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c60 baati mitochondrial antioxidant

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#181 niner

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Posted 29 August 2015 - 01:59 AM

How do you prepare it yourself, Niner?
And: have you tried doing it in more ways than one (like morter and pestle + shaking it for a few weeks, or no mortar and pestle, or a magnetic "mixer".....)?

 

I grind the c60 in a mortar, weigh it, then add whatever amount of olive oil is needed to make the concentration I want.  I prefer making a lower concentration, like 0.5 mg/ml, because smaller amounts of c60 react more quickly.  I've gone as high as 0.9 mg/ml, but that takes a lot of stirring.  I've used both the low tech method:  Shake a couple times a day for a week or two, and the higher tech method:  Magnetic stirrer, followed by vacuum filtration with a 220 nm filter.  Both methods work about equally well if you're making low concentration mixtures.  Macroscopic particles of unreacted c60 in oil have been shown to pass through the GI tract of mice harmlessly. 


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#182 Huckfinn

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Posted 30 August 2015 - 03:21 PM

Thanks Turnbuckle

How do you prepare it yourself, Niner?
And: have you tried doing it in more ways than one (like morter and pestle + shaking it for a few weeks, or no mortar and pestle, or a magnetic "mixer".....)?

I grind the c60 in a mortar, weigh it, then add whatever amount of olive oil is needed to make the concentration I want. I prefer making a lower concentration, like 0.5 mg/ml, because smaller amounts of c60 react more quickly. I've gone as high as 0.9 mg/ml, but that takes a lot of stirring. I've used both the low tech method: Shake a couple times a day for a week or two, and the higher tech method: Magnetic stirrer, followed by vacuum filtration with a 220 nm filter. Both methods work about equally well if you're making low concentration mixtures. Macroscopic particles of unreacted c60 in oil have been shown to pass through the GI tract of mice harmlessly.
Cool,
Thanks

Edited by Huckfinn, 30 August 2015 - 03:22 PM.


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#183 Kalliste

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Posted 03 September 2015 - 12:06 PM

These papers showed up all of the sudden. Full text for free. Can't recall that they were posted. Both from the same author.

 

Review Article
Applications of Anti/Prooxidant Fullerenes in Nanomedicine along with Fullerenes Influence on the Immune System 1. Introduction

The aim of this review is to report the most recent progress on applications of fullerene C60 and its derivatives in nanomedicine, as well as the influence of fullerene nanoparticles on immune system. Being novel substances, fullerenes generate considerable interest particularly in terms of their toxicity, biokinetics, biodegradation, and possible immune responses. This paper emphasizes the fullerene’s antioxidative properties, but also its prooxidative features, as well as the impact of fullerenes on the cells of innate and adaptive immunity.

The fullerene C60 due to its physicochemical properties has the ability to both scavenge and generate reactive oxygen species. Antioxidant capacity of C60 is based on highly delocalized π double bond system functioning as a “free radical sponge” and quenching different free radical species more efficiently than conventional antioxidants [1, 2]. Fullerenes may also induce prooxidant effects and this is likely to be dictated by the fullerene in question, the cell type being investigated, and the experimental setup [36]. The solubility of C60 in polar solutions is very low, which greatly limits its potential applications in medicine. However, due to the presence of double bonds, C60 can be easily modified with chemical groups that allow its better water solubility. In that way, water-soluble C60 derivatives expand their opportunities for various medical applications such as protection from radiation-induced injury, neuroprotection, drug and gene delivery, therapy against many diseases and processes, photosensitizing, sonosensitizing, bone reparation, and biosensing.

 

 

http://www.hindawi.c...nm/2015/565638/

 

Review Article
Review of Synthesis and Antioxidant Potential of Fullerenol Nanoparticles Abstract

This review describes the chemical synthesis of polar polyhydroxylated fullerene C60 derivatives, fullerenols C60(OH)n, , C60HzOx(OH)y, and polyanion fullerenols C60(OH)15(ONa)9, ranging from the very first synthetic methods up to some contemporary approaches to synthesis and separation. It also provides some basic information about physical characteristics of fullerenols. With the increasing number of hydroxyl groups, water solubility of fullerenols increases as well. Fullerenols both in water and biological media build nanoparticles of different dimensions and stability. In different chemical and biological model systems a large number of various polyhydroxylated fullerene derivatives were tested and they showed both their antioxidative and prooxidative characteristics. Several mechanisms have been proposed for the antioxidant activity of fullerenol. In addition, this paper also provides insight into patents referring to the antioxidant properties of fullerenol.

http://www.hindawi.c...nm/2015/567073/


Edited by Cosmicalstorm, 03 September 2015 - 12:07 PM.

