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Pickin' up Good Vibrations : Leveraging the Science of Longevity-Promoting, Frequency-Sensitive Biological Targets

frequency pemf brain wave entrainment brain wave red light

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#1 HighDesertWizard

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Posted 21 November 2018 - 08:59 PM


Recent years have witnessed numerous studies demonstrating that various signal types and frequencies can have a significant impact on biological objects and processes. This thread is a home at LongeCity to document and discuss these studies.
 
To start, let's review a handful of study examples.

 

  

2016, MIT News 
Unique visual stimulation may be new treatment for Alzheimer’s
 
Brain wave stimulation
 
Alzheimer’s disease, which affects more than 5 million people in the United States, is characterized by beta amyloid plaques that are suspected to be harmful to brain cells and to interfere with normal brain function. Previous studies have hinted that Alzheimer’s patients also have impaired gamma oscillations. These brain waves, which range from 25 to 80 hertz (cycles per second), are believed to contribute to normal brain functions such as attention, perception, and memory.
 
In a study of mice that were genetically programmed to develop Alzheimer’s but did not yet show any plaque accumulation or behavioral symptoms, Tsai and her colleagues found impaired gamma oscillations during patterns of activity that are essential for learning and memory while running a maze.
 
Next, the researchers stimulated gamma oscillations at 40 hertz in a brain region called the hippocampus, which is critical in memory formation and retrieval. These initial studies relied on a technique known as optogenetics, co-pioneered by Boyden, which allows scientists to control the activity of genetically modified neurons by shining light on them. Using this approach, the researchers stimulated certain brain cells known as interneurons, which then synchronize the gamma activity of excitatory neurons.
 
After an hour of stimulation at 40 hertz, the researchers found a 40 to 50 percent reduction in the levels of beta amyloid proteins in the hippocampus. Stimulation at other frequencies, ranging from 20 to 80 hertz, did not produce this decline.
 
Tsai and colleagues then began to wonder if less-invasive techniques might achieve the same effect. Tsai and Emery Brown, the Edward Hood Taplin Professor of Medical Engineering and Computational Neuroscience, a member of the Picower Institute, and an author of the paper, came up with the idea of using an external stimulus — in this case, light — to drive gamma oscillations in the brain. The researchers built a simple device consisting of a strip of LEDs that can be programmed to flicker at different frequencies.
 
Using this device, the researchers found that an hour of exposure to light flickering at 40 hertz enhanced gamma oscillations and reduced beta amyloid levels by half in the visual cortex of mice in the very early stages of Alzheimer’s. However, the proteins returned to their original levels within 24 hours.
 
The researchers then investigated whether a longer course of treatment could reduce amyloid plaques in mice with more advanced accumulation of amyloid plaques. After treating the mice for an hour a day for seven days, both plaques and free-floating amyloid were markedly reduced. The researchers are now trying to determine how long these effects last.
 
Furthermore, the researchers found that gamma rhythms also reduced another hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease: the abnormally modified Tau protein, which can form tangles in the brain.
 

 
 
 
2016, Effects of Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback on EEG Alpha Asymmetry and Anxiety Symptoms in Male Athletes: A Pilot Study
 
Heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BFB) has been shown as useful tool to manage stress in various populations. The present study was designed to investigate whether the biofeedback-based stress management tool consisting of rhythmic breathing, actively self-generated positive emotions and a portable biofeedback device induce changes in athletes' HRV, EEG patterns, and self-reported anxiety and self-esteem. The study involved 41 healthy male athletes, aged 16-21 (mean 18.34 ± 1.36) years. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: biofeedback and control. Athletes in the biofeedback group received HRV biofeedback training, athletes in the control group didn't receive any intervention. During the randomized controlled trial (days 0-21), the mean anxiety score declined significantly for the intervention group (change-4 p < 0.001) but not for the control group (p = 0.817). In addition, as compared to the control, athletes in biofeedback group showed substantial and statistically significant improvement in heart rate variability indices and changes in power spectra of both theta and alpha brain waves, and alpha asymmetry. These changes suggest better self-control in the central nervous system and better flexibility of the autonomic nervous system in the group that received biofeedback training. A HRV biofeedback-based stress management tool may be beneficial for stress reduction for young male athletes.
 
