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17 Random Dopaminergic Supplements

dopamine dopaminergic supplements

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#1 Bateau

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Posted 17 December 2013 - 07:00 PM


Compiling and posting this merely as a reference for some of the less common dopaminergics. I decided to not include basic dopamine precursors like tyrosine, Mucuna etc. or basic stim's like caffeine and ephedrine simply because I figured most people were aware of how these substances effect the dopaminergic system.

Gotta start with a classic

St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) - A broad spectrum monoamine reuptake inhibitor with a high preference for noradrenaline and dopamine. Probably the most known dopaminergic supplement on the list and easily one of the more powerful ones.
[quote]Classic synthetic antidepressant drugs, as well as St John's wort extract (SJW), directly inhibit the re-uptake of norepinephrine (NE) and/or serotonin (5-HT) into pre-synaptic axons. With chronic treatment they induce adaptive changes in a number of neurotransmitter receptors in synaptic membranes. The immediate effects of SJW Ze 117, an extract low in hyperforin content, on the specific dopamine (DA) uptake were studied in rat striatal brain slices and compared with the effects on NE and 5-HT uptake in rat cortical brain slices. Specific DA uptake was inhibited in a dose dependent manner. In contrast to the findings in synaptosomal preparations published so far, the extract showed different inhibitory potencies for the respective transporters. The potencies for the uptake inhibition of NA, DA and 5-HT were 30, 7 and 1, respectively. The results indicate that the SJW Ze 117 extract interferes in three ways with the individual uptakes of the relevant neurotransmitters that are considered to be causal in the development of depression. This observation, the concomitant and potent inhibition of DA re-uptake by SJW extract, may additionally provide a rationale for the treatment of nicotine or drug addiction with SJW.[/quote]http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/19585471


Babchi (Psoralea corylifolia) - The seeds work as a dual MAO inhibitor (preference for MAO-B) and dopamine and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor. Potentially very powerful synergy between the MAO-B and DAT inhibition. Whole plant might be effective as well.
[quote]A petroleum ether extract (FP) from Fructus Psoraleae, seeds of Psoralea corylifolia L. (Leguminosae), was found to strongly inhibit dopamine (DA) uptake by dopamine transporter (DAT) heterogeneously expressed cells (D8 cells) and noradrenaline (NE) uptake by noradrenaline transporter (NET) heterogeneously expressed cells, which, however, had no effect on gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter heterogeneously expressed cells and serotonin transporter heterogeneously expressed cells at the concentration up to 100 microg/ml. These inhibitory effects were also confirmed by experiments on SK-N-SH cell line and synaptosomes from rats' brains. In addition, FP showed a significantly mitigating effect on 1-methyl-4-pyridinium induced injury of D8 cells. Meanwhile, FP dose-dependently reduced the binding of tritium-labeled cocaine analog (-)-2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-fluorophenyl) tropane to DAT of D8 cells, which suggests that FP may inhibit DAT activity in the same way as cocaine does. Behavioral study showed FP had a long-lasting stimulant effects on the activity of intact mice and reserpinized mice. So FP is proposed as a kind of DAT and NET inhibitor and may be involved in the process of regulating the DA and NE system, and FP or its unknown bioactive compounds may be developed into new medicines for disorders such as Parkinson's disease, depression, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or cocaine addiction.[/quote]http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/17555897


Catuaba - A bark extract derived from several varieties of tree and often sold under the fake scientific name of Erythroxylum catuaba. Acts as a dopamine reuptake inhibitor as well as promotes the release of dopamine. Has been shown to prevent rotenone-induced apoptosis to dopamine neurons. Inhibits the reuptake of dopamine more selectively than St John's wort.
[quote]RESULTS: Acute oral treatment with the extract of T. catigua produced antidepressant-like effects in the forced swimming model in both mice and rats. Anti-immobility actions of T. catigua extract in mice were significantly reversed by haloperidol or by chlorpromazine, but not by pimozide, ketanserin, spiroxatrine or p-chlorophenylalanine. In vitro, T. catigua extract concentration-dependently inhibited the uptake and increased the release of serotonin, and especially of dopamine, from rat brain synaptosomal preparations.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides convincing evidence for a dopamine-mediated antidepressant-like effect of the active principle(s) present in the hydroalcoholic extract of T. catigua in mice and rats when in vivo and in vitro strategies were employed. Therefore, a standardized T. catigua extract or its purified constituents could be of potential interest for the treatment of depressive disorders.[/quote]http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/15991001


Chinese Skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis) - Another dopamine reuptake inhibitor. Has also been shown to prevent iron-induced neurodegredation of the dopaminergic system.
[quote]In previous studies we have demonstrated that the γ-aminobutryic acid-A (GABA-A) receptor antagonist oroxylin A has an awakening effect and it also represses ADHD-like behaviors (hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention) in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We hypothesized that the effects of oroxylin A were exerted via the GABA-A receptor given the important role of the GABAergic system in ADHD. However, it is possible that aside from the GABAergic system, oroxylin A may influence other systems especially those implicated in ADHD (e.g. DAergic, etc.). To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of GABA agonist, or dopamine (DA) antagonist in oroxylin A-induced alleviation of ADHD-like behaviors in SHR. SHR showed inattention and impulsivity as measured by the Y-maze and the electro-foot shock aversive water drinking tests, respectively. Oroxylin A significantly improved these behaviors, furthermore, its effect on SHR impulsivity was attenuated by haloperidol, a DA antagonist, but not by baicalein, an agonist of the GABA-A receptor. In vitro studies showed that oroxylin A inhibited DA uptake similar to methylphenidate, a dopamine transporter blocker, but did not influence norepinephrine uptake unlike atomoxetine, a selective NE reuptake inhibitor. Collectively, the present findings suggest that oroxylin A improves ADHD-like behaviors in SHR via enhancement of DA neurotransmission and not modulation of GABA pathway as previously reported. Importantly, the present study indicates the potential therapeutic value of oroxylin A in the treatment of ADHD.[/quote]http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/23371806