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#184 stefan_001

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Posted 27 November 2015 - 09:02 PM

Perhaps this old news for the forum members but this sounds like an interesting PhD dissertation:

The results from the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay demonstrate that fullerenes are very poor reducing agents, whereas the results of electro-paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) confirmed their radical scavenging properties vs. superoxide ion. Taken together, the results of both studies (FRAP and EPR) emphasize the need to distinguish between antioxidant and antiradical properties of fullerenes, as the latter can occur via oxidation of free radical species.

Regarding their potential future use in clinical applications, an important finding is that hydroxyl and carboxy fullerene derivatives exposed to ambient conditions in living cells neither produce ROS nor cause any cytotoxicity at nanomolar to micromolar concentrations, as shown using proliferation assays and redox sensitive fluorescent dyes. On the other hand, TTA and C60OHx fullerenes were found to have a distinct effect on mitochondrial function of cells, implying their interference with proton transfer process of mitochondrial membrane. However, this effect is apparently not sufficient to decrease cell viability.

The activity of fullerenes as potential anti-inflammatory drugs was investigated using several cell-based assays involving an NF-kβ reporter gene assay, coupled with visualization of nuclear translocation of exogenous (transfected) NF-kβ, achieved via a construct with the NF-kβ p65

http://jsnn.ncat.unc...tation-defense/
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#185 niner

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Posted 28 November 2015 - 02:59 AM

Perhaps this old news for the forum members but this sounds like an interesting PhD dissertation:
http://jsnn.ncat.unc...tation-defense/

 
I'd like to take a look at this thesis.  I found this part of the article kind of funny:
 

Our First Female Ph.D. Dissertation Defense

Wow, seriously?  Aren't they embarrassed to admit that?  My grad school class was at least half female, and that was three decades ago.  Hell, even my undergrad chem classes where around half female.



#186 Turnbuckle

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Posted 28 November 2015 - 04:34 AM

 

 

Our First Female Ph.D. Dissertation Defense

Wow, seriously?  Aren't they embarrassed to admit that?  My grad school class was at least half female, and that was three decades ago.  Hell, even my undergrad chem classes where around half female.

 

 

 

The school opened in 2012, so it's not surprising.



#187 niner

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Posted 28 November 2015 - 05:03 AM

The school opened in 2012, so it's not surprising.

If she actually started the program in 2012, then that's a very quick PhD.  They probably started the program with existing students already in progress.  If they had trumpeted their "First PhD Dissertation" and not mentioned gender (or race, national origin, or religion) as though those things were particularly noteworthy, that would have been fine.  It just sounds like they're saying "Wow, lookee there, a girl got a PhD!"


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#188 Kalliste

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Posted 03 December 2015 - 05:55 AM

Some news regarding C60

 

An Update on Methuselah Foundation Funding of a C60 Cancer Study at Ichor Therapeutics

Loading...

Carbon buckyballs, C60, have been a topic of interest to the longevity advocacy community since a study a few years ago claimed significant life extension in rats. I remain very skeptical: it was a small number of animals, carried out by people outside the aging research community, published in a journal that doesn't normally cover this topic, and the claimed effect was double that achieved by the mainstream community via other methods in rats. It just doesn't pass muster. Nonetheless, people are interested, and crowdfunded attempts to replicate the result are ongoing.

There is better, albeit still thin, support for C60 to be a beneficial adjuvant treatment or delivery method for chemotherapy in cancer therapies. Ichor Therapeutics has been looking to raise funds for some of their early stage work on this topic of late. The Methuselah Foundation stepped in to fund this research earlier in the year, and here is an update on this topic. This will no doubt be of interest to those who consider it worthwhile following up on claims of life extension via C60 in normal mice:

Quote:
Ichor Therapeutics, Inc., is a pre-clinical biotechnology company that develops technologies to target age-related pathology. The company received $79,775 in grant funding from Methuselah Foundation in July, 2015, to develop a C60-based therapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). AML is a lethal blood cancer with only a 24% five-year survival rate. Ichor reports that short-term biodistribution studies have been completed, and long-term studies are ongoing. These studies track the accumulation and reduction of C60 in the blood and various organs over time, and are essential for establishing a safety profile during pre-clinical studies. The company has also initiated a large scale repeat of its pilot efficacy study, which led to a doubling of median lifespan in a mouse model of AML.

