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Bill Andrews announces full telomere extension treatment, clinical trials soon to follow

age reversal

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#1 marcobjj

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Posted 05 April 2017 - 03:05 AM


"Published on Mar 22, 2017

Dr. Bill Andrews and his team rejoins the program to share his bombshell news that his lab has found a “full solution” for lengthening telomeres to reverse aging of human cells. An incredible breakthrough leading to humans seeing potentially 4 decades or more shaved off their biological age! "

 

 


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#2 PeaceAndProsperity

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Posted 05 April 2017 - 02:29 PM

Halfway through and it appears to be clickbait. 


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#3 PeaceAndProsperity

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Posted 06 April 2017 - 02:23 PM

Yes, clickbait. Nothing new to learn, this is the stuff he's been saying for many years.


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#4 Mind

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Posted 07 April 2017 - 08:49 PM

Thanks for saving me some time PeaceandProsperity.


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#5 marcobjj

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Posted 10 April 2017 - 03:02 AM

it isn't clickbait. here's the clip where he mentions the specific treatment:

 



#6 PeaceAndProsperity

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Posted 10 April 2017 - 11:25 AM

I watched part 1 and 2 which was almost 2 hours? But didn't watch that 16min clip.



#7 niner

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Posted 11 April 2017 - 01:22 AM

What is Bill's evidence that this method will work?  Is there any animal data at all?  I only watched the 20 min segment, not the 2 hour one.  Did Liz Parrish come up at any point in the longer video?  Did he address the cancer concern?  This seems a bit sketchy...


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#8 marcobjj

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Posted 11 April 2017 - 03:06 AM

Evidence that it WILL work? You're funny. In the 20 min segment, he actually announces there will be testing on lemurs before they move on to human trials depending on results. Did you actually watch / listen to the interview?


Edited by marcobjj, 11 April 2017 - 03:08 AM.

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#9 niner

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Posted 11 April 2017 - 03:34 PM

Yeah, "will be" testing.  That sounds like he's decided it's a miracle cure before testing it.  I told you I watched the 20 min segment, not the 2 hour version.


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#10 marcobjj

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Posted 11 April 2017 - 04:53 PM

That sounds like he's decided it's a miracle cure before testing it.


Nope. what is sounds like is that you decided to be a hater before giving him a chance. And the reason that is is you're more concerned about losing investor money than you are about actual age reversal. Your greed prevents you from thinking straight in this matter.

Edited by marcobjj, 11 April 2017 - 04:53 PM.

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#11 BobSeitz

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Posted 24 May 2017 - 02:31 AM

My understanding is that Bill Andrews' projected treatment will take place in the Fiji Islands (for regulatory reasons?), and that it will initially cost Sierra Sciences $1.200,000 (US) to treat one patient. He is undertaking this in collaboration with J. Park (DefytimeTAM), who has identified 1,500+ wealthy Asians who are willing to invest the money to try this approach. The treatment is, I think, a version of Liz Parrish' gene therapy experiment. Dr. Andrews has previously pegged Sierra Science's TAM 818 at 16% of what would be needed to fully maintain telomere length. In other words, it would slow telomere aging by 16% but wouldn't halt or reverse aging. In contrast, this new approach would, he believes, generate 3,000 % or 30 times the telomerase level necessary to halt telomere erosion.

The lemur study is (I think) to be secondary to this initial multibillion-dollar human trial? The lemur study is (I think) directed toward lowering the cost of this therapy?

Is this really going to happen? I hope so. Will it be safe? I hope so.


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#12 Getm

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Posted 29 May 2017 - 05:51 PM

In this video https://www.youtube....h?v=g3XPCM8d5rE Bill talks about the strongest telomerase activator called C0314818. He said they designed this molecule themselves based on previous weaker ones. I wonder if this is the molecule they use in this new gene therapy, it seems so. It's only 16% TA but later they say the gene therapy is 30 times TA. So is it possible the gene therapy makes TA molecules 150 times more powerfull ?


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#13 marcobjj

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Posted 18 September 2017 - 01:47 AM

In this video https://www.youtube....h?v=g3XPCM8d5rE Bill talks about the strongest telomerase activator called C0314818. He said they designed this molecule themselves based on previous weaker ones. I wonder if this is the molecule they use in this new gene therapy, it seems so. It's only 16% TA but later they say the gene therapy is 30 times TA. So is it possible the gene therapy makes TA molecules 150 times more powerfull ?