Magnolia extract (Magnolia officinalis) - Acts as a dopamine reuptake inhibitor as well as a D5 antagonist, has shown to prevent 6-OHDA-induced lesions to the dopaminergic system.
[quote]RESULTS: Interactions were demonstrated with the adenosine A(1) receptor, dopamine transporter and dopamine D(5) receptor (antagonist activity), serotonin receptors (5-HT(1B) and 5-HT(6) antagonist activity) and the GABA benzodiazepine receptor at a concentration of 100 microg/ml or lower. ME had an affinity with adenosine A(1) (K(i) of 9.2+/-1.1 microg/ml) and potentiated the GABA activated chloride current at the benzodiazepine subunits of the GABA receptor (maximum effect at 50 microg/ml). ME had a modest antagonist action with 5-HT(6) and ZE with the 5-HT(1B) receptor.[/quote]http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/19505549


Jiaogulan (Gynostemma pentaphyllum) Has a restorative effect on dopaminergic systems after chronic stress and 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity. Unique in its proven abilities to promote healing of the dopaminergic system, rather than just prevent degredation.
[quote]6-Hydroxydopamine administration for 28 days (8 microg/2 microL) reduced the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunopositive neurons to 40.2% in the substantia nigra compared to the intact contralateral side. Dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homovanillic acid and norepinephrine levels were reduced to 19.1%, 52.3%, 47.1% and 67.4% in the striatum of 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats compared to the control group, respectively. However, an oral administration of herbal ethanol extracts from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GP-EX) (10 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg) starting on day 3 post-lesion for 28 days markedly ameliorated the reduction of TH-immunopositive neurons induced by 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat brain from 40.2% to 67.4% and 75.8% in the substantia nigra. GP-EX administration (10 and 30 mg/kg) also recovered the levels of dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homovanillic acid and norepinephrine in post-lesion striatum to 64.1% and 65.0%, 77.9% and 89.7%, 82.6% and 90.2%, and 88.1% and 89.2% of the control group. GP-EX at the given doses did not produce any sign of toxicity such as weight loss, diarrhea and vomiting in rats during the 28 day treatment period and four gypenoside derivatives, gynosaponin TN-1, gynosaponin TN-2, gypenoside XLV and gypenoside LXXIV were identified from GP-EX. These results suggest that GP-EX might be helpful in the prevention of Parkinson's disease. [/quote]http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/20428081


Bacopa (Bacopa monnieri) - Seems to regulate dopaminergic system pretty effectively, maintaining the amounts of neurotransmitters and receptors when they'd normally drop (e.g. during chronic stress, 6-OHDA and rotenone-induced neurotoxicity), and preventing dopamine surges in the striatum, possibly mitigating drug-related reward systems and level of addiction.
[quote]Neonatal hypoglycaemia initiates a series of events leading to neuronal death, even if glucose and glycogen stores return to normal. Disturbances in the cortical dopaminergic function affect memory and cognition. We recommend Bacopa monnieri extract or Bacoside A to treat neonatal hypoglycaemia. We investigated the alterations in dopaminergic functions by studying the Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor subtypes. Receptor-binding studies revealed a significant decrease (p < 0.001) in dopamine D1 receptor number in the hypoglycaemic condition, suggesting cognitive dysfunction. cAMP content was significantly (p < 0.001) downregulated in hypoglycaemic neonatal rats indicating the reduction in cell signalling of the dopamine D1 receptors. It is attributed to the deficits in spatial learning and memory. Hypoglycaemic neonatal rats treated with Bacopa extract alone and Bacoside A ameliorated the dopaminergic and cAMP imbalance as effectively as the glucose therapy. The upregulated Bax expression in the present study indicates the high cell death in hypoglycaemic neonatal rats. Enzyme assay of SOD confirmed cortical cell death due to free radical accumulation. The gene expression of SOD in the cortex was significantly downregulated (p < 0.001). Bacopa treatment showed a significant reversal in the altered gene expression parameters (p < 0.001) of Bax and SOD. Our results suggest that in the rat experimental model of neonatal hypoglycaemia, Bacopa extract improved alterations in D1, D2 receptor expression, cAMP signalling and cell death resulting from oxidative stress. This is an important area of study given the significant motor and cognitive impairment that may arise from neonatal hypoglycaemia if proper treatment is not implemented.[/quote] http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/23975094


N-acetyl-cysteine - Also regulates the dopaminergic system in a similar way to bacopa, although seemingly less effectively.
[quote]The amphetamine (AMPH)-induced alteration in rat brain dopamine levels modified by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) administration has been examined using isocratic ion-pair reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The aim of the development of a novel validated evaluation scheme implying a double AMPH challenge was to enhance the efficiency of AMPH-triggered dopamine release measurements in rat brain striatal slices by improving the reproducibility of the results. The proposed experimental protocol was tested in vivo and proved to be capable of fast and reliable drug screening for tracing the effect of NAC as a model compound in AMPH-mediated dopaminergic response. The subcellular localization of the dopamine mobilizing effect of NAC has been established indirectly by the use of an irreversible dopamine vesicular depletor, reserpine. The antioxidant NAC at 10 mM plays an important role in the complete suppression of acute AMPH-elicited dopamine release. The possible role of this quenching effect is discussed.
[/quote]http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/19277967


Alpha GPC - Increases dopamine transporters, potassium stimulated dopamine release, as well as DOPAC levels in the frontal cortex and the cerebellum.
[quote]Choline-containing phospholipids were proposed as cognition enhancing agents, but evidence on their activity is controversial. CDP-choline (cytidine-5´-diphosphocholine, CDP) and choline alphoscerate (L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine, GPC) represent the choline-containing phospholipids with larger clinical evidence in the treatment of sequelae of cerebrovascular accidents and of cognitive disorders. These compounds which display mainly a cholinergic profile interfere with phospholipids biosynthesis, brain metabolism and neurotransmitter systems. Dated preclinical studies and clinical evidence suggested that CDP-choline may have also a monoaminergic profile. The present study was designed to assess the influence of treatment for 7 days with choline-equivalent doses (CDP-choline: 325 mg/Kg/day; GPC: 150 mg/Kg/day) of these compounds on brain dopamine (DA), and serotonin (5-HT) levels and on DA plasma membrane transporter (DAT), vesicular monoamine transporters (VMAT1 and VMAT2), serotonin transporter (SERT), and norepinephrine transporter (NET) in the rat. Frontal cortex, striatum and cerebellum were investigated by HPLC with electrochemical detection, immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis and ELISA techniques. CDP-choline did not affect DA levels, which increased after GPC administration in frontal cortex and cerebellum. GPC increased also 5-HT levels in frontal cortex and striatum. DAT was stimulated in frontal cortex and cerebellum by both CDP and GPC, whereas VMAT2, SERT, NET were unaffected. VMAT1 was not detectable. The above data indicate that CDP-choline and GPC possess a monoaminergic profile and interfere to some extent with brain monoamine transporters. This activity on a relevant drug target, good tolerability and safety of CDP-choline and GPC suggests that these compounds may merit further investigations in appropriate clinical settings.[/quote]http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/23244432