"We are eagerly awaiting the results of our efficacy study. Our current data supports the hypothesis that C60 may be a safe and effective therapeutic candidate for several age-related diseases, including cancer. Quality assurance is a critically important part of manufacturing, yet is often ignored in the context of research grade products. Methuselah Foundation supported early development of quality assurance measures in preparation for our studies. We were surprised to discover that when we evaluated multiple sources of C60, there were large disparities between what is reported by vendors, and what is actually contained within their products." While a promising therapeutic compound, C60 is not approved for use as a drug or supplement. Its manufacturing is currently unregulated.

"Methuselah and Ichor will be exploring appropriate solutions to the problem of unreliable formulations. Ichor is actively adopting cGLP and cGMP standards. Once in place, we can begin FDA compliant manufacturing and pre-clinical safety and toxicity testing. We think C60 could have immense potential to treat disease, but it is important to take a measured approach as we move towards the clinic. Any new compound should be rigorously investigated before human use, especially for safety." The company expects its studies to conclude by March, 2016, and intends to publish the results in an open access peer-reviewed journal.

 

Link: http://ichortherapeu...ology-research/

https://www.fightagi...herapeutics.php


Edited by Cosmicalstorm, 03 December 2015 - 05:55 AM.

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#189 Kalliste

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Posted 03 December 2015 - 05:57 AM

I wonder if Kyle Moody would be willing to give some more detail. In particular, which products contained unwanted or unstated items?


Edited by Cosmicalstorm, 03 December 2015 - 05:57 AM.


#190 Kalliste

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Posted 05 December 2015 - 05:33 AM

Fathi Moussa was in the news again, by the way. It's a bit off topic but still concerns carbon nanoparticles and human health.

 

Are cars nanotube factories on wheels?

http://news.rice.edu...ries-on-wheels/



#191 Kalliste

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Posted 16 December 2015 - 05:50 AM

Perhaps this old news for the forum members but this sounds like an interesting PhD dissertation:

The results from the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay demonstrate that fullerenes are very poor reducing agents, whereas the results of electro-paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) confirmed their radical scavenging properties vs. superoxide ion. Taken together, the results of both studies (FRAP and EPR) emphasize the need to distinguish between antioxidant and antiradical properties of fullerenes, as the latter can occur via oxidation of free radical species.

Regarding their potential future use in clinical applications, an important finding is that hydroxyl and carboxy fullerene derivatives exposed to ambient conditions in living cells neither produce ROS nor cause any cytotoxicity at nanomolar to micromolar concentrations, as shown using proliferation assays and redox sensitive fluorescent dyes. On the other hand, TTA and C60OHx fullerenes were found to have a distinct effect on mitochondrial function of cells, implying their interference with proton transfer process of mitochondrial membrane. However, this effect is apparently not sufficient to decrease cell viability.

The activity of fullerenes as potential anti-inflammatory drugs was investigated using several cell-based assays involving an NF-kβ reporter gene assay, coupled with visualization of nuclear translocation of exogenous (transfected) NF-kβ, achieved via a construct with the NF-kβ p65

http://jsnn.ncat.unc...tation-defense/

 

I contacted the woman in question. She is willing to take some questions as per email. If anyone has any, I can forward them to her and see what she has to say. Send them as a pm to me, I will wait a few days.



#192 Turnbuckle

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Posted 16 December 2015 - 11:48 AM

 

...On the other hand, TTA and C60OHx fullerenes were found to have a distinct effect on mitochondrial function of cells, implying their interference with proton transfer process of mitochondrial membrane...

 

I contacted the woman in question. She is willing to take some questions as per email. If anyone has any, I can forward them to her and see what she has to say. Send them as a pm to me, I will wait a few days.

 

 

My question: Is C60 blocking UCP pores, thus shifting mitochondria from heat production to ATP synthesis?



#193 HighDesertWizard

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Posted 19 December 2015 - 03:28 PM

As you may know, I've been engaged with research about NF-kB Inhibition impact on Lifespan details... Here and here... Here's my most recent post to one of those threads...

