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SMILE of Longevity Learning Log - Mechanism Survival Curves

survival curve nf-kb

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#1 HighDesertWizard

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Posted 25 December 2015 - 03:37 PM


Josh Mitteldorf has a great Longevity Science blog. reason, of FightAging and whose posts regularly appear at LongeCity.org, recently reposted a blog post by Josh. I find myself increasingly coming down on reason’s side of their debate.
 
Still, I’m with Josh in believing survival curve evidence should be important to Longevity Science Enthusiasts. Where’s the Beef?, he asked, in expressing his ambivalence about a longevity supplement.
 

Reading about a new life extension supplement, I get excited when I see “we fed it to mice and they lived X% longer”, or better yet, “In preliminary human trials, mortality was found to be Y% lower.”... In my way of thinking, all the biochemistry is important for generating ideas, but the proof of the pudding is in life extension trials.  Lab experiments on live mice run hundreds of thousands of dollars to test a single compound.  We can’t be testing everything under the sun, so we rely on biochemistry for plausible candidates.  But jumping from biochemical theory to marketing of a supplement is a leap of faith that leaves me behind.

 
 
This thread provides for sharing graphic figure snapshots of Longevity Science Survival Curves: The Beef. 
 
The thread is not intended for discussion or debate about Longevity Mechanisms or Intervention Methods. The word count in each post should be small but each post should contain.

  • one or more scientific study snapshot survival curves
  • a reference link to the study containing the snapshot(s)
  • one to three sentences about the
    • animal(s) referenced by the Survival Curve
    • Intervention Method(s) used to the study animals to produce the Survival Curve
    • Biological Mechanism(s) implicated by the Survival Curves

My first post will contain examples of how these posts might look. Other formats welcome, of course.

Looking forward to seeing what we might learn...

 

 

[Edited on 2015-01-07]

I've renamed this thread as part of a larger reorganization of content about The SMILE of Longevity. It's not an Aging Theory. It's an Explanation of Longevity.

 

I intend to learn more about it to Hijack the Biological Mechanism of Action for Longevity shown in the survival curves of this thread.

 


Edited by HighDesertWizard, 08 January 2016 - 12:53 AM.
moderated by threadstarter


#2 HighDesertWizard

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Posted 25 December 2015 - 06:28 PM

The Intra-Cellular Biological Mechanism for the survival curves below is NF-kB Cytokine Transcription Inhibition… NF-kB Cytokine Transcription Inhibition can take place within the Cellular Cytoplasm and also within the nucleus after NF-kB Translocation to it. Cytokine Transcription Inhibition can be achieved via multiple Intervention Methods and extra-cellular Biological Mechanisms...

 
Intervention Method : Rapamycin

 

fOu5aEO.png

 

Comparison of three rapamycin dosing schedules in A/J Tsc2 +/- mice and improved survival with angiogenesis inhibitor or asparaginase treatment in mice with subcutaneous tuberous sclerosis related tumors

 

Study Animals : Mice

 

Biological Mechanism : NF-kB Cytokine Transcription Inhibition via Nuclear Translocation Inhibition

 

 
Intervention Method : Metformin

 

There are at least a dozen or two Survival Curves vis-a-vis Metformin shown in a google search

 

cYcxQTR.png?1

 

Metformin intake associates with better survival in ovarian cancer

 

Study Animals : Homo Sapiens

 

[My view of] Biological Mechanism : NF-kB Cytokine Transcription Inhibition, unsure about Nuclear Translocation Inhibition effect

 
I have more of these and will post them later...

 

Edited by HighDesertWizard, 25 December 2015 - 09:44 PM.

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#3 HighDesertWizard

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Posted 26 December 2015 - 09:55 PM

The Intra-Cellular Biological Mechanism for the 3 survival curves below is NF-kB Cytokine Transcription Inhibition... The first two require "Intact Vagal/Splenic signaling". I believe, but am not 100% certain, that this Inhibition occurs after NF-kB Nuclear Translocation via pCREB/c-fos. The Triggering Component of the larger Mechanism is called the Cholinergic Anti-Inflammatory Pathway (CAIP)...
 