CDP Choline - Increases dopamine transporters as well as prevents the decline in dopamine receptor density that comes with aging, increases striatal dopamine levels and potentially acts as a unique dopamine antagonist with potential applications in Parkinson's.
[quote] Spiroperidol binding (dopamine D2 receptors) and quinuclidinyl benzilate binding (muscarinic receptors) in striata of 19-month old mice was analyzed for animals that had received chronic administration of cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) incorporated into the chow consumed (100 or 500 mg kg-1 added per day) for the 7 months before they were killed. 2. Treated animals displayed an increase in the dopamine receptor densities of 11% for those receiving 100 mg kg-1 and 18% for those receiving 500 mg kg-1 as compared to the control aged animals that had received no CDP-choline. Control animals showed, from 2 months to 19 months of life, a 28% decrease in the receptor density. No change in the affinity of the receptors for spiroperidol was found in the treated or untreated animals. 3. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor densities were also partially recovered by the same treatment in aged animals that showed a 14% decrease of these receptors in this case. The muscarinic receptor density increased 6% for the animals that received 100 mg kg-1 and 17% for the animals that received 500 mg kg-1 without any change in the affinity of the receptor for quinuclidinyl benzilate. 4. Aged animals displayed a slight increase in brain membrane fluidity as indicated by a decrease in the polarization value of the non-polar fluorophore 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene. Interestingly, in the treated animals a greater increase in membrane fluidity was determined and found to be very similar for the two doses.5. It is concluded that chronic administration of CDP-choline to aged animals promoted a partial recovery of the striatum dopamine and acetylcholine receptor function normally reduced with aging, which might be explicable in terms of mechanisms involving fluidity of the brain neuronal membrane.[/quote]http://www.ncbi.nlm..../pubmed/7253343


Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) - A MAO-B inhibitor that seems to preferentially increase dopamine and noradrenaline over other monoamines.
[quote]KEY RESULTS: A single oral dose of EGb 761 (100 mg.kg(-1)) had no effect on monoamine levels. However, following chronic (100 mg.kg(-1)/14 days/once daily) treatment, the same dose significantly increased extracellular dopamine and noradrenaline levels, while 5-HT levels were unaffected. Chronic treatment with EGb 761 showed dose-dependent increases in frontocortical dopamine levels and, to a lesser extent, in the striatum. The extracellular levels of HVA and DOPAC were not affected by either acute or repeated doses. Treatment with the main constituents of EGb 761 revealed that the increase in dopamine levels was mostly caused by the flavonol glycosides and ginkgolide fractions, whereas bilobalide treatment was without effect.
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The present results demonstrate that chronic but not acute treatment with EGb 761 increased dopaminergic transmission in the PFC. This finding may be one of the mechanisms underlying the reported effects of G. biloba in improving cognitive function.
[/quote]http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/20105177


Jatamansi (Nardostachys jatamansi) - Another MAO-B inhibitor that seems to preferentially increase 5HT and GABA more so than dopamine and adrenaline. Also prevents 6-OHDA induced neurodegeneration of dopaminergic systems.
[quote]The effect of acute and subchronic administration of an alcoholic extract of the roots of Nardostachys jatamansi on norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and taurine were studied in male albino Wistar rats. The acute oral administration of the extract did not change the level of NE and DA but resulted in a significant increase in the level of 5-HT and 5-HIAA. A significant increase in the level of GABA and taurine was observed in the drug-treated groups when compared to the controls. A 15-day treatment resulted in a significant increase in the levels of NE, DA, 5-HT, 5-HIAA, and GABA. These data indicate that the alcoholic extract of the roots of N. jatamansi causes an overall increase in the levels of central monoamines and inhibitory amino acids.
[/quote]


Clary Sage Oil (Salvia sclarea) - A close cousin of clary sage, Salvia palaestina, shows promise as well since it has constituents that have high binding affinity with dopamine receptors at fairly low levels, however its greatly understudied.
[quote]RESULTS: Among the essential oils tested, 5% (v/v) clary oil had the strongest anti-stressor effect in the FST. We further investigated the mechanism of clary oil antidepression by pretreatment with agonists or antagonists to serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), adrenaline, and GABA receptors. The anti-stressor effect of clary oil was significantly blocked by pretreatment with buspirone (a 5-HT(1A) agonist), SCH-23390 (a D(1) receptor antagonist) and haloperidol (a D(2), D(3), and D(4) receptor antagonist).
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that clary oil could be developed as a therapeutic agent for patients with depression and that the antidepressant-like effect of clary oil is closely associated with modulation of the DAnergic pathway.[/quote] http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/20441789


Beta-alenine - Seems to increase dopamine release in the Nucleus accumbens through agonising the glycine receptor in a similar, albeit weaker, manner to alcohol.
[quote]Glycine receptors (GlyRs) in the nucleus accumbens (nAc) have recently been suggested to be involved in the reinforcing and dopamine-elevating properties of ethanol via a neuronal circuitry involving the VTA. Apart from ethanol, both glycine and taurine have the ability to modulate dopamine output via GlyRs in the same brain region. In the present study, we wanted to explore whether yet another endogenous ligand for the GlyR, beta-alanine, had similar effects. To this end, we monitored dopamine in the nAc by means of in vivo microdialysis and found that local perfusion of beta-alanine increased dopamine output. In line with previous observations investigating ethanol, glycine and taurine, the competitive GlyR antagonist strychnine completely blocked the dopamine elevation. The present results suggest that beta-alanine has the ability to modulate dopamine levels in the nAc via strychnine-sensitive GlyRs, and are consistent with previous studies suggesting the importance of this receptor for modulating dopamine output.[/quote]http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/19543795