 

This thread has recently focused on the significance of NF-kB Translocation and Cytokine Transcription for lifespan. This recent focus led to another study in which UVA related damage to DNA was apparently prevented by NF-kB Translocation and Cytokine Transcription Inhibition. The study abstract appears below. The full study text, including graphic figure snapshots related to NF-kB Translocation, can be found here.

 

Fullerene-polyvinylpyrrolidone clathrate localizes in the cytoplasm to prevent Ultraviolet-A ray-induced DNA-fragmentation and activation of the transcriptional factor NF-kappaB

 

By Western blot and immunostaining we proved that polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-wrapped fullerene molecules (PVP-fullerene) could combine the 8- and 53-kb proteins which localize in the membrane of human skin keratinocytes HaCaT. Only fullerene molecules are able to cross the lipid membrane and conjugate 53-kb proteins in the cytosol. There are no fullerene molecules detectable in the nucleus or cytoskeleton. Ultraviolet-A (UVA)-irradiation on HaCaT or normal human epidermal melanocytes (NHEM) caused nuclear fragmentations, lowering of intracellular DNA-contents below diploidy, concurrently with the repressed DNA synthesis and the increased DNA-3'OH cleavage terminals, all of which were repressed by PVP-fullerene, as shown by flow cytometry and PI- or TUNEL-stain fluorography. Translocation of the transcriptional factor NF-kappaB in the cytoplasm to the nucleus of the keratinocytes was caused with UVA and repressed by PVP-fullerene with cytoprotective effects. Thus, the PVP-fullerene may be developed as a UV-protective agent with DNA-preservative effects owing to its combinative ability to molecules in the cytoplasm and cytomembrane, and then represses cellular oxidative stress and blocks abnormal signal pathways.

 

 

In the survival curves posted up thread, study objectives were a lot about isolating the effects of NF-kB Manipulation on LIfespan via NF-kB genetic defects or via doses of toxin. The study referenced above shows decreased UVA-related DNA damage via NF-kB Translocation Inhibition via administration of Fullerene C60 (F-C60).

 

The study above is interesting because, in 2012, a different study showed The prolongation of the lifespan of rats by repeated oral administration of [60]fullerene. Full text here.

 

AFAIK, at this date, 2015-12-19, the lifespan prolongation benefit mechanism of action of F-C60 in Olive Oil (F-C60-OO) has not been definitively determined. At a minimum, for those following the Lifespan / NF-kB Inhibition literature, it's interesting that (1) the survival curves shown in the F-C60-OO study resemble those we've seen up thread, and (2) we now know that F-C60 administration is capable of Inhibiting NF-kB Translocation.

 

Here's the survival curve shown in the F-C60-OO study.

 

FIvfxG7.png

 

 

This 2012 F-C60-OO study is interesting also for another reason. A key learning is documented up thread: Intact Splenic functions are Required for a significant Survival Benefit to be achieved by NF-kB Inhibition. And it turns out, the 2012 F-C60-OO is terribly confused about F-C60 accumulation in the spleen. I've previously posted a bit about that confusion here.

 

 


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#194 HighDesertWizard

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Posted 19 December 2015 - 03:45 PM

 

<< SNIP >>

 

<< SNIP >>

 

AFAIK, at this date, 2015-12-19, the lifespan prolongation benefit mechanism of action of F-C60 in Olive Oil (F-C60-OO) has not been definitively determined.

 

<< SNIP >>

 

 

Quick question... If I somehow missed seeing the study demonstrating the Baati study Lifespan Prolongation Mechanism of Action could someone post a link to it?

 

Thanks.



#195 Kalliste

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Posted 19 December 2015 - 05:56 PM

...On the other hand, TTA and C60OHx fullerenes were found to have a distinct effect on mitochondrial function of cells, implying their interference with proton transfer process of mitochondrial membrane...


I contacted the woman in question. She is willing to take some questions as per email. If anyone has any, I can forward them to her and see what she has to say. Send them as a pm to me, I will wait a few days.

My question: Is C60 blocking UCP pores, thus shifting mitochondria from heat production to ATP synthesis?