 
 
The diagram below is one of many that might have been posted here. Notice that, in the video posted above, the upper and lower values for the Brain Wave Cycle ranges are different than in the diagram below. I suggest these labels, ("gamma", "beta", "alpha", etc), are merely rough guides to the structure of brain wave frequency values and are not actually fixed in living organisms.
HdgPmS7h.png
 
 
 
2014, Pulsed electromagnetic field improves cardiac function in response to myocardial infarction
 
Extracorporeal pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) has been shown the ability to improve regeneration in various ischemic episodes. Here, we examined whether PEMF therapy facilitate cardiac recovery in rat myocardial infarction (MI), and the cellular/molecular mechanisms underlying PEMF-related therapy was further investigated. The MI rats were exposed to active PEMF for 4 cycles per day (8 minutes/cycle, 30 ± 3 Hz, 5 mT) after MI induction. The data demonstrated that PEMF treatment significantly inhibited cardiac apoptosis and improved cardiac systolic function. Moreover, PEMF treatment increased capillary density, the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxic inducible factor-1α in infarct border zone. Furthermore, the number and function of circulating endothelial progenitor cells were advanced in PEMF treating rats. In vitro, PEMF induced the degree of human umbilical venous endothelial cells tubulization and increased soluble pro-angiogenic factor secretion (VEGF and nitric oxide). In conclusion, PEMF therapy preserves cardiac systolic function, inhibits apoptosis and trigger postnatal neovascularization in ischemic myocardium.
 
 
 
2015, Increases in microvascular perfusion and tissue oxygenation via pulsed electromagnetic fields in the healthy rat brain
 
OBJECT
High-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation is an emerging noninvasive therapy being used clinically to facilitate bone and cutaneous wound healing. Although the mechanisms of action of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) are unknown, some studies suggest that its effects are mediated by increased nitric oxide (NO), a well-known vasodilator. The authors hypothesized that in the brain, PEMF increase NO, which induces vasodilation, enhances microvascular perfusion and tissue oxygenation, and may be a useful adjunct therapy in stroke and traumatic brain injury. To test this hypothesis, they studied the effect of PEMF on a healthy rat brain with and without NO synthase (NOS) inhibition.

 
METHODS
In vivo two-photon laser scanning microscopy (2PLSM) was used on the parietal cortex of rat brains to measure microvascular tone and red blood cell (RBC) flow velocity in microvessels with diameters ranging from 3 to 50 μm, which includes capillaries, arterioles, and
venules. Tissue oxygenation (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide [NADH] fluorescence) was also measured before and for 3 hours after [@ 5hz] PEMF treatment using the FDA-cleared SofPulse device (Ivivi Health Sciences, LLC). To test NO involvement, the NOS inhibitor NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) was intravenously injected (10 mg/kg). In a time control group, PEMF were not used. Doppler flux (0.8-mm probe diameter), brain and rectal temperatures, arterial blood pressure, blood gases, hematocrit, and electrolytes were monitored.
 
RESULTS
Pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation significantly dilated cerebral arterioles from a baseline average diameter of 26.4 ± 0.84 μm to 29.1 ± 0.91 μm (11 rats, p < 0.01). Increased blood volume flow through dilated arterioles enhanced capillary flow with an average increase in RBC flow velocity by 5.5% ± 1.3% (p < 0.01). Enhanced microvascular flow increased tissue oxygenation as reflected by a decrease in NADH autofluorescence to 94.7% ± 1.6% of baseline (p < 0.05). Nitric oxide synthase inhibition by L-NAME prevented PEMF-induced changes in arteriolar diameter, microvascular perfusion, and tissue oxygenation (7 rats). No changes in measured parameters were observed throughout the study in the untreated time controls (5 rats).

 
CONCLUSIONS
This is the first demonstration of the acute effects of PEMF on cerebral cortical microvascular perfusion and metabolism. Thirty minutes of PEMF treatment [@ 5hz] induced cerebral arteriolar dilation leading to an increase in microvascular blood flow and tissue oxygenation that persisted for at least 3 hours. The effects of PEMF were mediated by NO, as we have shown in NOS inhibition experiments. These results suggest that PEMF may be an effective treatment for patients after traumatic or ischemic brain injury. Studies on the effect of PEMF on the injured brain are in progress.

 
---
 
Note: I don't understand why the authors couldn't be bothered to mention the frequency of PEMF that was used in the study abstract. I've inserted it in the pasted in abstract above in a red font: [@ 5hz].
 
yeo4p84l.png
 
 
An online viewable spreadsheet will document information about these and other studies so that we might visualize and evaluate properties of Frequency Stimulating Interventions that have positive and negative impacts.
 
Please don't post to this thread until I have the first few posts configured.
 
:)


Edited by HighDesertWizard, 19 May 2019 - 11:09 PM.
NOTE: THIS ENTIRE THREAD IS MODERATED BY THE THREADSTARTER


#2 HighDesertWizard

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Posted 21 November 2018 - 09:01 PM

Hat tip to the Beach Boys...

 

 

:)


Edited by HighDesertWizard, 21 November 2018 - 09:38 PM.