Patchouli (Valeriana wallichii) - The alcohol extract increases dopamine levels in mouse forebrain, while the water extract decreases dopamine levels in mouse frontal cortex. Has compounds that have neuroprotective effects against neuronal cell death in "human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells".
[quote] MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antidepressant effect of dichloromethane extract of Valeriana wallichii (10, 20 and 40mg/kg, p.o.) using forced swim test, was determined in both acute and chronic study. The neurotransmitter levels were estimated in mouse forebrain after two weeks of dosing.
RESULTS: Single administration of extract (40mg/kg) significantly inhibited the immobility period in mice (p<0.05). Similarly, chronic administration of extract (20 and 40mg/kg) significantly reduced the immobility period and significantly increased the levels of norepinephrine and dopamine in mouse forebrain (p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: The extract demonstrated antidepressant effect and significantly increased the norepinephrine and dopamine levels in forebrain.[/quote]http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/21354297


Chaste Berry (Vitex agnus castus) - Acts as a dopamine mimetic for certain systems. Several supplements primarily used for treating symptoms of menopause and PMS act primarily though the dopaminergic systems.
[quote]Women suffering from premenstrual mastodynia often respond to stimuli of prolactin (Prl) release with a hypersecretion of this hormone. Pharmacological reduction of Prl release by dopamine agonists or treatment with extracts of Agnus castus (AC) improve the clinical situation of patients with such premenstrual symptoms. Extracts of AC contain compounds which inhibit in vivo Prl release in women as well as in vitro from dispersed rat pituitary cells. It is yet unknown whether this inhibitory action of AC is only exerted on Prl release or whether release of other pituitary hormones like LH and FSH is also affected. The effects of AC on LH and FSH release were examined in vitro using rat pituitary cell cultures. To rule out that the Prl-inhibiting properties of AC are at least in part due to a cytotoxic component, pituitary cell cultures were subjected to the MTT test. To assess whether the Prl inhibitory effect of AC preparations is due to compounds acting as dopamine (DA) agonists, we used the corpus striatum membrane DA receptor binding assay. Our results demonstrate for the first time that AC extract contains an active principle that binds to the D2 receptor. Thus, it is very likely that it is this dopaminergic principle which inhibits Prl release in vitro from rat pituitary cells. Furthermore we give evidence for the specificity of action of AC on hormone release, since gonadotropin secretion remained unaffected. The findings of the present study support the therapeutical usefulness of AC extracts for treatment of premenstrual mastodynia which is associated with hypersecretion of Prl. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of AC appear to be due to the inhibition of pituitary Prl release.[/quote] http://www.ncbi.nlm..../pubmed/7890021


Black Kohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) - Another supplement used primarily for PMS and menopause, seems to act in a similar manner to chaste berry on the D2 receptors.
[quote]RESULTS: While a displacement of radiolabeled estradiol from binding sites of a cytosol preparation from procine and human endometrium by CR extract BNO 1055 was shown no such displacement was achieved when either ERalpha or ERbeta protein was used as ligands for tracer. Dopaminergic activity in the CR extract BNO 1055 could be demonstrated with the D(2)-receptor assay. A countercurrent chromatography resulted in a separation of estrogenic and dopaminergic activity in two distinct fractions.
CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that not yet identified substances in the CR extract BNO 1055 bind to a yet unknown estrogen-binding site in the endometrium. Also, yet unknown dopaminergic compounds may contribute to the pharmacological profile of CR extract BNO 1055.
[/quote]http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/12609557

Edited by Bateau, 17 December 2013 - 07:41 PM.

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#2 Lemon.

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Posted 17 December 2013 - 07:10 PM

WONDERFUL, +1 rep.
Thank You very much for this, keep it up. thank you thank you.

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#3 BioFreak

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Posted 17 December 2013 - 07:11 PM

Nice list, thanks. Gotta go through it in more detail when I have the time.

#4 Bateau

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Posted 17 December 2013 - 08:16 PM

One thing I have to mention real quick is that the 3rd from the last supplement on the list, Valeriana wallichii, is NOT the same Patchouli as the commonly sold Patchouli Oil from Pogostemon cablin. It is referring to the specific "Patchouli Alcohol" chemotype of Valeriana wallichii.

Patchouli Oil has nothing to do with it.

Sorry for the ambiguity. If a moderator would care to switch the label to "Valeriana wallichii ("Patchouli Alcohol" chemotype)" instead of "Patchouli (Valeriana wallichii)" it would clear things up and be greatly appreciated.

Edited by Bateau, 17 December 2013 - 08:25 PM.

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#5 deeptrance

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Posted 17 December 2013 - 08:25 PM

Fantastic compilation, another +1, thank you! I didn't realize I was taking even more dopaminergics than I already knew about, but my list is now quite long.

One minor possible correction: transporter affinity numbers are usually reported such that the lower the number, the higher the affinity, and if this is the present case then what you posted would indicate that St. John's Wort has strongest preference for the 5-HT transporter. Other sources say that the reuptake inhibition is equal across the monoamines, however. But the main reason I bring this up is that SJW is a risky medicinal herb to take for those who don't do thorough research. For example, I've had a pair of very uncomfortable experiences caused by interactions between SJW and yohimbine (hypertensive crisis, though both were taken at much lower than normal doses), and SJW and MDMA (also taken at much lower than normal doses.) The latter case involved mild hyperserotoninemia; had I taken normal dosages of both substances I'd have certainly landed in the emergency room with serotonin syndrome.

I suggest people try one of the other fine products listed before trying SJW, unless you know about p-glycoprotein induction and cytochrome p-450 3A4 enzyme mechanisms, how these pertain to other substances you use, and other interactions such as combined effects of monoaminergic and adrenergic chemicals.
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#6 Bateau

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Posted 17 December 2013 - 08:40 PM

One minor possible correction: transporter affinity numbers are usually reported such that the lower the number, the higher the affinity, and if this is the present case then what you posted would indicate that St. John's Wort has strongest preference for the 5-HT transporter. Other sources say that the reuptake inhibition is equal across the monoamines, however.

