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Exercise and Cognition


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Poll: Do you exercise? (219 member(s) have cast votes)

Which descibes you?

  1. You exercise and take nootropics. (162 votes [73.97%])

    Percentage of vote: 73.97%

  2. You exercise, but do not take nootropics. (26 votes [11.87%])

    Percentage of vote: 11.87%

  3. You take nootropics, but do not exercise. (24 votes [10.96%])

    Percentage of vote: 10.96%

  4. You do not exercise and do not take nootropics. (7 votes [3.20%])

    Percentage of vote: 3.20%

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#1 Rags847

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Posted 22 November 2009 - 09:52 AM


http://well.blogs.ny...ess-anxious/?em

NOVEMBER 18, 2009, 12:01 AM

Phys Ed: Why Exercise Makes You Less Anxious

By GRETCHEN REYNOLDS

Researchers at Princeton University recently made a remarkable discovery about the brains of rats that exercise. Some of their neurons respond differently to stress than the neurons of slothful rats. Scientists have known for some time that exercise stimulates the creation of new brain cells (neurons) but not how, precisely, these neurons might be functionally different from other brain cells.

In the experiment, preliminary results of which were presented last month at the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience in Chicago, scientists allowed one group of rats to run. Another set of rodents was not allowed to exercise. Then all of the rats swam in cold water, which they don’t like to do. Afterward, the scientists examined the animals’ brains. They found that the stress of the swimming activated neurons in all of the brains. (The researchers could tell which neurons were activated because the cells expressed specific genes in response to the stress.) But the youngest brain cells in the running rats, the cells that the scientists assumed were created by running, were less likely to express the genes. They generally remained quiet. The “cells born from running,” the researchers concluded, appeared to have been “specifically buffered from exposure to a stressful experience.” The rats had created, through running, a brain that seemed biochemically, molecularly, calm.

For years, both in popular imagination and in scientific circles, it has been a given that exercise enhances mood. But how exercise, a physiological activity, might directly affect mood and anxiety — psychological states — was unclear. Now, thanks in no small part to improved research techniques and a growing understanding of the biochemistry and the genetics of thought itself, scientists are beginning to tease out how exercise remodels the brain, making it more resistant to stress. In work undertaken at the University of Colorado, Boulder, for instance, scientists have examined the role of serotonin, a neurotransmitter often considered to be the “happy” brain chemical. That simplistic view of serotonin has been undermined by other researchers, and the University of Colorado work further dilutes the idea. In those experiments, rats taught to feel helpless and anxious, by being exposed to a laboratory stressor, showed increased serotonin activity in their brains. But rats that had run for several weeks before being stressed showed less serotonin activity and were less anxious and helpless despite the stress.

Other researchers have looked at how exercise alters the activity of dopamine, another neurotransmitter in the brain, while still others have concentrated on the antioxidant powers of moderate exercise. Anxiety in rodents and people has been linked with excessive oxidative stress, which can lead to cell death, including in the brain. Moderate exercise, though, appears to dampen the effects of oxidative stress. In an experiment led by researchers at the University of Houston and reported at the Society for Neuroscience meeting, rats whose oxidative-stress levels had been artificially increased with injections of certain chemicals were extremely anxious when faced with unfamiliar terrain during laboratory testing. But rats that had exercised, even if they had received the oxidizing chemical, were relatively nonchalant under stress. When placed in the unfamiliar space, they didn’t run for dark corners and hide, like the unexercised rats. They insouciantly explored.


“It looks more and more like the positive stress of exercise prepares cells and structures and pathways within the brain so that they’re more equipped to handle stress in other forms
,” says Michael Hopkins, a graduate student affiliated with the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory Laboratory at Dartmouth, who has been studying how exercise differently affects thinking and emotion. “It’s pretty amazing, really, that you can get this translation from the realm of purely physical stresses to the realm of psychological stressors.”

The stress-reducing changes wrought by exercise on the brain don’t happen overnight, however, as virtually every researcher agrees. In the University of Colorado experiments, for instance, rats that ran for only three weeks did not show much reduction in stress-induced anxiety, but those that ran for at least six weeks did. “Something happened between three and six weeks,” says Benjamin Greenwood, a research associate in the Department of Integrative Physiology at the University of Colorado, who helped conduct the experiments. Dr. Greenwood added that it was “not clear how that translates” into an exercise prescription for humans. We may require more weeks of working out, or maybe less. And no one has yet studied how intense the exercise needs to be. But the lesson, Dr. Greenwood says, is “don’t quit.” Keep running or cycling or swimming. (Animal experiments have focused exclusively on aerobic, endurance-type activities.) You may not feel a magical reduction of stress after your first jog, if you haven’t been exercising. But the molecular biochemical changes will begin, Dr. Greenwood says. And eventually, he says, they become “profound.”