 
Intervention Method : Xanomeline, 20 hours and 30 hours Before Lethal Inflammation Administration
 
 
V74LeyC.png
Xanomeline suppresses excessive pro-inflammatory cytokine responses through neural signal-mediated pathways and improves survival in lethal inflammation. A pre-publication, full study text PDF, with many survival curves included, is here. Had, but now can't find, link to Supplement to study. It contains more survival curves.
 
Study Animals : Mice and Rats
 
Biological Mechanism : NF-kB Cytokine Transcription Inhibition requiring "intact Vagal and Splenic signaling" by a Muscarinic M1 receptor agonist

1sE7S6l.png

 
 
Intervention Method : None. Study animal Heart Rate Variability statistical analysis grouping performed 10 years after 24 hour data collection

d8RicwD.png
 
Power-Law Relationship of Heart Rate Variability as a Predictor of Mortality in the Elderly
 
Study Animals : Wild Type Homo Sapiens
 
Biological Mechanism : NF-kB Cytokine Transcription Inhibition, as measured by its Heart Rate Variability (HRV) marker (Background info links below)


Edited by HighDesertWizard, 26 December 2015 - 10:02 PM.


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#4 HighDesertWizard

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Posted 31 December 2015 - 01:31 AM

The two studies below look at the effect of knocking out the nfkb1 gene to create nfkb1-/- study animals. Of special interest... 

  • Both studies find deterioration of functions related to the p50 NF-kB subunit.
  • In another study... p50 is found to be a part of the Telomerase Holoenzyme

Electron microscopy (EM) structures of Tetrahymena telomerase holoenzyme revealed a central location of the relatively uncharacterized p50 subunit. Here we have investigated the biochemical and structural basis for p50 function... In cells, the N-terminal p50 domain assembles a complete holoenzyme that is functional for telomere maintenance, albeit at shortened telomere lengths.

 

 

Intervention Method : Knockout of the nfkb1 subunit of the transcription factor NF-kB (to create nfkb1-/1 study animals)

 

vYD6Ihe.png 
 

Chronic inflammation induces telomere dysfunction and accelerates ageing in mice

 
Study Animals : Mice
 
Biological Mechanism : 1) Chronic inflammation induced by knockout of the nfkb1 gene, 2) Impaired p50 NF-kB subunit was especially implicated.

 

 
Intervention Method : Knockout the Nfkb1 gene to establish nfkb1-/- study animals


[Notice below that the solid black line at the top of survival curves in (B) is not the top of the chart. It's indicating 100% survival of Nfkb1+/+ study animals at 18 months.]

 
11Y6aX7.png
 

 

Loss of Nfkb1 leads to early onset aging

 

Study Animals : Mice
 
Biological Mechanism : 

 

these data show that loss of Nfkb1 leads to early animal aging that is associated with reduced apoptosis and increased cellular senescence. Moreover, loss of p50 DNA binding is a prominent feature of aged mice relative to young. These findings support the strong link between the NF-(B pathway and mammalian aging.

 


Edited by HighDesertWizard, 31 December 2015 - 01:34 AM.


#5 HighDesertWizard

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Posted 09 January 2016 - 07:38 PM

The two graphic figures below are from the same study looking at NF-kB impacts on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).

 

 

Intervention Method : Here we show that the hypothalamus is important for the development of whole-body ageing in mice, and that the underlying basis involves hypothalamic immunity mediated by IκB kinase-β (IKK-β), nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and related microglia–neuron immune crosstalk. Several interventional models were developed showing that ageing retardation and lifespan extension are achieved in mice by preventing ageing-related hypothalamic or brain IKK-β and NF-κB activation.

 

Vp40MUL.jpg

 is2UvSr.jpg

 

Hypothalamic Programming of Systemic Aging Involving IKKβ/NF-κB and GnRH

 
Study Animals : Mice
 
Biological Mechanism : Mechanistic studies further revealed that IKKβ/NF-κB inhibits GnRH to mediate aging-related hypothalamic GnRH decline, and GnRH treatment amends aging-impaired neurogenesis and decelerates aging. In conclusion, the hypothalamus has a programmatic role in aging development via immune-neuroendocrine integration, and immune inhibition or GnRH restoration in the hypothalamus/brain represent two potential strategies for optimizing lifespan and combating aging-related health problems.