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#3 HighDesertWizard

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Posted 22 November 2018 - 01:31 AM

I've created an online Excel spreadsheet in a folder in my Microsoft Onedrive account to inventory study information related to the thread title.

 

Here's a read link to the folder.

 

I anticipate that the columns included in the spreadsheet will change over time. But the link won't change or, if it does, I'll update it in this thread.

 

I expect to be a part of maintaining this spreadsheet for years to come. I'd be thrilled to have the assistance of established LongeCity member(s) in maintaining it.

 

Here's what the spreadsheet looks like today. I understand the data doesn't look especially valuable at the moment. But imagine the value when there are a thousand+ rows.

 
Imagine an Excel Pivot Table sortable, filterable, re-organizable, by any of the columns in the spreadsheet...
 
That's what we need and want, right?
 

IZCVq07h.png

 

Requests...

  • Please don't hesitate to suggest new and different ideas and verbage for organizing the information. That's how it'll improve.
  • When you want to add a study row to the spreadsheet, please provide information for all the columns shown in the spreadsheet to make adding the information faster and easier.

Let's do this!

 

Cheers!

 

:)


Edited by HighDesertWizard, 22 November 2018 - 01:37 AM.


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#4 Oakman

  • Location:CO

Posted 22 November 2018 - 06:04 PM

RE: Brain wave stimulation. You can find many, many youtube videos of music with these frequencies in them for study, meditation, etc., Some are beautiful, some just ok, many are binaural, some drive me nuts after a bit, but they are fun to experiment with, for example..

 

 

RE: I think the study you mention was done with this app > HRVTraining app (free with Pro upgrade available) lets you track you own daily HRV using only your cell phone camera and finger (each AM before rising recommended), also HR, and emotional signal/physical habits> Then with enough history of your HRV it gives many correlations and analyses of the results you've recorded. Their website has a lot of good information on what it all means. I've been tracking mine all summer/fall, with helpful results for exercise training and especially recovery, which is what HRV is intended for when coupled with exercise training.

 

Another study: Heart Rate Variability and Emotional States in Basketball Players

 

Much to discover and learn about these emerging fields of research, and some is easy to DIY!


Edited by Oakman, 22 November 2018 - 06:04 PM.


#5 HighDesertWizard

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Posted 18 March 2019 - 01:33 AM

March 12, 2019, Noninvasive sub-organ ultrasound stimulation for targeted neuromodulation
 

Tools for noninvasively modulating neural signaling in peripheral organs will advance the study of nerves and their effect on homeostasis and disease. Herein, we demonstrate a noninvasive method to modulate specific signaling pathways within organs using ultrasound (U/S). U/S is first applied to spleen to modulate the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP), and US stimulation is shown to reduce cytokine response to endotoxin to the same levels as implant-based vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). Next, hepatic U/S stimulation is shown to modulate pathways that regulate blood glucose and is as effective as VNS in suppressing the hyperglycemic effect of endotoxin exposure. This response to hepatic U/S is only found when targeting specific sub-organ locations known to contain glucose sensory neurons, and both molecular (i.e. neurotransmitter concentration and cFOS expression) and neuroimaging results indicate US induced signaling to metabolism-related hypothalamic sub-nuclei. These data demonstrate that U/S stimulation within organs provides a new method for site-selective neuromodulation to regulate specific physiological functions.

 

ttYNJYG.png
 
 
Of course, we know what the key substances associated with triggering of TIR/CAP, norepinephrine, acetylcholine, and both, splenic- and serum-TNF. Can and does Focused Pulsed Ultrasound impact those independent-variable substances? Figure 2 of the study addresses that question...
 
6NFXzHBh.png

 

In the above study, notice that, for images c-e, data is provided about ultrasound application configuration parameters.

 

Detailed data about various frequencies associated with doing ultrasound can be found in the study Supplements Figures document. I haven't digested that content yet.

 

This post in this thread is intended to point out that a set of very specific Frequency Specific settings need to be paid attention to for achieving 

 

These frequencies are worth exploring because of the demonstrated impact using them had on both serum and splenic TNF expression levels.



#6 HighDesertWizard

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Posted 13 April 2019 - 07:09 PM

2014, A Controlled Trial to Determine the Efficacy of Red and Near-Infrared Light Treatment in Patient Satisfaction, Reduction of Fine Lines, Wrinkles, Skin Roughness, and Intradermal Collagen Density Increase

 

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of two novel light sources for large area and full body application, providing polychromatic, non-thermal photobiomodulation (PBM) for improving skin feeling and appearance. Background data: For non-thermal photorejuvenation, laser and LED light sources have been demonstrated to be safe and effective. However, lasers and LEDs may offer some disadvantages because of dot-shaped (punctiform) emission characteristics and their narrow spectral bandwidths. Because the action spectra for tissue regeneration and repair consist of more than one wavelength, we investigated if it is favorable to apply a polychromatic spectrum covering a broader spectral region for skin rejuvenation and repair.

