study. The FR melatonin formulations were more effective than the slow-release formulation. The 5-mg FR formulation significantly improved the self-rated sleep quality (p < .05), shortened sleep latency (p < .05), and reduced fatigue and daytime sleepiness (p < .05) after intercontinental flight. The lower physiological dose of 0.5 mg was almost as effective as the pharmacological dose of 5.0 mg. Only the hypnotic properties of melatonin, sleep quality and sleep latency, were significantly greater with the 5.0-mg dose.

    PMID: 9844753 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



#66 ora101

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Posted 17 January 2007 - 09:21 AM

Instead of taking melatonin directly, couldn't you

a) take L-Tryptophan before bed (melatonin is synthesized from L-Tryptophan)
or
b) take Methyl-B12, which normalizes and resets the circadian rhythmn

#67 FunkOdyssey

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Posted 17 January 2007 - 04:02 PM

Scientists pinpoint dosage of melatonin for insomnia

Deborah Halber, News Office
October 17, 2001

MIT researchers reported in the October issue of the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism that doses of melatonin, a pineal hormone that is secreted by humans at night, can help older adult insomniacs obtain a good night's sleep.

During the study, Richard Wurtman, the Cecil H. Green Distinguished Professor and program director of the Clinical Research Center, and other MIT researchers examined the ability of similar doses to restore nighttime melatonin levels and sleep efficiency in adults over age 50.

Two groups of subjects were involved in the study--one group who slept normally and another who experienced insomnia. Each subject received one-week doses of either a placebo or three different doses of melatonin in randomized order. Each different treatment was separated by a one-week "wash-out period."

"According to our research, the physiological dose of melatonin of about 0.3 milligrams restores sleep in adults over the age of 50," said Wurtman, lead investigator in the study. "The adults who would normally wake up during the second and third thirds of the night were able to sleep through the night with the 0.3 milligram dosage."

The researchers also discovered that the typical health food store dosage of melatonin, which is about three milligrams (or 10 times the dosage in the study), is less effective in treating insomnia. In addition, the higher dosage can cause potentially serious side effects, including hypothermia (low body temperature). The study also showed that the higher dosage elevated plasma melatonin levels during the day, which can cause a "hangover" effect in some of the subjects.

"Our study has shown that less is more as far as melatonin is concerned," Wurtman said.
"Adult patients who suffer from insomnia and are considering melatonin should consult with their doctor about the appropriate dosage. We have demonstrated that with the correct dosage, melatonin can help an older person experience a restful and uninterrupted night of sleep."

Melatonin is produced by the pineal gland and is often called the "hormone of darkness" because it is secreted in humans and other species only at night. The hormone, whose function has puzzled researchers for centuries, may affect all sorts of circadian and seasonal body rhythms, such as day-night variations in body temperature and the onset of puberty. Melatonin has been shown to help "reset" the body's internal clock in blind people, those suffering from jet lag, and shift workers who work nights and sleep during the day.

The MIT scientists, who included Irina Zhdanova, former principal research scientist in the Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, also showed that low doses of melatonin affect sleep in young individuals and can help children with a debilitating neurological disorder called Angelman syndrome to sleep though the night.

The researchers were the first to report that nonhuman primates, whose sleep cycles and melatonin levels are similar to humans', are sensitive to the sleep-promoting effects of melatonin. Such animal models will allow researchers to study the mechanisms of melatonin's action on sleep and to uncover possible benefits or complications that may result from long-term use of the hormone.

This work was funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Center for Brain Sciences and Metabolism Charitable Trust.

A version of this article appeared in MIT Tech Talk on October 17, 2001.


One thing to keep in mind is that even though melatonin has a short half-life, a dose of 300mcg represents the body's phsyiological peak which is roughly 10x higher than other parts of the day. So if you take a dose that is 10x higher than that, or 100x the amount that should be present during the day, it is still going to be substantially elevated in the morning even with a half-life of 45min.