Edited by HighDesertWizard, 09 January 2016 - 07:39 PM.


#6 HighDesertWizard

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Posted 12 January 2016 - 07:18 AM

It's said that the diseases of aging are caused by aging. Let's take a look at survival curves for a few specific diseases.

 

 

Intervention Method : NF-κB is a key transcription factor that regulates inflammatory processes. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that blockade of NF-κB ameliorates cardiac remodeling and failure after myocardial infarction (MI). Knockout mice with targeted disruption of the p50 subunit of NF-κB (KO) were used to block the activation of NF-κB.

 

Ls5ZVSW.png

 

 

Blockade of NF-κB improves cardiac function and survival after myocardial infarction

 
Study Animals : Mice
 
Biological Mechanism : The present study demonstrates that targeted disruption of the p50 subunit of NF-κB reduces ventricular rupture as well as improves cardiac function and survival after MI. Blockade of NF-κB might be a new therapeutic strategy to attenuate cardiac remodeling and failure after MI.



#7 HighDesertWizard

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Posted 12 January 2016 - 08:08 AM

It's said that the diseases of aging are caused by aging. Let's continue to look at survival curves for a few specific diseases...

 

Two video links below supplement the survival data finding and show NF-kB Blockade dramatically slows its inducing motor neuron death in ALS...

 
 
Intervention Method : In this study, we show that selective NF-κB inhibition in ALS astrocytes is not sufficient to rescue motor neuron (MN) death. However, the localization of NF-κB activity and subsequent deletion of NF-κB signaling in microglia rescued MNs from microglial-mediated death in vitro and extended survival in ALS mice by impairing proinflammatory microglial activation. 
 
qFo28mt.png
 
 
Microglia Induce Motor Neuron Death via the Classical NF-κB Pathway in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
 
Study Animals : Mice
 
Biological Mechanism :


Highlights

  • NF-κB is activated in ALS, predominantly in microglia
  • [HWD edit... NF-kB inhibition in Astrocytes had no effect on disease progression and survival]
  • Inhibition of microglial NF-κB delays disease progression by 47% in SOD1-G93A mice
  • Inhibition of NF-κB dampens proinflammatory microglial activation
  • Constitutive activation of microglial NF-κB induces pathological hallmarks of ALS

Watch the two videos below and see NF-kB Blockade reduce the Damage done to Motor Neurons...

  • Watch the 25 second Supplement S3 video to see NF-kB killing off motor neurons in microglia.
  • Then compare with what happens when NF-kB is blockaded via IkBa overexpression in video S4.

 


Edited by HighDesertWizard, 12 January 2016 - 08:15 AM.


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#8 HighDesertWizard

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Posted 16 January 2016 - 07:10 PM

It's said that the diseases of aging are caused by aging. Let's continue to look at survival curves for a few specific diseases. The focus this time is on Breast Cancer and Tumor Associated Macrophages (TAMs)...

 

 

Intervention Method : None. Study animal tissue was analyzed after the fact for level of TAM infiltration...

 
HdnHXC8.png
 
 

Prognostic Value of Tumor-Associated Macrophages According to Histologic Locations and Hormone Receptor Status in Breast Cancer

 
Study Animals : Homo Sapiens
 
Biological Mechanism : High levels of Tumor Associated Macrophage (TAM) Infiltration

 

High levels of infiltration of intratumoral, stromal and total TAMs were associated with high histologic grade, p53 overexpression, high Ki-67 proliferation index and negative hormone receptor status. Infiltration of TAMs was also correlated with overexpression of vimentin, smooth muscle actin and alteration of β-catenin. Overall, a high level of infiltration of intratumoral TAMs was associated with poor disease-free survival, and was found to be an independent prognostic factor. [from the study abstract]

 

But from other studies we know that TAMs can be "Re-educated" by NF-kB Inhibition...

 

... When NF-κB signaling is inhibited specifically in TAMs, they become cytotoxic to tumor cells and switch to a “classically” activated phenotype... Targeting NF-κB signaling in TAMs also promotes regression of advanced tumors in vivo by induction of macrophage tumoricidal activity and activation of antitumor activity through IL-12–dependent NK cell recruitment.

 


Edited by HighDesertWizard, 16 January 2016 - 07:11 PM.






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