Edited by Rags847, 22 November 2009 - 10:05 AM.

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#2 brotherx

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Posted 22 November 2009 - 10:49 AM

Interesting article! Thanks for sharing!
And I can confirm it - after a long day at the office - exercise totally relaxed me!

Cheers

Alex

http://well.blogs.ny...ess-anxious/?em

NOVEMBER 18, 2009, 12:01 AM

Phys Ed: Why Exercise Makes You Less Anxious

By GRETCHEN REYNOLDS

Researchers at Princeton University recently made a remarkable discovery about the brains of rats that exercise. Some of their neurons respond differently to stress than the neurons of slothful rats. Scientists have known for some time that exercise stimulates the creation of new brain cells (neurons) but not how, precisely, these neurons might be functionally different from other brain cells.

In the experiment, preliminary results of which were presented last month at the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience in Chicago, scientists allowed one group of rats to run. Another set of rodents was not allowed to exercise. Then all of the rats swam in cold water, which they don’t like to do. Afterward, the scientists examined the animals’ brains. They found that the stress of the swimming activated neurons in all of the brains. (The researchers could tell which neurons were activated because the cells expressed specific genes in response to the stress.) But the youngest brain cells in the running rats, the cells that the scientists assumed were created by running, were less likely to express the genes. They generally remained quiet. The “cells born from running,” the researchers concluded, appeared to have been “specifically buffered from exposure to a stressful experience.” The rats had created, through running, a brain that seemed biochemically, molecularly, calm.

For years, both in popular imagination and in scientific circles, it has been a given that exercise enhances mood. But how exercise, a physiological activity, might directly affect mood and anxiety — psychological states — was unclear. Now, thanks in no small part to improved research techniques and a growing understanding of the biochemistry and the genetics of thought itself, scientists are beginning to tease out how exercise remodels the brain, making it more resistant to stress. In work undertaken at the University of Colorado, Boulder, for instance, scientists have examined the role of serotonin, a neurotransmitter often considered to be the “happy” brain chemical. That simplistic view of serotonin has been undermined by other researchers, and the University of Colorado work further dilutes the idea. In those experiments, rats taught to feel helpless and anxious, by being exposed to a laboratory stressor, showed increased serotonin activity in their brains. But rats that had run for several weeks before being stressed showed less serotonin activity and were less anxious and helpless despite the stress.

Other researchers have looked at how exercise alters the activity of dopamine, another neurotransmitter in the brain, while still others have concentrated on the antioxidant powers of moderate exercise. Anxiety in rodents and people has been linked with excessive oxidative stress, which can lead to cell death, including in the brain. Moderate exercise, though, appears to dampen the effects of oxidative stress. In an experiment led by researchers at the University of Houston and reported at the Society for Neuroscience meeting, rats whose oxidative-stress levels had been artificially increased with injections of certain chemicals were extremely anxious when faced with unfamiliar terrain during laboratory testing. But rats that had exercised, even if they had received the oxidizing chemical, were relatively nonchalant under stress. When placed in the unfamiliar space, they didn’t run for dark corners and hide, like the unexercised rats. They insouciantly explored.


“It looks more and more like the positive stress of exercise prepares cells and structures and pathways within the brain so that they’re more equipped to handle stress in other forms
,” says Michael Hopkins, a graduate student affiliated with the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory Laboratory at Dartmouth, who has been studying how exercise differently affects thinking and emotion. “It’s pretty amazing, really, that you can get this translation from the realm of purely physical stresses to the realm of psychological stressors.”