 

Materials and methods: A total of 136 volunteers participated in this prospective, randomized, and controlled study. Of these volunteers, 113 subjects randomly assigned into four treatment groups were treated twice a week with either 611–650 or 570–850 nm polychromatic light (normalized to ∼9 J/cm2 in the range of 611–650 nm) and were compared with controls (n=23). Irradiances and treatment durations varied in all treatment groups. The data collected at baseline and after 30 sessions included blinded evaluations of clinical photography, ultrasonographic collagen density measurements, computerized digital profilometry, and an assessment of patient satisfaction.

 

Results: The treated subjects experienced significantly improved skin complexion and skin feeling, profilometrically assessed skin roughness, and ultrasonographically measured collagen density. The blinded clinical evaluation of photographs confirmed significant improvement in the intervention groups compared with the control.

 

Conclusions: Broadband polychromatic PBM showed no advantage over the red-light-only spectrum. However, both novel light sources that have not been previously used for PBM have demonstrated efficacy and safety for skin rejuvenation and intradermal collagen increase when compared with controls.

 

y7JzuDCh.jpg

 

 

JNU04S3h.png


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#7 HighDesertWizard

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Posted 03 May 2019 - 11:43 PM

An interesting study about Pulsed ElectroMagnetic Fields (PEMF) impact on chondrogenesis and dosing with practical significance.

 

Chondrogenesis is the process by which cartilage is developed. - Wikipedia

 

 

2017, Enhancement of mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis with short-term low intensity pulsed electromagnetic fields

 

Pulse electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) have been shown to recruit calcium-signaling cascades common to chondrogenesis. Here we document the effects of specified PEMF parameters over mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) chondrogenic differentiation. MSCs undergoing chondrogenesis are preferentially responsive to an electromagnetic efficacy window defined by field amplitude, duration and frequency of exposure. Contrary to conventional practice of administering prolonged and repetitive exposures to PEMFs, optimal chondrogenic outcome is achieved in response to brief (10 minutes), low intensity (2 mT) exposure to 6 ms bursts of magnetic pulses, at 15 Hz, administered only once at the onset of chondrogenic induction. By contrast, repeated exposures diminished chondrogenic outcome and could be attributed to calcium entry after the initial induction. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels appear to mediate these aspects of PEMF stimulation, serving as a conduit for extracellular calcium. Preventing calcium entry during the repeated PEMF exposure with the co-administration of EGTA or TRP channel antagonists precluded the inhibition of differentiation. This study highlights the intricacies of calcium homeostasis during early chondrogenesis and the constraints that are placed on PEMF-based therapeutic strategies aimed at promoting MSC chondrogenesis. The demonstrated efficacy of our optimized PEMF regimens has clear clinical implications for future regenerative strategies for cartilage.

 

The graphic figures demonstrate the specificity of optimal study parameter values. Here's the one demonstrating differential impacts across 2 key study parameters.

 

x8aIdsjh.png

 

 

Close your eyes and imagine what will be practically important about these (and other) study findings over the longer term...

  1. Small Spot Devices to focus on small body areas.
     
  2. Devices providing precise control of dosing.
    • From the study, control is needed for ) dosing period [10 minutes], 2) intensity [2 mT], 3) dose size [6 ms bursts], and dose frequency [15 hz].

 

I haven't found any devices better suited for the purpose discussed in the study than those manufactured by and sold from micro-pulse.com. I've had my eye on the M1, B5, and C5 for while. I'd been thinking that the M1 was "good enough". But with the study above in mind, I'm now thinking that the increased control provided by either the B5 or the C5 could provide a benefit worth the cost.

 

Kblf5lCh.png

 

Edited by HighDesertWizard, 04 May 2019 - 12:42 AM.

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#8 HighDesertWizard

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Posted 06 May 2019 - 09:29 AM

Michael Hamblin, the author of the study posted above about Near Infrared light for cognitive improvement, was the lead author of a review of parameters used in various studies. It amounts to a detailed review of the literature about light and health.
 
I haven't digested it yet, but I will at some point soon...
 
