Repost from Tham in medicines and diseases (thank you, Tham!)
Uridine function in the CNS
This sticky is a work in progress. I'm cleaning up this thread and compiling a list of all of the journal articles/links, etc. here, grouped with their issues. Please stand by (I'm up to page 22.)
Caveats: This is a research topic. Substances discussed in this thread are being used in human clinical trials for bipolar disorder, alzheimer's disease and some other ailments. While these trials and >12 months of user-feedback from these forums have been largely successful, this protocol is not yet within the realms of well-trodden medical circles. Proceed at your own risk, preferrably after reading the entire thread.
Uridine promotes cellular growth and DNA repair. By virtue of this, it can accelerate the effects of a folate (Vitamin B9) deficiency.
Folate deficiency can lead to DNA transcription errors, strand breakage and carcinogenesis. Conversely, too much folate can also cause the same issues.
Dietary Nucleotides: Effects on Cell Proliferation Following Partial Hepatectomy in Rats Fed NIH-31, AIN-76A, or Folate/Methyl-Deficient Diets1
Bone Marrow Cells from Vitamin B12 and Folate-Deficient Patients Misincorporate Uracil Into DNA
Human chromosome hot points. IV. Uridine-induced hot-point breaks at 3p14 and 16q23-24 and increased expression of fragile site Xq27 in folate-free medium
Deranged DNA Synthesis by Bone Marrow from Vitamin B12-Deficient Humans
Obtaining the RDA for B group vitamins from food or supplements should be part of any normal daily regimen, but if you are going to take uridine, it is a suggested requirement to take a multi-B vitamin with it, regardless of your diet.
Benefits reported for -
Uplifting and stabilising mood
Modulating / normalising dopamine release
Antidepressant-like effects of uridine and omega-3 fatty acids are potentiated by combined treatment in rats.
Dietary uridine-5'-monophosphate supplementation increases potassium-evoked dopamine release and promotes neurite outgrowth in aged rats
Chronic uridine modulates the stimulant-induced release of dopamine
Restorative effects of uridine plus docosahexaenoaic in in a rat model of Parkinson' disease
Effect of chronical treatment with uridine on rats per os on immunoreactivity from somatistatin and cholecystokinin (testing methamphetamine and haloperidol)
Effects of chronic treatment with uridine on striatal dopamine release and dopamine related behaviours in the absence or the presence of chronic treatment with haloperidol.
Brain 31P-MRS at 4.0 Tesla: Effects of Triacetyluridine (TAU) in the treatment of mood disorders
Uridine reduces rotation induced by l-Dopa and methamphetamine in 6-OHDA-treated rats
Short-term supplementation of acute long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may alter depression status and decrease symptomology among young adults with depression: A preliminary randomized and placebo controlled trial.
Cellular growth / health and replication
Secretion of ATP from Schwann cells in response to uridine triphosphate.
Uridine supplementation in HIV lipoatrophy: pilot trial on safety and effect on mitochondrial indices
Sleep / sleeping patterns
Uridine receptor: discovery and its involvement in sleep mechanism.
Learning and memory
General cognitive decline
Increasing free phosphatidylcholine
Increasing receptor densities
Improving lipid membrane health
Dietary uridine enhances the improvement in learning and memory produced by administering DHA to gerbils
Combined uridine and choline administration improves cognitive deficits in spontaneously hypertensive rats
Oral supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid and uridine-5'-monophosphate increases dendritic spine density in adult gerbil hippocampus.
Oral administration of circulating precursors for membrane phosphatides can promote the synthesis of new brain synapses.
Phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylcholine-containing liposomes inhibit amyloid beta and interferon-gamma-induced microglial activation.
Dietary supplementation with uridine-5′-monophosphate (UMP), a membrane phosphatide precursor, increases acetylcholine level and release in striatum of aged rat
Synapse formation is enhanced by oral administration of uridine and DHA, the circulating precursors of brain phosphatides.
Nutritional intervention helps in mild Alzheimer’s disease
Developmental disorder associated with increased cellular nucleotidase activity
Giving Uridine and/or Docosahexaenoic Acid Orally to Rat Dams during Gestation and Nursing Increases Synaptic Elements in Brains of Weanling Pups
Alzheimer's: Diet 'can stop brain shrinking'
Bowel flora and fauna
Dietary nucleotides and fecal microbiota in formula-fed infants: a randomized controlled trial
Efficacy and tolerability of a combination of uridine, cytidine, and vitamin B12 in anemia. A double-blind, comparative study versus nucleotide monotherapy
Type-2,3 diabetes (Alzheimers' disease being discussed elsewhere as T3D)
Halting a 5FU chemotherapy overdose and increasing selectivity of 5FU.
Recommendations for people just starting out with uridine supplementation
For the first 2 weeks:
150-250mg UMP, orally, twice per day
A *good* multi vitamin, that includes RDA of B-group Vitamins and a broad range of trace minerals, including magnesium
500IU of mixed vitamin E
A large dose of fish oil with >700mg DHA + >300mg EPA (or 3000mg ALA / flaxseed oil, if you are vegetarian)
After 2 weeks:
Slowly introduce choline - start with 50mg of eg.alpha-GPC or CDP-choline and ramp it up to around 300mg.
If you experience depressive symptoms from choline, discontinue choline and consider ALCAR as an alternative.
Finding the optimal dose of uridine for you:
Too little uridine and you likely won't see the benefits for a long time
Too much uridine and you'll likely feel emotionally dull / overly focused.
Sublingual or Oral?:
Sublingual doses are predicted to be around 7x-10x the equivalent oral dose. If you are troubleshooting brainfog, you may benefit from these higher doses. People primarily looking for a mood lift would be advised to start with an oral dose first and make adjustments from there.
Differences between UMP and TAU:
Uridine-5'-Monophosphate (UMP) is water soluble and can be taken sublingually, if higher doses are desired.
Triacetyluridine (TAU) is fat soluble, but 4x-7x stronger, orally, than UMP.
From user reports, UMP appears to be more effective / better value, overall.
UMP is available in bulk powder. TAU is available in capsule form, which is convenient for travelling.
Who SHOULDN'T take uridine:
Over-methylators. If you do not respond well to Vitamin B, or SAMe, you are unlikely to enjoy any benefits from uridine supplementation.
People who can't or are unwilling to cut down or eliminate nicotine or caffeine from their diet. Uridine amplifies the effect of these stimulants and others, including methamphetamines. It could be helpful in reducing dependence on these stimulants.
Interactions of Nucleoside Analogs, Caffeine, and Nicotine with Human Concentrative Nucleoside Transporters 1 and 2 Stably Produced in a Transport-Defective Human Cell Line
http://www.freepaten...06/0217344.html Compounds for the treatment of tobacco dependence and withdrawal
Edited by MrHappy, 22 July 2015 - 10:36 AM.