According to the discussion in 'Antidepressant-like effects of Trichilia catigua (Catuaba) extract: evidence for dopaminergic-mediated mechanisms.', St John's wort has a 2-3 fold preference for dopamine reuptake inhibition over 5ht reuptake inhibition. They reference these studies for the claim:
http://www.ncbi.nlm..../pubmed/9718074
http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/12543057


But the main reason I bring this up is that SJW is a risky medicinal herb to take for those who don't do thorough research. For example, I've had a pair of very uncomfortable experiences caused by interactions between SJW and yohimbine (hypertensive crisis, though both were taken at much lower than normal doses), and SJW and MDMA (also taken at much lower than normal doses.) The latter case involved mild hyperserotoninemia; had I taken normal dosages of both substances I'd have certainly landed in the emergency room with serotonin syndrome.

I suggest people try one of the other fine products listed before trying SJW, unless you know about p-glycoprotein induction and cytochrome p-450 3A4 enzyme mechanisms, how these pertain to other substances you use, and other interactions such as combined effects of monoaminergic and adrenergic chemicals.

Couldn't agree more, considered saying something in the first post but it already felt too cluttered.

Edited by Bateau, 17 December 2013 - 08:48 PM.

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#7 mission780

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Posted 17 December 2013 - 09:09 PM

Thank you for compiling this list!

#8 Lemon.

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Posted 17 December 2013 - 09:29 PM

Any more content relating to legal herbs/chems you get easily online/pharmacy/health food shop that have positive/ effects on dopamine.

Lets get this thread rolling guys please..

#9 renfr

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Posted 17 December 2013 - 10:18 PM

You can also add these
- Sulbutiamine
- PEA
- PS
- MAOIs also can elicit a dopaminergic response, see selegiline and rasagiline

#10 Bateau

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Posted 17 December 2013 - 10:45 PM

You can also add these
- Sulbutiamine
- PEA
- PS
- MAOIs also can elicit a dopaminergic response, see selegiline and rasagiline


Selegiline and rasagiline are prescription drugs, we've been discussing solely supplements in this thread.

I suppose if I include Chaste berry and Black Cohosh I should include phosphatidylserine as well because IIRC all dopaminergic evidence stops at decreasing prolactin, however, unlike black cohosh and chaste berry, PS has yet to show any clinically significant effects through the dopaminergic system (decreases in PMS or menopause). It also fails to both increase dopamine levels as well as protect the dopaminergic system from MPTP-induced lesions. Pretty darn lackluster r.e. any dopaminergic effects, I personally didn't find it impressive enough but others can interpret the data for themselves.

I decided not to include any drugs that have been claimed by some users to have significant addictive/withdrawal potential. That includes both Sulbutiamine and PEA. I also tend to clump PEA with Phe and consider it a precursor, since its readily metabolized from Phe, and needs to be taken with a MAOI for any effects. Sulbutiamine is an odd one since it acutely decreases dopamine levels but in the long term increases D1 binding sites. Maybe I should have added it.

Edited by Bateau, 17 December 2013 - 11:40 PM.

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#11 Lemon.

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Posted 17 December 2013 - 11:33 PM

You can also add these
- Sulbutiamine
- PEA
- PS
- MAOIs also can elicit a dopaminergic response, see selegiline and rasagiline

Greetings,

I have learned about 3 EXTREMELY important ones from you're list, as with any substances they can just be controled, but these are not. THANK YOU VERY VERY VERY MUCH. Thank You . :)

May I please ask you, which ones are the best and where should I buy selegiline (which online shop?)

Thank You

#12 Lemon.

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Posted 17 December 2013 - 11:44 PM

You can also add these
- Sulbutiamine
- PEA
- PS
- MAOIs also can elicit a dopaminergic response, see selegiline and rasagiline


Selegiline and rasagiline are prescription drugs, we've been discussing solely supplements in this thread.

I suppose if I include Chaste berry and Black Cohosh I should include phosphatidylserine as well because IIRC all dopaminergic evidence stops at decreasing prolactin, however, unlike black cohosh and chaste berry, PS has yet to show any clinically significant effects through the dopaminergic system (decreases in PMS or menopause). It also fails to both increase dopamine levels as well as protect the dopaminergic system from MPTP-induced lesions. Pretty darn lackluster r.e. any dopaminergic effects, I personally didn't find it impressive enough but others can interpret the data for themselves.

I decided not to include any drugs that have been claimed by some users to have significant addictive/withdrawal potential. That includes both Sulbutiamine and PEA. I also tend to clump PEA with Phe and consider it a precursor, since its readily metabolized from Phe, and needs to be taken with a MAOI for any effects. Sulbutiamine is an odd one since it acutely decreases dopamine levels but in the long term increases D1 binding sites. Maybe I should have added it.


Amazing great detail and info, Learned so much and many others will to. +rep !! =>> THANK You.!!!!

#13 Bateau

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Posted 18 December 2013 - 07:55 AM

Digesting Some of This Data



Babchi and Catuaba are more stimulant like than the other supplements listed. These would be more for physical motivation rather than mental. As proof of concept both have been traditionally used as aphrodisiacs amongst other things, although judging from the literature Id suggest Catuaba over Babchi for an aphrodisiac since Babchi is known to induce sweating. Babchi particularly could be paired with your standard stimulant (e.g. caffeine) for some intense effects, however heavy long term Babchi usage seems to be damaging to the testicles, while more moderate usage seems to be protective.

Chinese skullcap and Magnolia extract are better for mental motivation and concentration without the physically stimulating aspects. They will reduce anxiety more than most supplements mentioned here. Chinese Skullcap has a bit more evidence as a nootropic behind it, but Magnolia extract has more evidence in its abilities to decrease depression, stress and particularly cancer and anxiety. Both enhance sleep without inherently promoting laziness.

Jiaogulan has easily become one of my favorite supplements. The only supplement shown to promote true restoration to the dopaminergic system. Could have huge potential for Parkinson's, depression, drug addiction, motivation etc. or just recovering from a hard night of partying or cramming. That right there is a huge percent of the population. Not to mention its the 2nd most potent supplement at increasing insulin sensitivity in humans (the most potent is berberine, which is even more potent than the first-line drug of choice for diabetes, metformin), which means it also has potential to help treat ALL of the societal diseases associated with metabolic syndrome (atherosclerosis, cancer, hypertension, stroke, diabetes, Alzheimers etc.). Grand total this is one awesome supplement. On top of all that, its also called Poor Man's Ginseng since the stuff is dirt cheap.