 

 

they're now selling a sublingual version of the 16% TA molecule (TAM818) overseas . Non FDA approved obviously.

 

 

http://www.defytimetam.com/tam-spray/


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#14 Telo

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Posted 26 October 2017 - 12:16 PM

 

In this video https://www.youtube....h?v=g3XPCM8d5rE Bill talks about the strongest telomerase activator called C0314818. He said they designed this molecule themselves based on previous weaker ones. I wonder if this is the molecule they use in this new gene therapy, it seems so. It's only 16% TA but later they say the gene therapy is 30 times TA. So is it possible the gene therapy makes TA molecules 150 times more powerfull ?

 

 

they're now selling a sublingual version of the 16% TA molecule (TAM818) overseas . Non FDA approved obviously.

 

 

http://www.defytimetam.com/tam-spray/

 

 

I live in Europe and was able to order, and receive without problems, the TAM spray from here:

 https://www.defytime-emea.com

I've already been using it for a few days ;)

 

Here you can see a video of Bill showing how he sprays it under his tongue:

 http://defytime.jp/contents/TAM/en/TAM/tam_spray/index.html


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#15 marcobjj

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Posted 27 October 2017 - 06:07 AM

please report results Telo. I've been thinking of ordering a bottle or two for my parents.


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#16 Nate-2004

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Posted 02 November 2017 - 05:22 PM

Yeah if anyone's bought and used this stuff I would like to know results.



#17 sthira

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Posted 02 November 2017 - 07:01 PM

FYI on this one: "TAM (Bill Andrews) Ingredients:

New Zealand Bee Propolis Concentrate, Mono Propylene Glycol, Water, Glycerin, Manuka Honey, Menthol, Sodium Bicarbonate, Flavour, Sucralose, Sodium Benzoate, Potassium Sorbate, Manuka Essential Oil, TAM

#18 Moondancer

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Posted 03 November 2017 - 01:14 PM

$200 for a 20ml bottle. You have to use 2-3 sprays every 3 hours according to the website. So how long does that 20ml bottle last: a few weeks at most? For a 16% reduction in telomere shortening that is an expensive protocol. If this is not a marketing hype: is this really the best we may have currently to slow down telomere shortening  :mellow: ?


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#19 Telo

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Posted 11 November 2017 - 04:27 PM

$200 for a 20ml bottle. You have to use 2-3 sprays every 3 hours according to the website. So how long does that 20ml bottle last: a few weeks at most? For a 16% reduction in telomere shortening that is an expensive protocol. If this is not a marketing hype: is this really the best we may have currently to slow down telomere shortening  :mellow: ?

 

Quoting from their Q&A at

http://defytime.jp/c...pray/index.html

Twice daily administration is recommended. Also, avoid continuous dosing, please open the dosing interval 3 - 4 hours. 

 

 

 

By using the recommended usage method, use of 1 (20 ml) for 7 to 10 days is a standard.

 

 

I've used my first bottle for about 14 days and it's far from empty.

Yes it's expensive. But if it's really 80 to 300 times more effective than TA-65, which Andrews claims, maybe you can use it for shorter periods and still get as good or better results than with TA-65 or cycloastragenol? I'm just guessing of course. 

 

I'll give you my impressions after I've finished my two bottles ;)


Edited by Telo, 11 November 2017 - 04:47 PM.

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#20 marcobjj

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Posted 11 November 2017 - 07:19 PM

Thanks for the feedback Telo.

Isnt TAM being advertised as 16% Telomerse activation though? so that would make it only 2-3 times more potent than TA65 and not 80-300 times stronger, or am I missing something?

Edited by marcobjj, 11 November 2017 - 07:20 PM.


#21 YOLF

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Posted 22 November 2017 - 05:30 PM

Ok, this doesn't jive... Methylcobalamin, TMG, folate, and riboflavin were said to slow telomere attrition and people got longer telomeres with AIV and TA65/Cycloastragenol. So what's the rate of TA65 efficacy? How many base pairs are being added and how long would it take to replace lost telos? 16% is that in a year or over the lifetime of the patient? What is the starting age? Is transparent information available? I'd hate to see young people age unnecessarily and not make use of technologies so they could be sold more products when they are more aged and the age at which you start is likely to be very important to the efficacy of the product. Why shouldn't people under 25 use this product? Telomeres start shortening around 17 iirc. Wouldn't telomere maintenance be most productive in young people? Or young people just don't have that kind of money to spend?

