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Mayan Civilization


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#121 bobdrake12

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Posted 02 January 2003 - 09:34 PM

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I have heard some of this mentioned but a lot is now woven into the Huichol traditions that were made famous by the author Carlos Casteñada and his narrative of the Teachings of Don Juan. The Maya are enigmatic because so much of who they were at their height is lost, as you are aware, but a place to sudy some of this may be in the traditions and teachings of the Lacandon Peoples.


Lazarus Long,

Thanks for the feedback. We are coming at this subject from two very distinct backgrounds. That is good because much can be learned this way.

I've seen one book on the subject about 5 years ago in a very large public library.

The legendary oral traditions (e.g. living in harmony with our Mother Earth) which reportedly came from the cosmos, may have been preserved a lot more than realized, but they never were nor are for sale.

The article below states, "The Maya revere each animal and plant."

When I entered the woods as a lad in Illinois, I was told that the woods was sacred because the life within the woods was sacred.

Check out the term "four cardinal points".

bob

http://home.att.net/...tional_ways.htm



(excerpts)

Many of the Mopan and Q´eqchi´ Maya practice the traditional ways that have been in existence for many generations. A sampling of these practices is described on this page. For a comprehensive examination of the traditional lifestyle of the Maya, order The Living Maya.

Connection To the Earth

What does it mean to have a spiritual connection to the land? For the Maya it means that they think about their natural environment in a certain way, they interact with nature in a certain way, and they engage in rituals that offer respect to the forces of nature. The Maya are one of many indigenous cultures around the world that engages in what is known as a nature-based religion.

When the Spanish arrived in Central America they forced the Maya to become Christians. The Maya were called pagans and mistreated if they did not adhere to the Christian doctrine that Spanish friars required them to follow. As the Maya converted to Christianity, they developed a blend of beliefs that included the Roman Catholic Church and their ancient religion. With the exception of the Maya who are part of the Protestant denominations that were brought into the area in the 1970s, many of the ancient beliefs and rituals are still practiced today.

Spiritual significance is found in all living things. The Maya revere each animal and plant. One tree - the ceiba or cottonwood tree - holds special significance as the Maya use it as a symbol of the power of nature. Symbolically, the branches hold up the sky and the roots keep the earth together. The copal tree is sacred as well, as it produces the resin and the bark that are burned in censers during spiritual ceremonies.




The "four corners of the earth" or the earth's cardinal points are also important to the Maya; they are even associated with specific colors. The colors of blue and green are also important as they signify the sky and the environment.

The four corners are important when praying; for example, a man may look to or turn to all four corners as he prays in his milpa prior to planting his corn.

Agriculture

The Maya are sustained by their use of the land for agriculture. The land where their sustenance is cultivated begins right outside their front door and expands over a very broad area of their village. Herbs used in cooking are often grown in pots next to their homes. Orchards of oranges and fruit trees may be close to the residence or closer to farmland. Farmland begins outside the center of the village and may be as far away as a two-hour walk.

There are several types of farmland that involve different crops and cultivation methods. A milpa is a plantation that has been cut from the bush and burned before it is planted, a technique known as slash-and-burn. The fire releases nutrients back into the soil.

Corn

For the Maya, agriculture represents a cultural connection to the land as important as traditional languages, arts, and ceremonies. Key to that connection is corn.

The cultivation of corn is connected ecologically, socially, and spiritually to Mayan culture. Sacred spiritual rituals specifically concerning the burning of a milpa, selection and use of seeds, and the actual planting of the corn have existed since the time of the ancient Maya.

Cacao

There is also a cultural significance to the cacao (cocoa) bean. In ancient times cacao beans were used as currency. Today the drink made from the ground bean is served regularly during family and community gatherings. Finally, cacao trees are of such importance that they are passed from one generation to the next as part of a family's inheritance.

Healing

Healing traditionally includes spiritual practice. This practice connects the person who is sick, the healer, and the spirits of nature. Healers feel that cures will not work unless both the healer and the patient are "thinking as one." Very few traditional healers simply grow herbs and dispense them to friends and family without there being a spiritual element involved.

Most individuals come to traditional healers for problems they themselves cannot cure. Most village elders have a working knowledge of the herbs for common health problems they have experienced over the years. A trip to a traditional healer - commonly called a bush doctor - occurs when a family member does not get well after a period of time.