Ginkgo and Jatamansi will only have significant effects when taken chronically. Both are anxiolytic and nootropics, good for mental motivation and concentration with Jatamansi being theoretically more potent in reducing anxiety. Jatamansi is completely unstudied in humans, while ginkgo might be the single most studied 'nootropic' in humans. Ginkgo has direct evidence of its dopaminergic effects in humans since it decreases the symptoms of both ADHD and PMS. However 1 study in 75+ year olds taking ginkgo daily for 6+ years saw noteworthy increases in both colorectal cancer (HR, 1.62; 95%CI, 0.92-2.87; p = 0.10) and breast cancer (HR, 2.15; 95%CI, 0.97-4.80; p = 0.06) in the group taking ginkgo, getting very close to statistically significant. Other than that, ginkgo is one of the more proven nootropics in humans, having potentially minor effects on short term memory, cognitive decline, reaction time, processing speed, cognition etc. One study in healthy young rats noted that Jatamansi outperformed Piracetam in promoting cognition. Both should improve sleep, with ginkgo having direct evidence.

Alpha GPC and CDP choline will have very little acute effects on dopamine but over time both will increase K evoked dopamine release as well as increase the levels of dopamine transporters in the brain. CPD choline seems to have more neuroprotective potential and potential to preserve dopamine receptor density than Alpha GPC when taken chronically, mainly through optimizing phospholipids in the brain, while Alpha GPC seems to be the more potent short term cognitive enhancer, as well as physical enhancer since its been shown to increase power output in weight lifting. Either could be paired with Chinese Skullcap, Magnolia extract, Ginkgo and/or Jatamansi for improved mental motivation, concentration and nootropic potential.

Bacopa and N-Acetyl-Cysteine will also have very little acute effects and only have significant effects when taken chronically. Both could be used to help mitigate the side effects of substance issues as well as mitigate types of manic episodes. Chronic supplementation with Bacopa reduces anxiety and improves memory, the perfect supplement for a person suffering from memory loss, anxiety, mood swings and cravings due to substance issues (cannabis and caffeine included). Ayurveyda got it right when it crowned Bacopa as the overall best 'brain tonic'.

Patchouli, Ginger, Thyme, and particularly Peppermint and Cypress essenetial oil (some newcomers here) might have stimulatory and physically motivating effects through aromatherapy. Peppermint oil has the most evidence behind it with both its menthol and menthone fraction having significant ambulatory effects in mice that are mediated through dopaminergic systems. The 'Patchouli Alcohol' chemovar of Valeriana wallichii seems to be fairly unobtainable, hopefully the primary dopaminegic ingredient is the sequesterpene known as 'Patchouli alcohol', which is a very significant fraction of the common commercial extract called Patchouli Oil. Ginger and Thyme oil seem to have the weakest effects here, patchouli oil has the weakest evidence. Could have some interesting aphrodisiac potential.

Clary Sage Oil has potentially anti-depressive effects when used as aromatherapy.

I have yet to think of any particular use for Chaste berry, Beta-alanine, and Black cohosh aside from their already popular uses. I wont suggest potential uses for St John's wort due to previously mentioned issues with St John's wort.

This is just my interpretation of the data from what I currently understand about these supplements. All of these claims are, at the very least, disputable. Sorry for not including references for all of this, it would simply take way too long.

Edited by Bateau, 18 December 2013 - 08:52 AM.

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#14 penisbreath

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Posted 18 December 2013 - 10:03 AM

hey, thank you for this -- tremendous resource ..

which of these would you recommend for mitigating akathisia/EPS-type stuff without stirring up anxiety? your post inspired me to take a little Bacopa and it's helped settled my mood/anxiety, though I'm still battling with physical restlessness and stiffness caused by Mirtazapine withdrawal.

#15 abelard lindsay

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Posted 18 December 2013 - 01:33 PM

What about

L-Phenylalanine
L-Tyrosine
N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine
Vitamin B6 / P5P
Chocolate ( 2-Phenylethylamine )
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#16 Lemon.

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Posted 18 December 2013 - 04:50 PM

Digesting Some of This Data



Babchi and Catuaba are more stimulant like than the other supplements listed. These would be more for physical motivation rather than mental. As proof of concept both have been traditionally used as aphrodisiacs amongst other things, although judging from the literature Id suggest Catuaba over Babchi for an aphrodisiac since Babchi is known to induce sweating. Babchi particularly could be paired with your standard stimulant (e.g. caffeine) for some intense effects, however heavy long term Babchi usage seems to be damaging to the testicles, while more moderate usage seems to be protective.

Chinese skullcap and Magnolia extract are better for mental motivation and concentration without the physically stimulating aspects. They will reduce anxiety more than most supplements mentioned here. Chinese Skullcap has a bit more evidence as a nootropic behind it, but Magnolia extract has more evidence in its abilities to decrease depression, stress and particularly cancer and anxiety. Both enhance sleep without inherently promoting laziness.

Jiaogulan has easily become one of my favorite supplements. The only supplement shown to promote true restoration to the dopaminergic system. Could have huge potential for Parkinson's, depression, drug addiction, motivation etc. or just recovering from a hard night of partying or cramming. That right there is a huge percent of the population. Not to mention its the 2nd most potent supplement at increasing insulin sensitivity in humans (the most potent is berberine, which is even more potent than the first-line drug of choice for diabetes, metformin), which means it also has potential to help treat ALL of the societal diseases associated with metabolic syndrome (atherosclerosis, cancer, hypertension, stroke, diabetes, Alzheimers etc.). Grand total this is one awesome supplement. On top of all that, its also called Poor Man's Ginseng since the stuff is dirt cheap.

Ginkgo and Jatamansi will only have significant effects when taken chronically. Both are anxiolytic and nootropics, good for mental motivation and concentration with Jatamansi being theoretically more potent in reducing anxiety. Jatamansi is completely unstudied in humans, while ginkgo might be the single most studied 'nootropic' in humans. Ginkgo has direct evidence of its dopaminergic effects in humans since it decreases the symptoms of both ADHD and PMS. However 1 study in 75+ year olds taking ginkgo daily for 6+ years saw noteworthy increases in both colorectal cancer (HR, 1.62; 95%CI, 0.92-2.87; p = 0.10) and breast cancer (HR, 2.15; 95%CI, 0.97-4.80; p = 0.06) in the group taking ginkgo, getting very close to statistically significant. Other than that, ginkgo is one of the more proven nootropics in humans, having potentially minor effects on short term memory, cognitive decline, reaction time, processing speed, cognition etc. One study in healthy young rats noted that Jatamansi outperformed Piracetam in promoting cognition. Both should improve sleep, with ginkgo having direct evidence.