Reply:

"Hi,

Your question is very general and there is no absolute answer!!
Can you answer this: Are fullerenes toxic to cells?!
Based on the results I got, fullerenes decrease ATP synthesis by causing hydrogen depletion, thus the potential energy of H+ gradient is released as heat. There was a reduction in the mitochondrial membrane potential for the cells treated with fullerenes (I used hydrated fullerenes; C60OHx)! Many studies have shown the changes of mitochondrial function upon treatment with fullerenes/nanoparticles.However the mechanism is not known!! Asking about fullerene effect on mitochondrial function is pretty much like asking about fullerene toxicity?! I will inform you if I come across a new finding in this regard!"

#196 Turnbuckle

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Posted 19 December 2015 - 07:28 PM

 

Based on the results I got, fullerenes decrease ATP synthesis by causing hydrogen depletion, thus the potential energy of H+ gradient is released as heat. There was a reduction in the mitochondrial membrane potential for the cells treated with fullerenes (I used hydrated fullerenes; C60OHx)! 

 

 

This is consistent with Russian work suggesting mild uncoupling with hydrated fullerenes, but it seems that hydrated fullerenes must have the opposite effect of C60 in EVOO on ATP, otherwise how are people experiencing increased muscular capacity and endurance?


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#197 HighDesertWizard

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Posted 20 December 2015 - 05:54 AM

 

<< SNIP >>

The activity of fullerenes as potential anti-inflammatory drugs was investigated using several cell-based assays involving an NF-kβ reporter gene assay, coupled with visualization of nuclear translocation of exogenous (transfected) NF-kβ, achieved via a construct with the NF-kβ p65

http://jsnn.ncat.unc...tation-defense/

 

I contacted the woman in question. She is willing to take some questions as per email. If anyone has any, I can forward them to her and see what she has to say. Send them as a pm to me, I will wait a few days.

 

 

My first question is asked with the 2010 study finding I've just posted above in mind...

 

It's not clear from the link above what the dissertation finding is with regard to Fullerene C60 and NF-kB Translocation. The 2010 study found that NF-kB was inhibited from Translocating to the Nucleus by F-C60 and that Inhibition provided benefit vis-a-vis UVA-related damage to DNA. Did this 2015 dissertation find something of comparable action and benefit?

 

Can we view and/or download the dissertation in full or in part?


Edited by HighDesertWizard, 20 December 2015 - 05:54 AM.


#198 stefan_001

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Posted 24 December 2015 - 08:37 PM

Has it ever been measured whether the overall "impact" of C60 would result in a larger amount of NAD+ which would help fuel repair and other processes?

#199 pone11

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Posted 25 December 2015 - 09:23 PM

More than three years after Baati, and we still have no one either confirming or denying the research result in a new study by a different team?    And what happened to Baati's own follow up research that was to use larger populations?

 

Does anyone have a timeline of major confirmation studies that are due to be published - or have prelim results revealed - in 2016?



#200 Kalliste

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Posted 26 December 2015 - 05:47 AM

See Kmoodys current threads re AML.
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#201 HighDesertWizard

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Posted 01 January 2016 - 03:00 PM

More than three years after Baati, and we still have no one either confirming or denying the research result in a new study by a different team?    And what happened to Baati's own follow up research that was to use larger populations?
 
Does anyone have a timeline of major confirmation studies that are due to be published - or have prelim results revealed - in 2016?

 
I believe Kelsey Moody's first F-C60-OO experiment was a kind of confirmation.
 
And there is this from Nanocomposite Treatment Reduces Disease and Lethality in a Murine Model of Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease and Preserves Anti-Tumor Effects. Interesting also because Olive Oil wasn't used...
 
 
sQpGT2P.png
 

 

 
Of course, those two studies referenced above raise an important question...
 
Are studies that subject study animals to survival threatening conditions appropriate and useful surrogates (taking less time and money to complete) for lifespan increase studies? Sure, they don't prove lifespan increase benefit. But can we use them as Feelers to test hypotheses about what works and what doesn't before the larger investment is made in a larger, more robust lifespan study?
 
BTW, an answer to that question is implicated in the Survival Curves posted here. Notice that in the experiment using Wild Type Homo Sapiens the implicated answer to the question is Yes.

How Yes? Well, the experiment with homo sapiens confirms that the longevity promoting mechanism exists in humans that is highlighted in the animals subject to survival threatening biological or pharmacological manipulation.