A healer is usually one who:

o has the knowledge of how to use herbs to effect positive change in the body

o has a deep reverence for nature and practices traditional spiritual rituals

o apprenticed with a village elder in his younger years

Traditional healers spend time gathering herbs that grow wild in the rainforest. Some herbs grow near rivers and streams while others grow near hilly areas. A traditional healer has a keen eye for the plants he intends to gather. Prior to cutting the plant he says a prayer requesting permission for the plant to be cut.

A traditional healer may use several diagnostic techniques, including investigating an individual's symptoms, prayer, and using a stone - a sastun - at which the healer gazes during a period of meditation. The most famous contemporary Mayan healer in Belize, Elijio Panti of the Cayo District, also used a patient's pulse to form a diagnosis. Treatments include the use of herbs in either a tea or a poultice, instructions to engage in a particular behavior (such as staying inside or saying certain prayers), or a combination of the two.

#122 bobdrake12

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Posted 02 January 2003 - 11:39 PM

Lazarus Long,

More on Uxmal which is supposedly a magnetic center that was used to teach young people how to theoretically become "cosmic beings".

What is meant by the term "cosmic being"?

bob


http://www.antiquepr...ico_prints.html




"General Plan of the Ruins of Uxmal " steel engraving after a drawing by F.Catherwood, published in Incidents of Travel in the Yucatan, 1843.

#123 bobdrake12

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Posted 02 January 2003 - 11:41 PM

http://www.antiquepr...rints/D2154.JPG



" Uxmal, Casa de los Palomos " steel engraving after a drawing by F.Catherwood, published in Incidents of Travel in the Yucatan, 1843.

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#124 bobdrake12

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Posted 02 January 2003 - 11:43 PM

http://www.antiquepr...rints/D2409.JPG



" Uxmal, Front of the Casa de Las Tortugas " steel engraving after a drawing by F.Catherwood, published in Incidents of Travel in the Yucatan, 1843.

#125 bobdrake12

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Posted 02 January 2003 - 11:47 PM

Lazarus Long,

I believe this is also known as the "Temple of the Wizard".

Have you heard of the legend regarding a system of meditation than can be used to enter the consciousness of Hunab Ku?

bob



http://www.antiquepr...rints/D2157.JPG



" West Front of the House of the Dwarf, Uxmal " steel engraving after a drawing by F.Catherwood, published in Incidents of Travel in the Yucatan, 1843.

#126 bobdrake12

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Posted 02 January 2003 - 11:49 PM

http://www.antiquepr...rints/D2156.JPG



" East Front of the House of the Dwarf, Uxmal " wood engraving after a drawing by F.Catherwood(?), published in Incidents of Travel in the Yucatan, 1843.

#127 bobdrake12

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Posted 02 January 2003 - 11:53 PM

http://www.antiquepr...rints/D2408.JPG



" Portion of the Western Range of Building, Monjas " steel engraving after a drawing by F.Catherwood, published in Incidents of Travel in the Yucatan, 1843.

#128 bobdrake12

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Posted 02 January 2003 - 11:58 PM

http://www.antiquepr...rints/D2405.JPG



Uxmal, interior of building, wood engraving after a drawing by F.Catherwood, published in Incidents of Travel in the Yucatan, 1843

#129 Lazarus Long

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Posted 03 January 2003 - 02:26 AM

QUOTE
I believe this is also known as the "Temple of the Wizard".

Have you heard of the legend regarding a system of meditation than can be used to enter the consciousness of Hunab Ku?


Yes I have heard it called this and yes I have heard of a meditative practice that makes such claims but the name is esoteric and unknown to me.

I will share two specific observations I made while I spent some time at Uxmal, which impresed me more then Chichen, by the way.

First, its similarity of layout to a modern educational campus was striking. You could almost feel the energy of generations of students and their mentors still inhabiting the place. The ability to focus, and concentrate one's meditative strength is significantly enhanced by the intrinsic nature of the site. It possesses a number of features that lend themselves to such amplification.

One the setting is raised sufficiently above the surrounding terrain to perceive the spectacle of the four cardinal points all the way to the horizon.

Two, it is built above cenotes that still are not completely explored and extend as a cavernous system of underground fresh water rivers. And three, the architecture has a remarkable natural lens like quality that seems to do more then just amplify sound but in fact does as much for sight, and possibly psi energy. You can be said to simply "feel" a lot more there.

Second, I spent more then a few hours wondering off into the surrounding terrain that is essentially scrub and forested overgrowth because the lure was overwhelming. The site's major centers are clearly identified and developed but a significant number of ruins are still totally undeveloped and virtually in the condition Catherwood saw them in.