2018, Review of light parameters and photobiomodulation efficacy: dive into complexity

 

Photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy, previously known as low-level laser therapy, was discovered more than 50 years ago, yet there is still no agreement on the parameters and protocols for its clinical application. Some groups have recommended the use of a power density less than 100  mW/cm2 and an energy density of 4 to 10  J/cm2 at the level of the target tissue. Others recommend as much as 50  J/cm2 at the tissue surface. The wide range of parameters that can be applied (wavelength, energy, fluence, power, irradiance, pulse mode, treatment duration, and repetition) in some cases has led to contradictory results. In our review, we attempt to evaluate the range of effective and ineffective parameters in PBM. Studies in vitro with cultured cells or in vivowith different tissues were divided into those with higher numbers of mitochondria (muscle, brain, heart, nerve) or lower numbers of mitochondria (skin, tendon, cartilage). Graphs were plotted of energy density against power density. Although the results showed a high degree of variability, cells/tissues with high numbers of mitochondria tended to respond to lower doses of light than those with lower number of mitochondria. Ineffective studies in cells with high mitochondrial activity appeared to be more often due to over-dosing than to under-dosing.

 


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#9 Oakman

  • Location:CO

Posted 06 May 2019 - 02:12 PM

That's a lot of data, but very informative! Excellent find! I haven't been regularly using my red light apparatus recently, but this should help provide insight I've lacked to program it to best advantage. Although I only have one light frequency 660nm and CW output of 100mw/cm2, programming the Arduino control allows for infinitely varying pulse and duration, or simply use CW and vary by distance from the skin. This effectively allows for modulating intensity and dose easily, so I may try some of the techniques used in these various studies to see what changes I can discover anew.


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#10 HighDesertWizard

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Posted 06 May 2019 - 03:25 PM

That's a lot of data, but very informative! Excellent find! I haven't been regularly using my red light apparatus recently, but this should help provide insight I've lacked to program it to best advantage. Although I only have one light frequency 660nm and CW output of 100mw/cm2, programming the Arduino control allows for infinitely varying pulse and duration, or simply use CW and vary by distance from the skin. This effectively allows for modulating intensity and dose easily, so I may try some of the techniques used in these various studies to see what changes I can discover anew.


Oakman... Thanks for the reply. I've seen several studies suggesting that pulsed light and Magnetic Waves provides benefits. But there don't appear to be products that enable fine tuned control.

I hadn't thought of using a device external to the light or the PEMF to control the pulse. Would appreciate more info about how to go about doing that if you have thoughts about how to do it.

Check out the link to the Near Infrared Bulb I purchsed
at Amazon. It's great...

#11 Oakman

  • Location:CO

Posted 06 May 2019 - 07:52 PM

Oakman... Thanks for the reply. I've seen several studies suggesting that pulsed light and Magnetic Waves provides benefits. But there don't appear to be products that enable fine tuned control.

I hadn't thought of using a device external to the light or the PEMF to control the pulse. Would appreciate more info about how to go about doing that if you have thoughts about how to do it.

Check out the link to the Near Infrared Bulb I purchsed
at Amazon. It's great...

 

Long story short, a while ago I bought four 16 watt, 12"x12" 660nm LED panels (225 leds/panel each w/own PS) for whole body therapy. Each outputs CW approx 100 mw/cm2 close to the array, But how to make them pulse? So, I too looked everywhere for something to pulse LEDs like in studies, but only found 'flashers' and the like, basically useless. Then  :|o I remembering programmable Arduino boards and figured worth a shot. Bought a Arduino kit similar to this, figured out how to program it (easy) to make a pulse variable, frequency variable generator by looking at some example code.  Decided one LED array placed over my head would be the pulsing one. Next, I bought an overdriving LED power supply that produced too much current a single LED array could handle in continuous mode, but when pulsed would deliver the same averaged approx.100mw/cm2 light output. Finally to switch (the <30 volt) DC going to the array using the logic level signal from the Arduino board, I got a SSS (solid state switch) from Amazon. Likely not the best programming, but it works, and glad to share to get you going if it helps. I probably spent all of $40 on the Arduino parts. 

 

In the end I have three 1'x 1' panels vertically, and one 1'x1' panel pulsing over my head for scalp/brain stimulation  :wacko: mounted in a spare closet against the wall and up under a shelf on the hanger bar for the scalp panel.

 

Here's the comment into for the program to give you an idea about it:

 

/*
DELTA 1-3 RANGE 3
THETA 4-8 RANGE 5
ALPHA 9-13 RANGE 5
BETA 14-30 RANGE 17
GAMMA 30 - UP
 200=5hz, 100=10Hz, 77=13Hz, 50=20Hz, 25=40Hz, 12=83Hz
 
 This does it all! A variable frequency generator with variable pulse width. Each frequency is on_time is adjusted equal. 
 To keep the flashing visually consistent over the frequency range the pulse width made frequency variable.
 