 
 

<< SNIP >>
 
Despite all the hype, no one really knows what those rats were given and what is having the positive effects. There is only speculation until a properly manufactured product shows efficacy or a mechanism of action is clearly determined.
 
<< SNIP >>

 
I appreciate that kmoody gets that our determining the mechanism of action would completely change this game...

 

FWIW, I believe the knowledge required for us to do a very short duration MoA study already exists... I mean Short Duration...

 

Where? Well, you gotta have criteria for evaluating what evidence to take more seriously than other evidence...

 

Where's the Beef?

 
 

<< SNIP >>
 
Imagine it... The F-C60-OO Longevity Benefit might be an unexpected outcome of some unique leveraging of an already known mechanism [that we know provides profound survival benefit]...

Just sayin'...
 
:-D

 


Edited by HighDesertWizard, 01 January 2016 - 03:36 PM.


#202 pone11

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Posted 03 January 2017 - 06:26 PM

More than three years after Baati, and we still have no one either confirming or denying the research result in a new study by a different team?    And what happened to Baati's own follow up research that was to use larger populations?

 

Does anyone have a timeline of major confirmation studies that are due to be published - or have prelim results revealed - in 2016?

 

Here we are one year later and still no scientific confirmation of life-extension results Baati reported?   We can't even get Baati to duplicate and expand on his own result?

 

Just for kicks, one of the names on the original Baati study was "Fathi Moussa" and I noticed a study from 2005 with Fathi's name on the hepatoprotective effects of C60 with the title "[60]Fullerene is a Powerful Antioxidant in Vivo with No Acute or Subacute Toxicity":

https://sci-hub.ac/10.1021/nl051866b


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#203 apmark

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Posted 28 January 2017 - 03:25 AM

You can mix the c60oo with food.  That will reduce the peppery taste.   I wouldn't use an enteric coated capsule because c60oo needs to be digested like any other triglyceride in order to form the active species.  It would probably still be digested, but if it dissolved too far down the GI tract, it might just get excreted without absorption.  I can't see any benefit to it.    Baati's rats were dosed orally, so I'd follow that plan.  If you wanted to put it into an ordinary gelatin cap, that should work, but it would be a hassle.  I take mine with food, using it like ordinary olive oil.  Don't heat it or cook with it, though.

I have ordered 5gm of c60 to mix myself with a litre of olive oil and use like you do. Is the process simple enough to make? I have watched 1 video of them making this  



#204 aribadabar

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Posted 29 January 2017 - 02:44 AM

I have ordered 5gm of c60 to mix myself with a litre of olive oil and use like you do. Is the process simple enough to make? I have watched 1 video of them making this  

 

 

The maximum solubility of C60 in EVOO is 0.8mg/ml so max you can do is 800 mg/L. Many go with lower concentrations of ~0.5mg/ml (500 mg/L) and usually in small(er) batches to keep the final product fresh.

Putting all 5g in 1L would be a waste on so many levels. Don't do it.


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#205 apmark

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Posted 29 January 2017 - 04:47 AM

 

I have ordered 5gm of c60 to mix myself with a litre of olive oil and use like you do. Is the process simple enough to make? I have watched 1 video of them making this  

 

 

The maximum solubility of C60 in EVOO is 0.8mg/ml so max you can do is 800 mg/L. Many go with lower concentrations of ~0.5mg/ml (500 mg/L) and usually in small(er) batches to keep the final product fresh.

Putting all 5g in 1L would be a waste on so many levels. Don't do it.

 

 


Thanks for that. I will do exactly that then


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#206 apmark

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Posted 01 February 2017 - 02:14 AM

 I have also ordered some DMSO, and will mix this with c60, Do you know what ratio I should use for this? I am doing this to apply topically as an old study on this combo indicated increasing hair density.

Coincidently I was exposed to measles at work recently and had to had the vaccine for this just outside of the 3 day period. Consequently my face went red and cheeks went puffy (a noted possible side effect of the measles vaccine). However I am off all supplements for a couple of days just in case it is something in my regimen.



#207 Turnbuckle

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Posted 01 February 2017 - 02:44 AM

 I have also ordered some DMSO, and will mix this with c60, Do you know what ratio I should use for this?

 

 

You can use any ratio you want, as C60 is not soluble in DMSO.



#208 apmark

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Posted 01 February 2017 - 09:08 AM

OK thanks







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