I was amazed at the extent of sites that are not even mapped at this site. I would estimate from my explorations that the extent of the ruin is a least four to six times the area depicted in the charts you have obtained and that is conservative. I not only found structural ruins but collapsed entrances to underground sites that are still in a state of total abandon. There is simply too much there for the economy to protect. That is why there is such a problem with pilfering and plunder.

All around my travels I found undeveloped sites that are barely beneath the surface. Mexico is a treasure trove of ancient history.

#130 bobdrake12

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Posted 03 January 2003 - 05:39 AM

QUOTE
You could almost feel the energy of generations of students and their mentors still inhabiting the place. The ability to focus, and concentrate one's meditative strength is significantly enhanced by the intrinsic nature of the site. It possess a number of features that lend themselves to such amplification.


Lazarus Long,

Thanks so much for your feedback.

I never was even near Uxmal. Thus, you are confirming what I read and heard including the energy.

Much can be understood resulting from the intuitive awareness manifested in the stillness.

Did you find any small white "stones" while you were there?

bob

http://www.antiquepr...rints/D2404.JPG



Uxmal, Casa del Gobernador, wood engraving after a drawing by F.Catherwood, published in Incidents of Travel in the Yucatan, 1843.

#131 Lazarus Long

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Posted 03 January 2003 - 06:06 AM

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Did you find any small white "stones" while you were there?


Yes. Mostly limestone but some agates and other chaulk like pebbles. The Maya used stones like these for the numerous gravel walkways, as well as the various facing materials. Plus they painted virtually all interior space in wonderful gesso murals that are for the most part lost. The hardpan of the Yucatan is also a limestone crust covering a complex underground passageway system of rivers that are linked at the cenotes. Tropical Sun bleached white stone is almost everywhere beneath the brush and scrub cactus.

#132 bobdrake12

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Posted 03 January 2003 - 07:23 AM

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Yes. Mostly limestone but some agates and other chaulk like pebbles.


Lazarus Long,

Thanks. That was just an intuitive guess on my part.

I have included another site map of Uxmal below.

bob

http://manray.csuhay...PhoUx/UxMap.htm



Site map of Uxmal, Yucatan, Mexico.

#133 bobdrake12

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Posted 03 January 2003 - 08:10 PM

http://manray.csuhay...ePAdiviPana.htm



The Adivino Pyramid and Nunnery Quadrangle at Uxmal. Photo by Augustus Le Plongeon, ca 1875.

#134 bobdrake12

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Posted 03 January 2003 - 08:14 PM

http://manray.csuhay...atherUxPana.htm



Uxmal with the Nunnery Quadrangle, center, Adivino Pyramid on the right.
Water color by Frederick Catherwood, ca 1840.


#135 bobdrake12

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Posted 03 January 2003 - 08:16 PM

http://manray.csuhay.../LDAdivMonj.htm



Uxmal from the Great Pyramid. The House of the Turtles (center), Nunnery Quadrangle (left), and Adivino Pyramid (right). Photo by Lawrence G. Desmond, 1990.

#136 bobdrake12

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Posted 03 January 2003 - 08:20 PM

http://manray.csuhay...AdivinoFull.htm



(Uxmal)

The west facade of the Adivino Pyramid. Chene Temple is located in the lower center and is about 25 meters above ground level. Photo by Augustus Le Plongeon, ca 1875.


#137 bobdrake12

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Posted 03 January 2003 - 08:41 PM

http://www.thenettra...chaltun_in.html



Dzibilchaltun means "the place where there's writing on the stones". It is located at 15 Kms. from Merida on the way to the north coast of Yucatán. It's one of the main settlements of the Mayan culture on Yucatán and in general for the entire Peninsula. This archeological site its 16 sq. Kms and has constructions that age about 2,500 years (500 b.C.).

On the surroundings you can find over 8,400 structures and there's been found 12 "sacbes" or stone roads, which in its majority start from the constructions.




Temple of the seven dolls

One of the most important structures is the temple of the seven dolls. It has a quadrangular floor with a central chamber, surrounded by a corridor. The ceiling forms a tower that apparently was projected on top of the building. One unusual feature on the Mayan architecture is that it presents windows on both sides of each door. During the decadence period (1200-1540 a.C.) the inhabitants of the site caved a hole on the structure (already destroyed) and penetrated the central chamber after removing dirt and stones from it. Over the entrance of this chamber was built a small altar with painted glyphs, which was restored four times. In the front and on top of the altar were placed seven clay dolls which is where the building got its name and are exhibited in the museum at this time.