 2-16-18 changed and adjusted parameters to give ~15 sec duration for one sweep. Using new ~600ma LED PS/driver
 measured OLD: 34v in,   27v out @.50-.55 amp
 measured NEW:        30-25v out @.58-.60 amp
 measured USING 23 watts @AC input, was 16 watts
 measured 85-100+ mw/cm2 pulsing
*/

Attached Files


Edited by Oakman, 06 May 2019 - 08:05 PM.

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#12 HighDesertWizard

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Posted 17 May 2019 - 11:14 PM

< SNIP >
 
I've seen the light.#1..
 
... some technique for "touching" the ETC [Electron Transport Chain] in something close to an optimal way was found for humans
 
2018, Inhibitory modulation of cytochrome coxidase activity with specific near-infrared light wavelengths attenuates brain ischemia/reperfusion injury
 
There are many more studies documenting what is now settled science.... Near InfraRed light exposure, in some way, "touches" cytochrome c oxidase, Complex IV of the Electron Transport Chain.
 
< SNIP >
 
:)

 
I found the study referenced above because the literature indicated that, if Near InfraRed (NIR) light had impacts on the Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain (ETC), that would be a big deal. (Click on the quotation link to see why it would be a big deal.)
 
When I'm hot on the trail of fundamental evidence about aging, longevity, and rejuvenation (ALR)

  • one important study-evidence-find can often lead to new and profound evidence-integration-insight
     
  • once in a while, when an attempt is made to Integrate the insight, to Fit It into larger context ALR evidence, completely unexpected paths of added insight can appear as if by magic

The information below is the first Step of evidence to grasp of this expected path...
 
  
2018, Inhibitory modulation of cytochrome coxidase activity with specific near-infrared light wavelengths attenuates brain ischemia/reperfusion injury
 
The things to look for in this study, and the reason a first post about the details belongs in this forum thread, are the variable impacts different NIR frequencies have on cytochrome c oxidase expression. Here's the abstract...
 

The interaction of light with biological tissue has been successfully utilized for multiple therapeutic purposes. Previous studies have suggested that near infrared light (NIR) enhances the activity of mitochondria by increasing cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity, which we confirmed for 810 nm NIR. In contrast, scanning the NIR spectrum between 700 nm and 1000 nm revealed two NIR wavelengths (750 nm and 950 nm) that reduced the activity of isolated COX. COX-inhibitory wavelengths reduced mitochondrial respiration, reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), attenuated mitochondrial superoxide production, and attenuated neuronal death following oxygen glucose deprivation, whereas NIR that activates COX provided no benefit. We evaluated COX-inhibitory NIR as a potential therapy for cerebral reperfusion injury using a rat model of global brain ischemia. Untreated animals demonstrated an 86% loss of neurons in the CA1 hippocampus post-reperfusion whereas inhibitory NIR groups were robustly protected, with neuronal loss ranging from 11% to 35%. Moreover, neurologic function, assessed by radial arm maze performance, was preserved at control levels in rats treated with a combination of both COX-inhibitory NIR wavelengths. Taken together, our data suggest that COX-inhibitory NIR may be a viable non-pharmacologic and noninvasive therapy for the treatment of cerebral reperfusion injury.

 
Wow! This is important. The details are worth grasping and I'll explain why in another post in another thread...
 
Keep in mind that most other studies of the benefits of NIR light focus on frequencies between 810 nm and 860 nm...
 
From the Results portion of the paper...
 

Identification of COX-inhibitory NIR

 

We systematically screened the NIR electromagnetic spectrum in the “therapeutic window of opportunity” of 700 nm to 1000 nm, where NIR absorptions by water and blood are minimal, allowing deep tissue penetration of the NIR for possible medical applications. We integrated a light-protected oxygen electrode chamber into a double beam spectrophotometer (see Materials and Methods), which contained regulatory-competent bovine COX purified under conditions preserving the physiological regulatory properties of the enzyme, such as posttranslational modifications (Fig. 1A). While the NIR frequencies were scanned, COX activity was measured simultaneously. In contrast to previous studies concluding that NIR consistently activates COX12,17,18,19,20,21,22, we identified two novel wavelength ranges (750 nm and 950 nm) that inhibit COX activity (Fig. 1B).