Alpha GPC and CDP choline will have very little acute effects on dopamine but over time both will increase K evoked dopamine release as well as increase the levels of dopamine transporters in the brain. CPD choline seems to have more neuroprotective potential and potential to preserve dopamine receptor density than Alpha GPC when taken chronically, mainly through optimizing phospholipids in the brain, while Alpha GPC seems to be the more potent short term cognitive enhancer, as well as physical enhancer since its been shown to increase power output in weight lifting. Either could be paired with Chinese Skullcap, Magnolia extract, Ginkgo and/or Jatamansi for improved mental motivation, concentration and nootropic potential.

Bacopa and N-Acetyl-Cysteine will also have very little acute effects and only have significant effects when taken chronically. Both could be used to help mitigate the side effects of substance issues as well as mitigate types of manic episodes. Chronic supplementation with Bacopa reduces anxiety and improves memory, the perfect supplement for a person suffering from memory loss, anxiety, mood swings and cravings due to substance issues (cannabis and caffeine included). Ayurveyda got it right when it crowned Bacopa as the overall best 'brain tonic'.

Patchouli, Ginger, Thyme, and particularly Peppermint and Cypress essenetial oil (some newcomers here) might have stimulatory and physically motivating effects through aromatherapy. Peppermint oil has the most evidence behind it with both its menthol and menthone fraction having significant ambulatory effects in mice that are mediated through dopaminergic systems. The 'Patchouli Alcohol' chemovar of Valeriana wallichii seems to be fairly unobtainable, hopefully the primary dopaminegic ingredient is the sequesterpene known as 'Patchouli alcohol', which is a very significant fraction of the common commercial extract called Patchouli Oil. Ginger and Thyme oil seem to have the weakest effects here, patchouli oil has the weakest evidence. Could have some interesting aphrodisiac potential.

Clary Sage Oil has potentially anti-depressive effects when used as aromatherapy.

I have yet to think of any particular use for Chaste berry, Beta-alanine, and Black cohosh aside from their already popular uses. I wont suggest potential uses for St John's wort due to previously mentioned issues with St John's wort.

This is just my interpretation of the data from what I currently understand about these supplements. All of these claims are, at the very least, disputable. Sorry for not including references for all of this, it would simply take way too long.


AMAZING, Thank You VERY VERY much.

This is great, +rep. please keep them coming, this is perfect thank you very much!!

#17 chemicalambrosia

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Posted 19 December 2013 - 01:39 AM

Bateau, what form/brand of Jiaogulan do you take, and what dosages?

Also, what studies show Jiaogulan is: "the 2nd most potent supplement at increasing insulin sensitivity in humans"

#18 Reformed-Redan

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Posted 19 December 2013 - 03:11 AM

What is the human HED for the effects of Jiaogulan to be effective? Thanks.

#19 ratzynal

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Posted 19 December 2013 - 10:53 AM

Great List,
My own personal favorite is missing. Rhodiola. Given idiosyncrasies, can't promise anything. But for me it is magic. I think adequate dosages are required for all this stuff. Consequently, one must be willing to possibly endure some sleepless nights, gastritis, ........

#20 Lemon.

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Posted 19 December 2013 - 04:57 PM

Name: Chaenomeles speciosa
Type: dopamine reuptake inhibitor.
http://en.wikipedia....omeles_speciosa
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#21 lammas2

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Posted 19 December 2013 - 05:44 PM

What about Dendrobium nobile?
Does it have any DRI/NRI properties?
It contains Dendrobin, Denbinobin, Dendramin, Dendrin, Dendrobin, Dendroxin, Nobilin, Nobilonin.

#22 deeptrance

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Posted 20 December 2013 - 06:31 AM

Extracts of Fructus akebiae contain hederagenin, which is a SNDRI according to one study http://www.sciencedi...09130571100323
I purchased a non-standardized whole extract of F.A. from ActiveHerb.com and used it for about a month with notable but not overwhelming results. It seemed to cause a bit of anxious energy, maybe a bit too stimulating, but I take too many other things to have really given it a good shot on its own.

Edited by deeptrance, 20 December 2013 - 06:37 AM.

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#23 deeptrance

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Posted 20 December 2013 - 06:42 AM

What about Dendrobium nobile?
Does it have any DRI/NRI properties?
It contains Dendrobin, Denbinobin, Dendramin, Dendrin, Dendrobin, Dendroxin, Nobilin, Nobilonin.


Here's what Kurtis Frank has to say about DN on the Examine.com page:
"For those wondering where the 'stimulants' in Dendrobium are (DS Craze), I cannot find evidence of any of these phenylethylamine compounds and may suspect that Dendrobium is to Phenylethylamine like Geranium is to DMAA; meaning not in it"

#24 NeuroNootropic

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Posted 21 December 2013 - 12:25 AM

I can vouch for Jiaogulan positively affecting mood, anhedonia and motivation, but only in the first week of taking 250 mg of the Paradise Herbs brand. Anhedonia includes both consummatory as well as anticipatory and it was very significant. However, in the second week, not only were the benefits gone, but I was also more irritable, anhedonic, fatigued, and depressed than usual. I am not sure why this is, but it could be from increased norepinephrine levels in the brain.
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#25 Barfly

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Posted 21 December 2013 - 07:16 PM

I can vouch for Jiaogulan positively affecting mood, anhedonia and motivation, but only in the first week of taking 250 mg of the Paradise Herbs brand. Anhedonia includes both consummatory as well as anticipatory and it was very significant. However, in the second week, not only were the benefits gone, but I was also more irritable, anhedonic, fatigued, and depressed than usual. I am not sure why this is, but it could be from increased norepinephrine levels in the brain.


Damn, I have just recently ordered Jiaogulan (Planetary Herbals) hoping for improved energy and motivation and your post seems very discouraging.