The stress-reducing changes wrought by exercise on the brain don’t happen overnight, however, as virtually every researcher agrees. In the University of Colorado experiments, for instance, rats that ran for only three weeks did not show much reduction in stress-induced anxiety, but those that ran for at least six weeks did. “Something happened between three and six weeks,” says Benjamin Greenwood, a research associate in the Department of Integrative Physiology at the University of Colorado, who helped conduct the experiments. Dr. Greenwood added that it was “not clear how that translates” into an exercise prescription for humans. We may require more weeks of working out, or maybe less. And no one has yet studied how intense the exercise needs to be. But the lesson, Dr. Greenwood says, is “don’t quit.” Keep running or cycling or swimming. (Animal experiments have focused exclusively on aerobic, endurance-type activities.) You may not feel a magical reduction of stress after your first jog, if you haven’t been exercising. But the molecular biochemical changes will begin, Dr. Greenwood says. And eventually, he says, they become “profound.”



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#3 Singularity

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Posted 22 November 2009 - 11:29 AM

Wow, what great news. Now, I have no excuse.

#4 Rags847

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Posted 22 November 2009 - 11:51 AM

Yes. Besides feeding (hopefully) beneficial substances and chemicals into the brain, let nature help you build a new brain. Not merely new neurons. Not just more of the same neurons. But super-neurons. New and improved neurons. Neurons that are better than the old neurons.

Edited by Rags847, 22 November 2009 - 11:51 AM.


#5 csrpj

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Posted 23 November 2009 - 11:33 AM

is it clear what type of exercise - weight-lifting, cardio, etc - leads to benefits in anxiety-relief?

#6 2012pharmD

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Posted 02 December 2009 - 10:08 PM

Any exercise. Just walking 30 minutes a day is very helpful, 3-4 days a week is the next best thing. Bike riding, swimming, weight-lifting, that's all good.

There is a lot of debate about whether the largest benefit of anti-depressant meds is [older theory]
1. Feeling happy, then
2. Having clearer thoughts, then
3. Being more active

OR [newer theory]

1. Having clearer thoughts, then
2. Being more active, then
3. Feeling happy

More researchers are moving toward the 2nd sequence. I think it applies to nootropics as well. "Breaking from inertia" in thought and movement seem to be closely related, so much so that we don't know which comes first or if that even matters as long as both occur.

#7 calengineering

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Posted 17 January 2010 - 11:35 PM

Any exercise. Just walking 30 minutes a day is very helpful, 3-4 days a week is the next best thing. Bike riding, swimming, weight-lifting, that's all good.



Walking probably is not enough. You want to work out vigorously enough so that you actually feel "stressed out" physically, with some sweating from cardio or soreness from weight lifting. I'm guessing these new stress resistant brain cells form when the body experiences enough physical stress from exercise. (Eg. Through repetition of stressful exercise (3+ weeks), the body then produces cells that are resistant to stress). Regardless, running (vs. walking) is better for cardiovascular health and therefore longevity.

Edited by calengineering, 17 January 2010 - 11:36 PM.


#8 spider

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Posted 18 January 2010 - 03:22 AM

I cannot attribute any nootropic effect due to physical exercise, personally. But it has a huge impact on mood. It definately makes me less anxious and less depressed. It is also great to fall asleep faster and have a better night rest.

My motivational mental:physical benefit ratio for frequent exercises is about 2:1.

#9 russianBEAR

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Posted 03 March 2010 - 03:10 AM

Yeah...

I was exercising regularly and extra hard for a while in the fall, then had a shoulder injury which took me out of my routine. Then I had a knee injury while running so that took me out of the routine for quite a while.

And compared to back then - I feel like total crap now. I mean you might as well diagnose me with clinical depression and put me on MAOIs :)))))) Not that I feel "down" all the time, but I feel a lot worse physically and most importantly, mentally. Feel like I'm getting "soft" so I'm gonna get off my lazy ass and resume a regular routine, not just a few runs here and there.

There are just too many benefits - you don't get hung over from alcohol, your sex drive is greatly increased, you're more social, and more agressive (which I strive for to give me an edge) so all great benefits.

#10 Pike

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Posted 03 September 2010 - 07:59 PM

whatever happened to make this old thread return to life on the front page, i'm thankful for.

every single person who has a "nootropic regimen" should read this. why this isn't stickied, i don't know.

#11 Pike

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Posted 04 September 2010 - 02:24 AM

bumping this topic again.

also, general question to all: who would i send a message to about requesting this topic to become a sticky?

#12 aLurker

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Posted 05 September 2010 - 11:27 AM

bumping this topic again.

also, general question to all: who would i send a message to about requesting this topic to become a sticky?


Probably chrono, although I suppose he would rather see we put it in the Nootropics Thread Index.