Structure 38

Other important buildings are the structure 38, which some archeologists consider a residential unit with a worship place, because on some of the rooms they found big stone quadrangular piles. The central plaza is integrated by a series of buildings and structures; the open chapel built on the colonial period with a cannon vault and a sacristy made out of a single piece; according to some data obtained through a carved stone, the chapel was built between 1590 and 1600. The standing temple, know named this way because is the only building which kept standing by 1941, presents early architecture features and some traces of the Puuc style.

In the central part of the settlement it's found the Xlacah cenote, word that means "old town" which was explored by divers between 1957 and 1959 descending over 100 feet without being able to determine its depth.

#138 bobdrake12

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Posted 03 January 2003 - 09:03 PM

http://www.tourbymex...ibil/dzibil.htm

Dzibilchaltun - Part 1

"The place with writing on the stones"


Dzibilchaltun is located 17 km from Dzitya via federal highway 261 in the State of Yucatan, Mexico. Is the closest archaeological site to Progreso and Merida.




Location map

Dzibilchaltun is one of the major centres of the Mayan culture in Yucatan and of the Peninsula as a whole. It was discovered some years after Chichen Itza and Uxmal, but the first constructions date back to around 500 BC.

Dzibilchaltun covers an area of 16 square kms, with about 8,400 structures. The settlements is of the concentric type and the nucleus, which covers about 25 hectares, contains numerous monumental structures. In the 3 kms of the central part of the site there are various groups of buildings, the remaining 13 square kms contain disperse groups of structures with pyramind and vaulted buildings.

Further away from the centre of this ancient city, there are structures with stepped platforms around plazas, and small unvaulted pyramids.




Site map


Further away from the centre of this ancient city, there are structures with stepped platforms around plazas, and small unvaulted pyramids.

Many of the constructions found at Dzibilchaltun were built using the "Green Masonry" method, in which the stones are held together by chocks and mortar. The vaults were constructed using the overhanging stones method. The facades were decorated with modelled plaster.

Within the archaeological site there are 12 stone roads of "sacbes" the major part join the centre with the out-laying constructions. These roads are about 15 mts wide and they measure from 25 mts lenght to more than 1 km.

#139 bobdrake12

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Posted 03 January 2003 - 09:17 PM

http://www.tourbymex...ibil/dzibil.htm

Dzibilchaltun - Part 2

"The place with writing on the stones"


Dzibilchaltun is also a noteworthy site because it was inhabited for the longest period of time and has outstanding structures such as:




The Temple of the Seven Dolls, considered a temple due to the characteristics of its construction. It has a square base with a central chamber encircled by a corridor. The roof of the central chamber forms a tower which apparently reached above the vaulted part of the building. This structure also shows another feature uncommon in mayan architecture, it has windows next to two of its four doors. Over the Easter entrance, the inhabitants of the zone built a small altar decorated with painted hieroglyphics; they placed seven figurines, or dolls, on and in front of the altar as offerings, this is the reason the temple takes its name.




The Structure 38 Group. Heading from the museum of the Maya, you can see the residental area comprised of structures 384, 385, 386 and 38-Sub, one of the eldest vaulted structures in the site. Some archaeologists consider that this group represents a residential area with an area for worship, since large stone "metates" in the shape of square basins were found in some chambers. There is also found a tomb in the centre of the platform.




The Open Chapel. At the beginning of the Colonial era, an open chapel with barrel vault and sacristry in one, was built in the middle of the Central Square. According to a carved stone found in what was the priest's house, the chapel was built between 1590 and 1600.




The Standing Temple. In 1942 this was the only building standing with part of its roof intact, hence the name. It is also known as Structure 57 and it probably dates to the first half of the ninth century. Its architecture has features of the Early style with some influence from the transition to the Puuc style. The walls are made of rough cut square stone blocks; the surfaces are covered with a finer layer of plaster than in older buildings, and the door lintels are made of monolithic blocks similar to those in Puuc style buildings. However, the vault is made of overhanging stones, and the base layer of blocks with large tenons.