 

Personally, I take 50mg/day of cycloastragenol. I don't take it continuously due to the expense, but eventually I may, and faster dosing would be expected to show results in a more timely manner.

 

Does anyone have more information on this? Is a diagram of the molecule available?


Edited by YOLF, 22 November 2017 - 05:31 PM.


#22 marcobjj

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Posted 23 November 2017 - 07:31 PM

Ok, this doesn't jive... Methylcobalamin, TMG, folate, and riboflavin were said to slow telomere attrition and people got longer telomeres with AIV and TA65/Cycloastragenol. So what's the rate of TA65 efficacy? How many base pairs are being added and how long would it take to replace lost telos? 16% is that in a year or over the lifetime of the patient? What is the starting age? Is transparent information available? I'd hate to see young people age unnecessarily and not make use of technologies so they could be sold more products when they are more aged and the age at which you start is likely to be very important to the efficacy of the product. Why shouldn't people under 25 use this product? Telomeres start shortening around 17 iirc. Wouldn't telomere maintenance be most productive in young people? Or young people just don't have that kind of money to spend?

Personally, I take 50mg/day of cycloastragenol. I don't take it continuously due to the expense, but eventually I may, and faster dosing would be expected to show results in a more timely manner.

Does anyone have more information on this? Is a diagram of the molecule available?



Its 16% of the amount of telomerase activation that it takes to immortalize an adult human cell line. Now cells that are senecent or close to have slower turnover rates, and thus slower telomere attrition rates, and that is probably the reason that some of them had their telomeres lenghtened by something as mild as TA65.

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#23 Robert Seitz

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Posted 24 November 2017 - 03:26 AM

My understanding of all this is:
(1) TA-65 is a very weak telomerase activator, but the human body uses it to selectively lengthen the short telomeres on the shortest chromosomes, 
(2) Dr. Andrews mentioned TAM 818 several years ago. At the time, he said that it was not suitable for human use but that he felt that it could be pharmaceutically manipulated to render it safe for human consumption. I guess that's now happened.
(3) I suspect that his other telomerase activation approach that's 30 times what's required for telomere maintenance is an enhanced version of what Liz Parrish pioneered two years ago: the insertion of an extra copy of the hTert gene into the genomes of her cells. I have the impression that only a small fraction of Ms. Parrish' cells actually incorporated the hTert gene. Just the same, it was enough to move the needle. She did experience some increase in the median length of her telomeres.  It sounds to me as though, Dr. Andrews believes that his new approach will be much more effective than Liz Parrish' pioneering experiment.

I'm really interested in what TAM 818 does, too. I'll be eager to see what kind of results you get, Telo. 

What about epitalon/endoluthen? Does it really lengthen telomeres? Where do you think it fits on this 0-100 scale of telomere maintenance?



#24 Robert Seitz

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Posted 24 November 2017 - 03:31 AM

Yolf, I see it the same way you do. Telomere attrition starts at conception. Unlike aging mechanisms that are triggered at 25, I should think that telomere maintenance may be something we would seek at any age.



#25 YOLF

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Posted 25 November 2017 - 07:59 PM

 

Ok, this doesn't jive... Methylcobalamin, TMG, folate, and riboflavin were said to slow telomere attrition and people got longer telomeres with AIV and TA65/Cycloastragenol. So what's the rate of TA65 efficacy? How many base pairs are being added and how long would it take to replace lost telos? 16% is that in a year or over the lifetime of the patient? What is the starting age? Is transparent information available? I'd hate to see young people age unnecessarily and not make use of technologies so they could be sold more products when they are more aged and the age at which you start is likely to be very important to the efficacy of the product. Why shouldn't people under 25 use this product? Telomeres start shortening around 17 iirc. Wouldn't telomere maintenance be most productive in young people? Or young people just don't have that kind of money to spend?

Personally, I take 50mg/day of cycloastragenol. I don't take it continuously due to the expense, but eventually I may, and faster dosing would be expected to show results in a more timely manner.

Does anyone have more information on this? Is a diagram of the molecule available?