I'm in pretty good shape although exercise has the downside of very gradual progress which makes it hard to notice that it's doing you any good. I believe in the science behind it though so I'll continue to exercise.

#13 medievil

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Posted 12 September 2010 - 08:44 PM

bumping this topic again.

also, general question to all: who would i send a message to about requesting this topic to become a sticky?


Probably chrono, although I suppose he would rather see we put it in the Nootropics Thread Index.

I'm in pretty good shape although exercise has the downside of very gradual progress which makes it hard to notice that it's doing you any good. I believe in the science behind it though so I'll continue to exercise.

What kind of excercise are you doing? If you weight lift in combination with a proper cal intake you gain muscle relatively fast.

#14 aLurker

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Posted 12 September 2010 - 09:09 PM

bumping this topic again.

also, general question to all: who would i send a message to about requesting this topic to become a sticky?


Probably chrono, although I suppose he would rather see we put it in the Nootropics Thread Index.

I'm in pretty good shape although exercise has the downside of very gradual progress which makes it hard to notice that it's doing you any good. I believe in the science behind it though so I'll continue to exercise.

What kind of excercise are you doing? If you weight lift in combination with a proper cal intake you gain muscle relatively fast.


Mostly intense interval training and I'm quite happy with that kind of training since my endurance seems to be way way up since I started doing intervals instead of jogging. Sometimes I lift weights. My cal intake is on the low side bordering on CR. I might step up the weight lifting later. I know plenty about it even though I don't get around to it much right now.

You are totally right that you can gain muscle quite fast if you train hard and have a proper cal intake but my goal right isn't really to bulk up on muscle. To clarify, my comment was rather in the context of the nootropic qualities of exercise: I was talking about mental gains (stress reduction and so on as mentioned in the OP) rather than the much more visible gains in the form of muscle mass.

Edited by aLurker, 12 September 2010 - 09:20 PM.


#15 arvcondor

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Posted 21 September 2010 - 11:07 PM

Exercise seems to be the best noot for me in terms of both efficacy and reliability. I suffer from horrible fogginess, and a good 30 minute cardio workout before a good night's sleep helps tremendously the next day.

Anyone else experience this?

#16 longevitynow

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Posted 22 September 2010 - 03:18 PM

I have been exercising off and on for over two decades. I can definitively say that my brain functions better when I am "on" as far as exercising than when I am "off". I am sharper during exercise and after; and if exercising regularly, I'm still functioning better even on "off" days. I am sure there are many biochemical reasons for this. Increased circulation to the body and brain are certainly one of them. Even a 20-30 minute walk increases circulation dramatically compared to no exercise at all. But really doing something that significantly raises your heart rate is going to increase circulation significantly more than most walks, even power walks (unless you are monitoring your heart rate). My experience and recommendation is that if you want to get the best nootropic effect from aerobic exercise is that you make sure by measuring that you are getting your heart rate up to 65-80% of your maximal rate for at least 20 minutes. My experience with anaerobic exercise is less, but I feel better after it also. Studies have shown that exercise turns on "pro-youth" genes and turns off "pro-aging" genes. Aerobic and anerobic exercise both do this, but each affects different genes, so it is good to do both. I remember that from the "Fitness Rocks" podcast, don't remember which episode. I have noticed that Piracetam works much better for me when I am exercising. See my "Piracetam and Exercise/Body Building" log.

#17 kikai93

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Posted 29 December 2010 - 01:35 AM

Probably chrono, although I suppose he would rather see we put it in the Nootropics Thread Index.

I'm in pretty good shape although exercise has the downside of very gradual progress which makes it hard to notice that it's doing you any good. I believe in the science behind it though so I'll continue to exercise.


Gradual progress is generally the result of mild exercise. If you want to feel effects relatively quickly, try one of the more intense workouts. I do P90X. There are many similar programs if you hate the people on those videos. Can't stress the benefits of an intense workout enough if you're physically able. It requires willpower to stick with, but I've noticed that intense exercise tends to increase willpower, so it becomes a self-feeding cycle. Once you get through the initial week or two of "ffs I'm sore" the positive effects are very noticeable. The body reshaping aspect becomes something other people begin to comment on around the 60 day mark. Not too shabby. :)

#18 rint

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Posted 22 February 2011 - 06:56 AM

Just finished a pretty intense yoga/meditation class and I cannot agree more. I feel so clear/happy/calm/sharp. Exercise should be part of everyone's nootropic 'stack'. Also, 30-60 minutes of meditation feels like the best nootropic money can buy. Studies show it has huge impacts on the frontal lobe. Anyone here meditating?