 

rIZzOIoh.png

Caption

 

NIR modulates COX activity and mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate. (A) Isolated regulatory-competent bovine COX separated into its subunits on a high-resolution urea/SDS-PAGE Coomassie-stained gel. Subunits are indicated in roman numerals. (B) Representative scan of wavelength-dependent COX activity identifying the 750 nm and 950 nm wavelength rages as inhibitory regions. © Effect of NIR emitted by LED diodes confirms that 750 nm and 950 nm NIR inhibit COX in vitro while 810 nm NIR activates the enzyme. Data were obtained over a 3-min interval of irradiation and normalized to non-irradiated samples (n ≥ 4; *p < 0.05). (D) NIR irradiation modulates oxygen consumption rate (OCR) in a wavelength specific manner. 750 nm and 950 nm NIR reduce OCR below the basal respiration rate and 810 nm NIR increase mitochondrial OCR (n ≥ 4; *p < 0.05).



#13 HighDesertWizard

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Posted 19 May 2019 - 11:04 PM

I've changed the title of this Longecity forum thread...

 

From this...

 

eDhGjAzh.png

 

to this...

 

DW3FH44h.png


Edited by HighDesertWizard, 19 May 2019 - 11:11 PM.


#14 HighDesertWizard

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Posted 23 May 2019 - 12:54 PM

The RubyLux bulb I've been using for a while now is a range of 700 nm to 1000 nm wavelength. So I wonder how that affects dynamics?[/size]
 
I also have this pad and have been trying it on my belly. It's 660 and 880 nm. Not sure it's enough power.[/size]

 

Hi Nate...

 

The book I've recommended elsewhere has chapters about dosing and devices among other things. Red- and Near Infrared-light exposure has demonstrated profoundly positive effects. Becoming educated about how to use it optimally is a key element in leveraging that science.

 

dS13XSyh.png

 

 

 

 



#15 HighDesertWizard

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Posted 23 May 2019 - 11:58 PM

2018, Light as a Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial

Antimicrobial resistance is a significant and growing concern. To continue to treat even simple infections, there is a pressing need for new alternative and complementary approaches to antimicrobial therapy. One possible addition to the current range of treatments is the use of narrow-wavelength light as an antimicrobial, which has been shown to eliminate a range of common pathogens. Much progress has already been made with blue light but the potential of other regions of the electromagnetic spectrum is largely unexplored. In order that the approach can be fully and most effectively realized, further research is also required into the effects of energy dose, the harmful and beneficial impacts of light on eukaryotic tissues, and the role of oxygen in eliciting microbial toxicity. These and other topics are discussed within this perspective.

 

Figure 1... Representation of the electromagnetic spectrum, with regions of interest discussed in the text indicated. Current applications of certain wavebands also shown.

 

 

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The Paradigm of Blue Light

 

The 1903 Nobel Prize was awarded to Niels Ryberg Finsen for the use of blue light (Møller et al., 2005) in the treatment of tuberculosis of the skin. Having been largely neglected through the subsequent era of antibiotic discovery, interest in antimicrobial light was renewed toward the end of the 20th century. Blue light [typically 400–450 nm, which is absorbed by porphyrins and is thought to cause cell death by the generation of toxic reactive oxygen species, has largely remained the focus of research since the 1980s (Kjeldstad and Johnsson, 1986Koenig et al., 1992). While initial experiments required addition of exogenous porphyrins (Bertoloni et al., 1984Nitzan et al., 1987) or enhancement of endogenous porphyrin production (Sailer et al., 1997van der Meulen et al., 1997), it latterly became clear that natural levels of porphyrin are sufficient to elicit toxicity (Ashkenazi et al., 2003).

The bactericidal effect of blue light has been shown in many pathogenic species (Gupta et al., 2015Halstead et al., 2016). Energy doses in the 10 or 100s of J cm-2 are typically sufficient to kill Staphylococcus aureus, for example (Maclean et al., 2008aHalstead et al., 2016). Moreover, while few studies have rigorously explored the kinetics of killing using blue light, there appears to be a correlation between energy dose and reduction in viability, suggesting that total energy (rather than power, duration, or wavelength) is the major factor (Maclean et al., 2008bRamakrishnan et al., 2014).

 

< SNIP >

 

Therapeutic Potential of Blue Light

 

While studies in the 1980s and 1990s typically focused on Propionibacterium acnes, recent research has been largely focused on Staphylococcus aureus. The immediate appeal of both organisms is their colonization of the skin, which is easily illuminated, although it is notable that one of the few published patient trials was carried out against Helicobacter pylori infection of the stomach (Lembo et al., 2009). While relatively little research has been translated into human clinical trials to date, animal models have been established (Yang et al., 2017Zhu et al., 2017), demonstrating blue light killing of infecting cells a few hours after inoculation. These models are an encouraging development and further experiments showing successful treatment of an established infection featuring biofilm, persister cells, and intracellular bacteria will be a significant step toward clinical application.