#140 bobdrake12

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Posted 04 January 2003 - 02:26 AM

http://www.mesoweb.c...map_merle2.html

Palenque



This map of Palenque originally appeared in The Sculpture of Palenque, Volume 1 by Merle Greene Robertson. (Note Dr. Robertson's penciled instructions for the 1997 National Geographic restoration drawing). North is down

#141 bobdrake12

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Posted 04 January 2003 - 02:34 AM

Palenque

http://www.mesoweb.c...aerials/01.html



In the center of the photograph, the structures of the Palace complex surround the multi-story Palace Tower. (The slope of grass on the near left side of the Palace has since been reconsolidated with stairs down to the level of the Great Plaza.) On the far right is the Temple of the Inscriptions. At the top left, the Temple of the Cross sits atop its pyramid rising from Stephens Plaza, with the Temple of the Foliated Cross to its right in shadow. The large structure without a roofcomb near the base of the Temple of Cross pyramid is Temple XIV, with the Temple of the Sun to its right. The view is from the northwest. (Photo: Merle Greene Robertson.)

#142 bobdrake12

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Posted 04 January 2003 - 02:40 AM

Palenque

http://www.mesoweb.c...aerials/02.html



Looking southeast at the Cross Group over the Palace (left) and the Temple of the Inscriptions (right). Clockwise from the left in the Cross Group are the Temple of the Cross, the Temple of the Foliated Cross, the Temple of the Sun and Temple XIV. (Photo: Merle Greene Robertson.)

#143 bobdrake12

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Posted 04 January 2003 - 02:42 AM

Palenque

http://www.mesoweb.c...aerials/19.html



Ground level view looking southwest at the Palace. The Temple of the Inscriptions is behind and to the right, and the Temple of the Sun to the far left. This photograph (which may have gotten mixed in with the aerials by accident) is valuable historically for showing the north end of the Palace before the grass was removed and the stairs reconsolidated. (Photo: Merle Greene Robertson.)

#144 bobdrake12

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Posted 04 January 2003 - 02:49 AM

Palenque


http://www.mesoweb.c...ures/TI/TI.html



The Temple of the Inscriptions

#145 bobdrake12

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Posted 04 January 2003 - 02:56 AM

Palenque

http://www.mesoweb.c...script_pic.html



The Temple of the Inscriptions.
(Photo: Jeff Cretcher.)


Dominating the scene of Palenque is the Temple of the Inscriptions, the most impressive memorial to a single person in all of ancient America. It was built by the king whose monument it was to become - K'inich Janaab' Pakal ("Pacal the Great"). His body was interred under the temple pyramid in the most grandiose crypt and sarcophagus known outside ancient Egypt.

#146 bobdrake12

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Posted 04 January 2003 - 03:00 AM

Palenque

http://www.mesoweb.c...TI/A017_TI.html

The Temple of the Inscriptions.
(Photo: Merle Greene Robertson.)


The Temple of the Inscriptions, named for the hieroglyphic texts on the inner walls of the temple, the most extensive surviving Maya inscription, is superimposed upon a truncated pyramid substructure made up of nine receding divisions, each sloping toward the top. Four platforms divide the front stairway into an ascending series of 9, 19, 19, 13 and 9 steps, making a total of 69 stairs to the top. Interestingly, it wsa in his sixty-ninth year of reign that K'inich Janaab' Pakal died.

#147 bobdrake12

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Posted 04 January 2003 - 03:03 AM

Palenque

http://www.mesoweb.c...s/TI/fig12.html



Vaulted stairway within the temple. The vault and stairway remained unchanged throughout Palenque's history.
Drawing by Merle Greene Robertson, modified after Alberto Ruz Lhuillier 1952, 1973.

Only the Temple of the Inscriptions of Palenque was built from its inception as a burial chamber. A stairway descends through a series of corbeled vault arches from the temple at the top of the pyramid to the grandiose tomb two meters below the plaza floor upon which the temple was built.

The sarcophagus and its covering slab were sculptured in place first. The pyramid and stairs within it were built from the base up after the crypt was finished. The Temple of the Inscriptions is unique in all Mesoamerica in this respect.

#148 bobdrake12

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Posted 04 January 2003 - 03:05 AM

Palenque

http://www.mesoweb.c.../TI/v1_004.html



Aerial view of the Palace and the Temple of the Inscriptions.
(Photo: Merle Greene Robertson.)

#149 bobdrake12

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Posted 04 January 2003 - 03:08 AM

Palenque

http://www.mesoweb.c.../TI/fig08z.html




Vaulted crypt of the Temple of the Inscriptions, with the Sarcophagus of Pakal the Great.
Reconstruction painting by Merle Greene Robertson.

#150 bobdrake12

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Posted 04 January 2003 - 03:13 AM

Palenque

http://www.mesoweb.c...agus/index.html





Photo copyright Merle Greene Robertson.




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