#68 zoolander

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Posted 17 January 2007 - 04:09 PM

agreed but taking 10mgs feels so much better ;)

#69 Athanasios

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Posted 17 January 2007 - 05:14 PM

"Our study has shown that less is more as far as melatonin is concerned," Wurtman said.


Depends if you are only using it for sleep or for its other properties as well.

#70 zoolander

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Posted 17 January 2007 - 05:36 PM

Depends if you are only using it for sleep or for its other properties as well.


such as reading minds?

I was thinking the same thing Chris!

#71 ora101

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Posted 18 January 2007 - 08:41 AM

Re: M-B12 and sleep

Found this perusing LEF

Sleep
A study in the journal Experientia (1992 Aug;48[8]:716-720) indicates that those taking methylcobalamin also might want to take melatonin. In the study, it was detailed how nine healthy humans were given 3 mg of methylcobalamin a day for four weeks.

Among the results, it was found that melatonin levels were significantly lower in the group receiving methylcobalamin compared with placebo, although methylcobalamin did not adversely effect sleep patterns. On the contrary, previous reports of experiments show that vitamin B12 improves sleep patterns.

The Life Extension Foundation suggests that those taking methylcobalamin take at least 500 micrograms (½ mg) of melatonin at bedtime. In addition to its sleep-enhancing capabilities, melatonin has shown potent anti-cancer and immune-enhancing benefits.

A more recent German study appearing in Neuropharmacology (15[5]:456-464, 1996) showed that while methylcobalamin reduced the amount of time subjects slept, that sleep quality was better and subjects awoke feeling refreshed, and with better alertness and concentration. Part of this effect was apparently due to melatonin suppression during the daytime because methylcobalamin reduced drowsiness.

Most of the scientific studies cited in this article were conducted in Japan. Americans need to know about this important natural therapy that could extend the healthy human life span. A search of the scientific literature reveals 334 published studies on methylcobalamin. However, it would not be an exageration to say that virtually no American doctors know of it or are recommending it.



#72 jamfropsi

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Posted 25 January 2007 - 08:35 AM

Would it be a bad idea to use Melatonin and St. John's Wort?

#73 maestro949

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Posted 25 January 2007 - 10:13 AM

Here's what the NIH says on Melatonin:

Melatonin

This hormone is made by the pineal gland, a structure in the brain. Contrary to the claims of some, secretion of melatonin does not necessarily decrease with age. Instead, a number of factors, including light and many common medications, can affect melatonin secretion in people of any age.

Melatonin supplements can be bought without a prescription. Some people claim that melatonin is an anti-aging remedy, a sleep remedy, and an antioxidant (antioxidants protect against free radicals, which are naturally occurring oxygen-related molecules that cause damage to the body). Early test-tube studies suggested that, in large doses, melatonin might be effective against free radicals. However, cells produce antioxidants naturally, and in test-tube experiments, cells reduce the amount they make when they are exposed to additional antioxidants.

Claims that melatonin can slow or reverse aging are very far from proven. Studies of melatonin have been much too limited to support these claims and have focused on animals, not people.

Research on sleep shows that melatonin plays a role in our daily sleep/wake cycle, and that supplements, in amounts ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 milligrams, can improve sleep in some cases. If melatonin is taken at the wrong time, though, it can disrupt the sleep/wake cycle. Other side effects may include confusion, drowsiness, and headache the next morning. Animal studies suggest that melatonin may cause some blood vessels to constrict, a condition that could be dangerous for people with high blood pressure or other cardiovascular problems.

These side effects are important to keep in mind since the dose of melatonin usually sold in stores—3 milligrams—can result in amounts in the blood from 10 to 40 times higher than normal. What long-term effects such high concentrations of melatonin may have on the body are still unknown. Until researchers find out more, caution is advised.


Not that it's going to stop me from taking it but that's the first time I had heard about blood vessel constriction. After looking for more info on this it doesn't seem like too much of a concern...