Any way to work around this issue of losing effectiveness, like cycling 5 days on, 2 off, perhaps adding uridine or some other supporting substance?

#26 NeuroNootropic

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Posted 21 December 2013 - 10:52 PM

I can vouch for Jiaogulan positively affecting mood, anhedonia and motivation, but only in the first week of taking 250 mg of the Paradise Herbs brand. Anhedonia includes both consummatory as well as anticipatory and it was very significant. However, in the second week, not only were the benefits gone, but I was also more irritable, anhedonic, fatigued, and depressed than usual. I am not sure why this is, but it could be from increased norepinephrine levels in the brain.


Damn, I have just recently ordered Jiaogulan (Planetary Herbals) hoping for improved energy and motivation and your post seems very discouraging.

Any way to work around this issue of losing effectiveness, like cycling 5 days on, 2 off, perhaps adding uridine or some other supporting substance?


Rapid cycling might help, but I've never tried it. If you do find a way to make the effects sustainable then please let us know.

As for improved energy and motivation, I've found both 500 mg of Rhodiola Rosea (3% Rosavins, 1% Salidrosides) and 1000 mg of Maca to be helpful, either taken together or separately. But for both of these supplements chronic dosing is required. I notice an improvement in motivation after the first week of taking them.

#27 Bateau

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Posted 22 December 2013 - 05:04 AM

hey, thank you for this -- tremendous resource ..

which of these would you recommend for mitigating akathisia/EPS-type stuff without stirring up anxiety? your post inspired me to take a little Bacopa and it's helped settled my mood/anxiety, though I'm still battling with physical restlessness and stiffness caused by Mirtazapine withdrawal.


Dont know much about akathisia/EPS/Mirtazapine withdrawals, but since benzos are commonly prescribed for those issues, Id suggest some Kava, easily the most potent anxiolytic supplement, lots of human trials proving efficacy, and shows zero evidence of traditional concerns with benzos (mainly withdrawals). The concerns over liver toxicity (~3 dozen individual reports) are sensationalist IMO.

What about

L-Phenylalanine
L-Tyrosine
N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine
Vitamin B6 / P5P
Chocolate ( 2-Phenylethylamine )

Surely you mean dark chocolate? I'd personally include all of those in my "I decided to not include basic dopamine precursors like tyrosine, Mucuna etc. or basic stim's like caffeine and ephedrine" statement, but the P5P is one I hadn't thought about.

NALT is a bit of a joke when it comes to a dopamine precursor.

L-Phenylalanine is sub-par in rodents compared to L-tyrosine r.e. efficacy as a dopamine precursor, so I'm assuming the same is true in humans. I'm aware you personally like to give the brain as much control as possible though, so phenylalanine makes some sense.

Edited by Bateau, 22 December 2013 - 05:12 AM.


#28 Multicultural Harmony

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Posted 22 December 2013 - 05:10 AM

I don't think l-dopa from mucuna survives the digestion process very well without being combined w/ something like Sinemet. Therefore, will probably cause digestive comfort in some ppl. Mucuna has other phytochems in it, however. I wouldn't really bother with it unless you had Parkinson's, and I'd still choose pharmaceuticals over mucuna. Cacao is probably a better choice than mucuna. I admit to having tried mucuna myself, time/$ that I won't be able to recover. I would suggest that unless you enjoy eating any of the above as food ingredients, not to bother with.

I've grown to be suspicious of most 'supplements' as little better than snake oil.

Edited by Pitolisant, 22 December 2013 - 05:12 AM.


#29 deeptrance

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Posted 22 December 2013 - 08:46 AM

Damn, I have just recently ordered Jiaogulan (Planetary Herbals) hoping for improved energy and motivation and your post seems very discouraging.

Any way to work around this issue of losing effectiveness, like cycling 5 days on, 2 off, perhaps adding uridine or some other supporting substance?


I wouldn't worry about what you read in a single experience report. These anecdotes we all write are merely our best guesses as to how something we personally use might possibly be affecting us, but it's so ridiculously unscientific that I don't think you should take it too seriously until you've read many different experience reports AND checked out the relevant material on Pubmed or ScienceDirect. There are cases where one person's report may be useful, mainly when there's an extremely strong negative or dangerous response, then it serves as a warning to others.

My experience of taking 500 to 1000 mg of a Nutricargo 4:1 jiaogulan extract powder every day, divided into 2-3 doses, has been unremarkable but possibly positive. I will continue taking it because of its many possible or likely health benefits which have been well-studied in China. It has a much wider variety of ginsenosides than panax ginseng, yet it's much less expensive, which makes it an ideal "poor man's ginseng" even though it's potentially superior to ginseng. I've experienced absolutely no side effects.

I prefer to use substances that do not act like drugs as a first course of action. Drugs are blunt instruments, taken out of context, and an aggressive form of intervention. They're ideal for situations requiring aggressive treatment, and I take a few of them myself. I like drugs! But they can cause a lot of problems and I've had 3 near-death experiences that were all related to proper use of prescribed medication. But that's just another experience report so don't take it too seriously.

I don't find it a compelling argument to say that one must feel or witness a significant result in order to justify taking (or avoiding!) any herb or supplement. For instance, I don't notice any benefit from fish oil, antioxidants, vitamin D, or most of my other daily supplements. I'm extremely skeptical about all the experience reports I read online where people make bold claims about the great effects they experience after a day or week or year of taking anything such as jiaogulan that has subtle, long-term benefits. When these substances are subject to double-blind placebo-controlled studies, they rarely show statistically significant differences in reported effect as compared with placebo. I won't get into all my reasons for taking them in spite of the absence of research support, as it would get too wordy and off-topic.

Edited by deeptrance, 22 December 2013 - 08:52 AM.

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#30 airplanepeanuts

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Posted 22 December 2013 - 09:31 AM

NALT is a bit of a joke when it comes to a dopamine precursor.


I don't think this article gets it right. So NALT isn't a good precursor for tyrosine, but we are not taking it for that. There might be other pathways. Also I don't find their claim that it doesn't cros the BBB backed up in their cited papers. The article claims that 74 +23 % is lost in the urine and leave out that is only about 10% of the supplemented NALT.

In my experience NALT feels quite dopaminergic and has fewer side effects than plain tyrosine.





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