Its 16% of the amount of telomerase activation that it takes to immortalize an adult human cell line. Now cells that are senecent or close to have slower turnover rates, and thus slower telomere attrition rates, and that is probably the reason that some of them had their telomeres lenghtened by something as mild as TA65.

 

So in other words, it will cost $5,600 a month to take enough to escape telomere attrition ($800/bottle/month *7)?  I need to make at least $67k/yr just to fix my telomeres? I wonder if I can just drink stem cell culture media with meals... I guess I could take the whole bottle over the course of 4-5 days, once a month and take cycloastragenol the rest of the days ($9,600/yr)... How dose dependent is this stuff? What's the LD50?

 

How long until the next iteration comes out?


Edited by YOLF, 25 November 2017 - 08:03 PM.

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#26 YOLF

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Posted 25 November 2017 - 08:25 PM

Yolf, I see it the same way you do. Telomere attrition starts at conception. Unlike aging mechanisms that are triggered at 25, I should think that telomere maintenance may be something we would seek at any age.

I can just see our future scientists saying, "Hmmm... college, or telomere therapy?"

 

What gives germ cells such long telos? Can't we just get it made as a research chemical?



#27 Robert Seitz

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Posted 26 November 2017 - 04:48 AM

"What gives germ cells such long telos?"

I'm supposing that telomerase is expressed in germ cells. But as I understand it, germ cells have more than long telomeres going for them.

In 1999, there was a report that 13 cows had been cloned from skin cells from a very old cow. Here were very old skin cells being completely, totally rejuvenated by fusing them with egg cells to produce brand spanking new cow embryos that grew up to become normal cows. This experiment underscored the miraculous ability of old... even very old... parents to create offspring that are as young as it's possible to get. Somehow, it's possible for old cells to become completely 100% rejuvenated. Somehow, all the damage that living has inflicted upon the old progenitor cells magically and totally disappears.

By (actually before) 1999, biologists found a way to carry out this rejuvenation process in, figuratively speaking, a Petri dish rather than inside a female animal. 

By now, in 2017, somatic cells can be transformed into pluripotent stem cells, and potentially, into embryonic stem cells using the four Yamanaka factors. The problem with harnessing this for human rejuvenation has been that the Yamanaka factors take the cell from its differentiated state all the way back to a pluripotent stem cell. It's an express train with no local stops. What we want is something that will clean up as much damage as we can without dedifferentiating the cells in our bodies. In December, 2016, Salk scientists reported doing just that in mice with progeria, extending their foreshortened lifespans by 30%. They did this with short spurts of exposure to the Yamanaka factors. They also tried this with normal mice.  Some improvements are noted, but nothing is said about extending the lifespans of normal mice, so apparently, their life spans weren't increased.

Getting back to the question of prctical telomere extension, I just received my recommended month's supply of endoluten, the orally available form of epitalon, from Russia. Before I take it, I'm going to try to get another Life Length telomere length profile to serve as a baseline, as well as report on the last three years of TA-65 consumption.

And thereby hangs a tale. I guess this is good a time and place as any to tell it.

In August, 2011, I began taking 4 capsules a day of TA-65. Dr. Ed Park of Recharge Biomedical was my guide and my source of TA-65. It's expensive... $8,000 a year.

The following May (2012), I had my telomere lengths tested, using Life Length as the testing agency. My telomere lengths came back decently high. I continued to take 4 capsules of TA-65 a day. Two-and-a-half years later, in October, 2014, I had my telomere lengths tested again. By this time, Life Length had completely reworked at least the way they reported their spectral histograms of telomere lengths. My original blood-sample readings were still on file, and Dr. Park got the May, 2012, results reworked, along with the October, 2014, results. This time, in retrospect, my original May, 2012, report looked quite different, with readings that put me way down in median telomere length for my age. Astoundingly, between May, 2012, and October, 2014, my median telomere length jumped from 7,000 base pairs to 9,500 base pairs (in other words, by 2,500 base pairs). My critically short telomere cutoff jumped 1,000 base pairs from 6,000 base pairs to 7,000 base pairs. My telomere length curve faded out at 25,000 base pairs in the orginal 2012 baseline study and vanished at 35,000 base pairs in the October, 2014 follow-up study... that is, it rose by 10,000 base pairs over the 2.5-year period

I was flabbergasted. If this had been results from Bill Andrews' upcomng hTert augmentation experiment, it might have been believable (and wonderful) news. But this was TA-65 at work. 