#19 nito

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Posted 22 February 2011 - 09:41 PM

Just finished a pretty intense yoga/meditation class and I cannot agree more. I feel so clear/happy/calm/sharp. Exercise should be part of everyone's nootropic 'stack'. Also, 30-60 minutes of meditation feels like the best nootropic money can buy. Studies show it has huge impacts on the frontal lobe. Anyone here meditating?



what type of meditation? Sitting down breathing in for a lenghty period of time focusing one one's breathing?

#20 rint

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Posted 22 February 2011 - 10:42 PM

Just finished a pretty intense yoga/meditation class and I cannot agree more. I feel so clear/happy/calm/sharp. Exercise should be part of everyone's nootropic 'stack'. Also, 30-60 minutes of meditation feels like the best nootropic money can buy. Studies show it has huge impacts on the frontal lobe. Anyone here meditating?



what type of meditation? Sitting down breathing in for a lenghty period of time focusing one one's breathing?


yeah, that's it... just focus on your breathing. when your mind wanders, bring your attention back to your breath. pretty soon you will notice things slowing down and becoming quieter.

#21 christianbber

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Posted 23 July 2011 - 01:54 AM

For people in their 20's . Does exercise really help ?

I can't help but notice all these claims about " exercise, and running helps with cognition". Yet a colossal amount of intelligent people, NEVER exercise.

Every faculty member who is a very smart person, never exercises.

I can understand exercising when you're older. But ........ is it really crucial as advertised ?

#22 niner

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Posted 23 July 2011 - 02:14 AM

I don't think you see much of an effect in your 20s. Maybe in your 40s to 90s. The problem is, you might need to do the exercise in your 20s in order to keep from developing dementia later. I hope that's not entirely the case, or else a lot of people are screwed. Once the vascular damage is done, then it's probably too late for exercise to help a lot. So basically exercise helps keep you from getting stupid. Whether or not it makes you smarter, I don't know, but tend to think not, or at least not much.

#23 Logan

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Posted 23 July 2011 - 02:55 AM

I actually think exercise can improve cognition for people in their youth that experience anxiety or other conditions that can impair cognition. I don't think it will make healthy young individuals smarter, but I do think it could enhance function a bit beyond what they have without exercise. I wouldn't be surprised if exercise in youth plays a role in brain development, similar to how marine omega 3s likely do.

Dammit niner, now you've got me thinking about the possibility of all the vascular damage existing in my brain laying the ground work for dementia. My brain is pretty damn fucked up, from a whole lot of insults over the years, especially the last 5 years.

#24 nezxon

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Posted 23 July 2011 - 11:35 AM

For people in their 20's . Does exercise really help ?

I can't help but notice all these claims about " exercise, and running helps with cognition". Yet a colossal amount of intelligent people, NEVER exercise.

Every faculty member who is a very smart person, never exercises.

I can understand exercising when you're older. But ........ is it really crucial as advertised ?

1. I think when we talk about our observations we're not talking about the world itself, we're talking about our opinion of the world. For example, when we describe a person as "smart" or "intelligent" (the mental equivalent of the words "attractive" or "charming"), we are summing up our opinion of that person as defined by a set of criteria, analagous to the criteria we use to determine if someone is attractive. I think the usefulness of those descriptions is limited to informal or internal dialogue. I think it can be more accurately restated "Every faculty member I consider a very smart person never exercises that I am aware of." If your values changed, your perception of their intelligence would probably also change. This is the result of my attempt to rephrase one of your original statements from an internal viewpoint:

"Why do I consider faculty members who exhibit low bodily-kinesthetic intelligence to be smart people?"

To which I would answer: "Because you don't consider fitness to be an important criteria in your definition of intelligence." If your post is rephrased, I think it becomes more clear much of what you're asking is probably more inwardly directly than outward.

2. Observing that there do exist, in abundance, intelligent people with low-fitness levels we only learn that sedentary lifestyles don't preclude intelligence, but such observations tell us nothing at all about how fitness level modifies cognition.
3. I'm not clear on what your threshold for "crucial" or "REAL help" is. 5% improvement? 100%? 500%?
4. Sample selection - A high-activity person probably wouldn't choose a career as a faculty member.
5. Types of Intelligence - I suggest reading Isaac Asimov's article "What Is Intelligence, Anyway?" Asimov examines the idea that intelligence is not a property of the individual but a view imparted to the individual by society.
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#25 platypus

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Posted 23 July 2011 - 11:46 AM

A true renaissance man embraces physical culture as well. Intelligent slobs are just showing their personal limitations.