"Melatonin supplements can hinder nervous system responses that enable the body to compensate for the drop in blood pressure when a person moves from a seated to standing position..."


Not something I plan on doing while the melatonin is coursing my veins.

#74 shadowrun

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Posted 25 January 2007 - 05:13 PM

I've noticed .5 mg works perfectly for me - It seems from all my research that while 1 - 0.5 mg - a few nights a week may be conservative - its safest and imparts the most benefits

#75 Athanasios

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Posted 25 January 2007 - 05:22 PM

I've noticed .5 mg works perfectly for me - It seems from all my research that while 1 - 0.5 mg - a few nights a week may be conservative - its safest and imparts the most benefits


Do you consider the hypothermic property a benefit? This question is to everyone.

#76 chris_h

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Posted 08 March 2007 - 06:39 PM

I usually have troubles falling asleep. And after I finally fall asleep, I sleep long (9-10 hours), and feel tired for about a half hour after I wake up.

I have recently tried taking 3mg melatonin a few times. It helps me fall asleep quickly, and I wake up and feel fully rested after only 5-8 hours. Is this reduction in sleep duration consistent with other's experiences with melatonin? Should I consider it desirable?

#77 tintinet

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Posted 08 March 2007 - 07:47 PM

I've been taking melatonin so long, not sure what sleep is like without it!

But some recent clinical study showed 0.3mg to be as effective as mg and greater
doses, FWIW.

Your experience may be idiosyncratic or temporary, but if it works, go with it!

#78 lhobbs1

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Posted 10 March 2007 - 05:07 PM

After reading Dr Al Sears article online, I started taking .38 mg a half hour before bed and it works fine for me. He says if you take 3 mg every day the effect on sleep diminishes after a while. He suggests cutting a 3 mg. tablet into 10 pieces. I have divided mine in 8 because it is easier, thus the odd amount.

#79 tintinet

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Posted 10 March 2007 - 09:10 PM

Got a citation for the tacyphylaxis claim? Not that I don't believe it, but appeal to authority (Dr. Who?) only really works for me (not that it should) when I know the authority and have been impressed they really are one.

And, at first glance, I'm not too taken with the demand for personal info.

#80 EmbraceUnity

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Posted 12 March 2007 - 03:59 PM

I've noticed .5 mg works perfectly for me - It seems from all my research that while 1 - 0.5 mg - a few nights a week may be conservative - its safest and imparts the most benefits


Do you consider the hypothermic property a benefit? This question is to everyone.


Do you mean hyperthymic property? or does melatonin make you really really cold? I haven't noticed either effect, just better sleep and more vivid dreams.

#81 zoolander

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Posted 12 March 2007 - 04:30 PM

The lowering of core body temperature (hypothermia) by melatonin supplementation has been said to "play a critical role in the circadian phase shifting and hypnogenic actions". So, if we are talking about the sleep benefits then the hypothermic effect of melatonin supplementation would most definiately be beneficial. It would not be beneficial if one planned to stay awake because melatonin tends to place you in a hypnotic state. This obviously makes motor activity difficult.

Clin Neuropharmacol. 2001 Nov-Dec;24(6):334-40.

    Hypothermic action of exogenously administered melatonin is dose-dependent in humans.

        * Satoh K,
        * Mishima K.

    Department of Neuropsychiatry, Akita University School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita-city, Akita, 010-8543, Japan.

    The pineal hormone melatonin (MLT) is closely related to sleep initiation and maintenance in humans, and is now used as a potent therapeutic tool for some circadian rhythm sleep disorders. Acute and transient hypothermia induced by exogenously administered MLT (ex-MLT) may play a critical role in the circadian phase shifting and hypnogenic actions. Six healthy young male volunteers (mean age, 22.5 y; age range, 19-24 y), whose endogenous MLT secretion rhythms were previously assessed, took either 0.5 mg, 3 mg, or 9 mg of ex-MLT or a placebo at 0930 h (the average sleep onset time was 0000 h) on a randomized, single-blind, crossover basis. In comparison with placebo, ex-MLT significantly suppressed core body temperature at the 3-mg and 9-mg doses and slightly suppressed core body temperature at the 0.5-mg dose. There was significant positive correlation between the magnitude of core body temperature suppression and the area under the MLT concentration curve as well as the peak MLT concentration after ex-MLT administration. Our study showed that clinical doses of ex-MLT induce hypothermia in a dose-dependent manner. Results suggest that the therapeutic effect of larger doses of ex-MLT should be tested on patients who benefit little from typically lower clinical doses of ex-MLT.