I called Dr. Park to see if he had an idea why there had been this huge jump. I think he said that he had had one other patient who had experienced a 1,000 base pair increment.

One possibility that crossed my mind was that if I had had an infection that had triggered massive replication of luekocytes, that might possibly (??) explain my humongous increase in median telomere lengths. Still, I'm not aware of having an infection in May, 2012, and even if I did, it's hard to imagine a 2,500-base pair drop in my median telomere length due to some minor infection.

 I continued to take 4 dapsules of TA-65 a day until late 2016, when I ran out. 

This past summer, I ordered another Life Length telomere testing kit from Dr. Park. Just after the kit arrived, I had a stomach virus. I delayed taking the test to acoid possibly confounding its results. Unfortunately, by the time I was ready to take the test, the FedEx envelope had timed out. But I think it's important that take this third telomere length test before I start something that really might extend my telomeres.

I have copies in the internet of the Life Length histograms for the May, 2012, and October, 2014, leukocyte telomere length distributions. I'll try to look up their internet addresses and post them here.

"
Can't we just get it made as a research chemical?"

 

"


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#28 Robert Seitz

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Posted 26 November 2017 - 06:27 PM

I forgot to mention: telomerase is expressed only in tiny local areas in a normal cell nucleus. It's present throughout the nucleus in malignant cells. I could certainly be wrong about this, but I have the impression that it has to be employed in a controlled way within the nucleus of each cell rather supplied exogenously. Maybe someone more knowledgeable reading this thread could speak to this.
cleardot.gif

 



#29 marcobjj

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Posted 26 November 2017 - 07:48 PM

 

 

Ok, this doesn't jive... Methylcobalamin, TMG, folate, and riboflavin were said to slow telomere attrition and people got longer telomeres with AIV and TA65/Cycloastragenol. So what's the rate of TA65 efficacy? How many base pairs are being added and how long would it take to replace lost telos? 16% is that in a year or over the lifetime of the patient? What is the starting age? Is transparent information available? I'd hate to see young people age unnecessarily and not make use of technologies so they could be sold more products when they are more aged and the age at which you start is likely to be very important to the efficacy of the product. Why shouldn't people under 25 use this product? Telomeres start shortening around 17 iirc. Wouldn't telomere maintenance be most productive in young people? Or young people just don't have that kind of money to spend?

Personally, I take 50mg/day of cycloastragenol. I don't take it continuously due to the expense, but eventually I may, and faster dosing would be expected to show results in a more timely manner.

Does anyone have more information on this? Is a diagram of the molecule available?



Its 16% of the amount of telomerase activation that it takes to immortalize an adult human cell line. Now cells that are senecent or close to have slower turnover rates, and thus slower telomere attrition rates, and that is probably the reason that some of them had their telomeres lenghtened by something as mild as TA65.

 

So in other words, it will cost $5,600 a month to take enough to escape telomere attrition ($800/bottle/month *7)?  I need to make at least $67k/yr just to fix my telomeres? I wonder if I can just drink stem cell culture media with meals... I guess I could take the whole bottle over the course of 4-5 days, once a month and take cycloastragenol the rest of the days ($9,600/yr)... How dose dependent is this stuff? What's the LD50?

 

How long until the next iteration comes out?

 

 

As far as stopping attrition or reversing it altogether by taking massive amounts of a  low level telomerase activator like TAM818 or TA65, I don't think it works like that. At some point there's gotta be diminished benefits and tolerance for any single molecule. I wouldn't try it. Unless you're really getting up there in age and have a lot of disposable cash, then maybe.


Edited by marcobjj, 26 November 2017 - 07:50 PM.


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#30 YOLF

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Posted 27 November 2017 - 05:51 PM

"What gives germ cells such long telos?"

I'm supposing that telomerase is expressed in germ cells. But as I understand it, germ cells have more than long telomeres going for them.

In 1999, there was a report that 13 cows had been cloned from skin cells from a very old cow. Here were very old skin cells being completely, totally rejuvenated by fusing them with egg cells to produce brand spanking new cow embryos that grew up to become normal cows. This experiment underscored the miraculous ability of old... even very old... parents to create offspring that are as young as it's possible to get. Somehow, it's possible for old cells to become completely 100% rejuvenated. Somehow, all the damage that living has inflicted upon the old progenitor cells magically and totally disappears.