#26 Logan

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Posted 25 July 2011 - 01:54 AM

For people in their 20's . Does exercise really help ?

I can't help but notice all these claims about " exercise, and running helps with cognition". Yet a colossal amount of intelligent people, NEVER exercise.

Every faculty member who is a very smart person, never exercises.

I can understand exercising when you're older. But ........ is it really crucial as advertised ?

1. I think when we talk about our observations we're not talking about the world itself, we're talking about our opinion of the world. For example, when we describe a person as "smart" or "intelligent" (the mental equivalent of the words "attractive" or "charming"), we are summing up our opinion of that person as defined by a set of criteria, analagous to the criteria we use to determine if someone is attractive. I think the usefulness of those descriptions is limited to informal or internal dialogue. I think it can be more accurately restated "Every faculty member I consider a very smart person never exercises that I am aware of." If your values changed, your perception of their intelligence would probably also change. This is the result of my attempt to rephrase one of your original statements from an internal viewpoint:

"Why do I consider faculty members who exhibit low bodily-kinesthetic intelligence to be smart people?"

To which I would answer: "Because you don't consider fitness to be an important criteria in your definition of intelligence." If your post is rephrased, I think it becomes more clear much of what you're asking is probably more inwardly directly than outward.

2. Observing that there do exist, in abundance, intelligent people with low-fitness levels we only learn that sedentary lifestyles don't preclude intelligence, but such observations tell us nothing at all about how fitness level modifies cognition.
3. I'm not clear on what your threshold for "crucial" or "REAL help" is. 5% improvement? 100%? 500%?
4. Sample selection - A high-activity person probably wouldn't choose a career as a faculty member.
5. Types of Intelligence - I suggest reading Isaac Asimov's article "What Is Intelligence, Anyway?" Asimov examines the idea that intelligence is not a property of the individual but a view imparted to the individual by society.


Well said brotha. I had some similar thoughts, but am not and may never be in the condition to articulate them as well as you just did. The more I hear about Asimov, the more I think I will really enjoy his writtings. He sounds like a good dude with great insight.

#27 Logan

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Posted 25 July 2011 - 01:59 AM

A true renaissance man embraces physical culture as well. Intelligent slobs are just showing their personal limitations.



Nice. It's a bit of a slam certain body types that have difficulty staying fit. I put very litte and sometimes zero work into it, and look like I'm fit for a triathlon.
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#28 DaneV

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Posted 25 July 2011 - 09:08 AM

I actually think exercise can improve cognition for people in their youth that experience anxiety or other conditions that can impair cognition. I don't think it will make healthy young individuals smarter, but I do think it could enhance function a bit beyond what they have without exercise. I wouldn't be surprised if exercise in youth plays a role in brain development, similar to how marine omega 3s likely do.


+1
For me exercise works well on my cognition, but its been "impaired" by years of anxiety and depression so there is much to gain.
I think this goes for a lot of nootropics aswell, if you had problems causing your cognition to decrease you`re likely to benefit more from noots then a 100% healthy individual.

I do think that exercise, unlike noots, is crucial to maintain healthy brain function and if you don`t exercise at all, you`re very likely to get the bill at older age.

Edited by DaneV, 25 July 2011 - 09:11 AM.


#29 Mind

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Posted 25 July 2011 - 07:16 PM

Anecdotal evidence from me - exercise does help my cognition.

Nezxon nailed the important questions. Just to add on: how many of those non-exercising profs would be smarter, healthier, and live longer if they exercised? An increasing body of evidence suggests they could improve every metric.

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#30 X_Danny_X

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Posted 26 July 2011 - 02:47 AM

well to put it bluntly, christianbber wanted to know can exercise increase intelligence on healthy individuals that have no problems with their health and dont suffer from any mental disorders such ADHD or anything that you can think off. i believe that exercise helps but only to maintain what you got unless we are talking about BDNF

i heard that exercise can increase BDNF, but only after a certain point. when you reach that point, it is to keep what you got as well.

http://serendip.bryn.../mmcgovern.html

Edited by X_Danny_X, 26 July 2011 - 03:29 AM.





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