    PMID: 11801808 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Let's think about it. Just from my own observations....when I'm cold in the evening I often feel tired. The opposite is also true. If it's hot or warm in the evening or if I get warm I often wake up. So it appears that hypo/hyperthermia or the how cold or warm you are play an imprtant role in the sleep wake cycle. This makes sense. Because an increase in metabolic activity will increase the bodies core temperature. An increase in metabolic activity means you are more awake and visa versa. Is this making sense? I'm just freestyling here.

#82 lucid

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Posted 12 March 2007 - 04:41 PM

http://www.alsearsmd...p...&sword_list

This guy looks like a used car salesman and there is a popup window that won't go away asking for my email... Please paste text in post before leading us to a trash website ;) thanks.

#83 zoolander

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Posted 12 March 2007 - 04:46 PM

Link deleted.

If people wish to try the quoted link do so at your own risk.

#84 Athanasios

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Posted 12 March 2007 - 04:49 PM

The lowering of core body temperature (hypothermia) by melatonin supplementation has been said to "play a critical role in the circadian phase shifting and hypnogenic actions". So, if we are talking about the sleep benefits then the hypothermic effect of melatonin supplementation would most definiately be beneficial. It would not be beneficial if one planned to stay awake because melatonin tends to place you in a hypnotic state. This obviously makes motor activity difficult.


Yeah, that is what I have seen data pointing to as well. That is why I thought this study was an interesting view of dosage:

At the lower doses (.1 and .5mg) the mean drop in CT was between 0.05 and 0.15 degrees C and took between 2 and 3 hr. At the higher doses (1.0 and 5.0 mg), CT fell by 0.25-0.3 degrees C within 30-60 min following ingestion and at the highest dose (5 mg) remained suppressed for the duration of the study. While the magnitude and duration of the drop increased in what appeared to be a dose-dependent manner, it is unlikely that this relationship reflects a simple dose-response curve. There was considerable variability in plasma profiles following administration, particularly at the two lowest doses (0.1 and 0.5 mg). The lower mean drop in CT probably reflects the lower proportion of subjects achieving physiological plasma levels, and therefore a hypothermic effect, at the two lowest doses. If melatonin is to be used to improve sleep onset and maintenance by lowering CT, doses between 1.0 and 5.0 mg appear to be the lowest that produce a consistent drop in CT across all subjects.

    PMID: 8836952 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


I want 1mg or higher, but am not convinced at using it at as high of a dosage as 5mg. Still digging for information from time to time on this supplement. [thumb]

#85 lucid

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Posted 12 March 2007 - 05:01 PM

Here is a brief summary of all of the benifits of melatonin mentioned on this forum and on wikipedia (go to wiki if you want citations)
Roles of Melatonin:
1. Sleep regulator (Take an hour before bed to have a much better sleep)
2. Anti-Oxidant (one of the better anti-oxidants out there)
3. Anti-Alzheimer's (prevents some Alzheimer's brain damage)
4. Immune system booster (Increases T-Blood cell count when taken in conjunction with calcium)
5*. May help with obesity
I don't know what the dosages are for the non-sleep benifits, but If no one else cares to look them up then I will when I get the time.

#86 zoolander

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Posted 12 March 2007 - 05:12 PM

Functions of melatonin not mentioned

6. Female contraceptive

7. treatment for GI disturbances

8. Anti-carconogenic

I seperated the various claims in the abstract below to make it easier to read.