By (actually before) 1999, biologists found a way to carry out this rejuvenation process in, figuratively speaking, a Petri dish rather than inside a female animal. 

By now, in 2017, somatic cells can be transformed into pluripotent stem cells, and potentially, into embryonic stem cells using the four Yamanaka factors. The problem with harnessing this for human rejuvenation has been that the Yamanaka factors take the cell from its differentiated state all the way back to a pluripotent stem cell. It's an express train with no local stops. What we want is something that will clean up as much damage as we can without dedifferentiating the cells in our bodies. In December, 2016, Salk scientists reported doing just that in mice with progeria, extending their foreshortened lifespans by 30%. They did this with short spurts of exposure to the Yamanaka factors. They also tried this with normal mice.  Some improvements are noted, but nothing is said about extending the lifespans of normal mice, so apparently, their life spans weren't increased.

Getting back to the question of prctical telomere extension, I just received my recommended month's supply of endoluten, the orally available form of epitalon, from Russia. Before I take it, I'm going to try to get another Life Length telomere length profile to serve as a baseline, as well as report on the last three years of TA-65 consumption.

And thereby hangs a tale. I guess this is good a time and place as any to tell it.

In August, 2011, I began taking 4 capsules a day of TA-65. Dr. Ed Park of Recharge Biomedical was my guide and my source of TA-65. It's expensive... $8,000 a year.

The following May (2012), I had my telomere lengths tested, using Life Length as the testing agency. My telomere lengths came back decently high. I continued to take 4 capsules of TA-65 a day. Two-and-a-half years later, in October, 2014, I had my telomere lengths tested again. By this time, Life Length had completely reworked at least the way they reported their spectral histograms of telomere lengths. My original blood-sample readings were still on file, and Dr. Park got the May, 2012, results reworked, along with the October, 2014, results. This time, in retrospect, my original May, 2012, report looked quite different, with readings that put me way down in median telomere length for my age. Astoundingly, between May, 2012, and October, 2014, my median telomere length jumped from 7,000 base pairs to 9,500 base pairs (in other words, by 2,500 base pairs). My critically short telomere cutoff jumped 1,000 base pairs from 6,000 base pairs to 7,000 base pairs. My telomere length curve faded out at 25,000 base pairs in the orginal 2012 baseline study and vanished at 35,000 base pairs in the October, 2014 follow-up study... that is, it rose by 10,000 base pairs over the 2.5-year period

I was flabbergasted. If this had been results from Bill Andrews' upcomng hTert augmentation experiment, it might have been believable (and wonderful) news. But this was TA-65 at work. 

I called Dr. Park to see if he had an idea why there had been this huge jump. I think he said that he had had one other patient who had experienced a 1,000 base pair increment.

One possibility that crossed my mind was that if I had had an infection that had triggered massive replication of luekocytes, that might possibly (??) explain my humongous increase in median telomere lengths. Still, I'm not aware of having an infection in May, 2012, and even if I did, it's hard to imagine a 2,500-base pair drop in my median telomere length due to some minor infection.

 I continued to take 4 dapsules of TA-65 a day until late 2016, when I ran out. 

This past summer, I ordered another Life Length telomere testing kit from Dr. Park. Just after the kit arrived, I had a stomach virus. I delayed taking the test to acoid possibly confounding its results. Unfortunately, by the time I was ready to take the test, the FedEx envelope had timed out. But I think it's important that take this third telomere length test before I start something that really might extend my telomeres.

I have copies in the internet of the Life Length histograms for the May, 2012, and October, 2014, leukocyte telomere length distributions. I'll try to look up their internet addresses and post them here.

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Can't we just get it made as a research chemical?"

 

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I forgot to mention: telomerase is expressed only in tiny local areas in a normal cell nucleus. It's present throughout the nucleus in malignant cells. I could certainly be wrong about this, but I have the impression that it has to be employed in a controlled way within the nucleus of each cell rather supplied exogenously. Maybe someone more knowledgeable reading this thread could speak to this.
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Who are the other patients using Life Length? Are these all people who are taking TA65 or similar or just people who have disease states? What proportion of patients see huge increases like this? Did you tell Dr. Park that you were using TA65?

 

What was the intention of the study that gave Yamanaka factors to healthy mice? Do you have a link to the studies? Copies?

 

What are the names of the individual Yamanaka Factors? What methodology was used to discover them? 







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