Biol Signals Recept. 1998 Jul-Aug;7(4):195-219.Click here to read  Links
    Prospects of the clinical utilization of melatonin.

        * Bubenik GA,
        * Blask DE,
        * Brown GM,
        * Maestroni GJ,
        * Pang SF,
        * Reiter RJ,
        * Viswanathan M,
        * Zisapel N.

    Department of Zoology, University of Guelph, Ont., Canada. gbubenik@uoguelph.ca

    This review summarizes the present knowledge on melatonin in several areas on physiology and discusses various prospects of its clinical utilization. 

Ever increasing evidence indicates that melatonin has an immuno-hematopoietic role. In animal studies, melatonin provided protection against gram-negative septic shock, prevented stress-induced immunodepression, and restored immune function after a hemorrhagic shock. In human studies, melatonin amplified the antitumoral activity of interleukin-2.

Melatonin has been proven as a powerful cytostatic drug in vitro as well as in vivo. In the human clinical field, melatonin appears to be a promising agent either as a diagnostic or prognostic marker of neoplastic diseases or as a compound used either alone or in combination with the standard cancer treatment.

Utilization of melatonin for treatment of rhythm disorders, such as those manifested in jet lag, shift work or blindness, is one of the oldest and the most successful clinical application of this chemical. Low doses of melatonin applied in controlled-release preparation were very effective in improving the sleep latency, increasing the sleep efficiency and rising sleep quality scores in elderly, melatonin-deficient insomniacs.

In the cardiovascular system, melatonin seems to regulate the tone of cerebral arteries; melatonin receptors in vascular beds appear to participate in the regulation of body temperature. Heat loss may be the principal mechanism in the initiation of sleepiness caused by melatonin.

The role of melatonin in the development of migraine headaches is at present uncertain but more research could result in new ways of treatment.

Melatonin is the major messenger of light-dependent periodicity, implicated in the seasonal reproduction of animals and pubertal development in humans. Multiple receptor sites detected in brain and gonadal tissues of birds and mammals of both sexes indicate that melatonin exerts a direct effect on the vertebrate reproductive organs. In a clinical study, melatonin has been used successfully as an effective female contraceptive with little side effects.

Melatonin is one of the most powerful scavengers of free radicals. Because it easily penetrates the blood-brain barrier, this antioxidant may, in the future, be used for the treatment of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, stroke, nitric oxide, neurotoxicity and hyperbaric oxygen exposure.

In the digestive tract, melatonin reduced the incidence and severity of gastric ulcers and prevented severe symptoms of colitis, such as mucosal lesions and diarrhea.


    PMID: 9730580 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



#87 lhobbs1

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Posted 12 March 2007 - 07:12 PM

Lucid,
My apologies to you for the "trash" link. I happen to like this guy's ideas and thought you and others might learn something from the site since the article deals with melatonin. There is nothing there compelling you to give your email or read it.
(Some people on this site seem to be hypercritical and suspicious).
Zoolander, please delete that obnoxious movie loop on your submissions while your at it.

#88 maxwatt

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Posted 12 March 2007 - 07:14 PM

Lucid,
My apologies to you for the "trash" link. I happen to like this guy's ideas and thought you and others might learn something from the site since the article deals with melatonin. There is nothing there compelling you to give your email or read it.
(Some people on this site seem to be hypercritical and  suspicious).
Zoolander, please delete that obnoxious movie loop on your submissions while your at it.


If you use Firefox, right click on the annoying image, and you have the option of blocking it. This does wonders for my peace of mind, so I can read the actual content of Zoolander's excellent posts.

#89 lhobbs1

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Posted 12 March 2007 - 07:18 PM

I once saw a delete button for removing unwanted posts, now I can't find it. Anybody tell me where the hell it is?

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#90 curious_sle

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Posted 12 March 2007 - 07:18 PM

Zoolander, please delete that obnoxious movie loop on your submissions while your at it.


I'd like to second that ;)




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