Promisingly, however, reduction of cell numbers in established biofilms has been shown in vitro (Halstead et al., 2016Wang et al., 2016). Tissue models also offer encouraging signs. Selectivity of the toxic effect for bacteria over mammalian cells has been demonstrated (Dai et al., 2013Ramakrishnan et al., 2014). Different cell types appear variably tolerant to blue light, however: osteoblasts were killed above 36 J cm-2whereas keratinocytes survived > 100 J cm-2. Given this difference in sensitivity across cell types, dose may have to be tailored depending on specific clinical application.

Currently few studies have investigated in detail the relationship between energy dose and killing. The available data (Maclean et al., 2008a2009Endarko et al., 2012) suggest a sigmoidal dose–response curve implying that, as similarly observed with low-level oxidative stress (Kumar and Imlay, 2013), a sub-lethal light dose may be indefinitely tolerated by organisms with appropriate detoxifying systems. The existence of adaptive tolerance is supported by the finding that growth in low levels of blue light protects somewhat against subsequent high-intensity challenge (Tomb et al., 2017). With repeated sub-lethal dosage, resistance to blue light has been reported (Guffey et al., 2013) although this point remains contentious (de Sousa N.T. et al., 2015Tomb et al., 2017). The importance of appropriate dosing and considerations of light transmission through tissue are clearly of particular importance given that blue light can promote biofilm formation (Tschowri et al., 2009Mussi et al., 2010). Further work to understand the mechanisms of killing and the dose–response relationships is needed to provide a quantitative basis for widespread and effective implementation.

 

< SNIP >


Edited by HighDesertWizard, 24 May 2019 - 07:59 AM.


#16 Nate-2004

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Posted 15 June 2019 - 06:30 PM

Hi Nate...

 

The book I've recommended elsewhere has chapters about dosing and devices among other things. Red- and Near Infrared-light exposure has demonstrated profoundly positive effects. Becoming educated about how to use it optimally is a key element in leveraging that science.

 

dS13XSyh.png

 

I read the vast majority of this book on my vacation trip and I'll probably ditch this Therabulb for the Red Rush 360 he recommends based on the power density issues. Apparently the therabulb only delivers 2.633 mW/cm2 at a distance of 1 meter, and it's not even entirely red or infrared so it's probably doing me very little good. I'll have to save up a bit after this latest trip I took but I want the Red Rush.

 

In the meantime I'll have to take the free route, which he also discusses at length without really mentioning the problems associated with UVB and skin aging issues. I wore sunscreen all day on my trip to the Galapagos, it shields me from UVB, but I wonder if I got plenty of that healthy infrared and what the power density of the sun is in terms of the amount of infrared dose required.


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#17 pone11

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Posted 25 June 2019 - 12:37 PM

2014, A Controlled Trial to Determine the Efficacy of Red and Near-Infrared Light Treatment in Patient Satisfaction, Reduction of Fine Lines, Wrinkles, Skin Roughness, and Intradermal Collagen Density Increase

 

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of two novel light sources for large area and full body application, providing polychromatic, non-thermal photobiomodulation (PBM) for improving skin feeling and appearance. Background data: For non-thermal photorejuvenation, laser and LED light sources have been demonstrated to be safe and effective. However, lasers and LEDs may offer some disadvantages because of dot-shaped (punctiform) emission characteristics and their narrow spectral bandwidths. Because the action spectra for tissue regeneration and repair consist of more than one wavelength, we investigated if it is favorable to apply a polychromatic spectrum covering a broader spectral region for skin rejuvenation and repair.

 

Materials and methods: A total of 136 volunteers participated in this prospective, randomized, and controlled study. Of these volunteers, 113 subjects randomly assigned into four treatment groups were treated twice a week with either 611–650 or 570–850 nm polychromatic light (normalized to ∼9 J/cm2 in the range of 611–650 nm) and were compared with controls (n=23). Irradiances and treatment durations varied in all treatment groups. The data collected at baseline and after 30 sessions included blinded evaluations of clinical photography, ultrasonographic collagen density measurements, computerized digital profilometry, and an assessment of patient satisfaction.

 

Results: The treated subjects experienced significantly improved skin complexion and skin feeling, profilometrically assessed skin roughness, and ultrasonographically measured collagen density. The blinded clinical evaluation of photographs confirmed significant improvement in the intervention groups compared with the control.

 

Conclusions: Broadband polychromatic PBM showed no advantage over the red-light-only spectrum. However, both novel light sources that have not been previously used for PBM have demonstrated efficacy and safety for skin rejuvenation and intradermal collagen increase when compared with controls.

 

y7JzuDCh.jpg

 

 

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I am confused after reading this study.   Give us a specific red light product, and for that product:

 

* How far away did the subject stand from the light?

 

* How many minutes did they stand in front of the light?

 

They express an amount of power for the light, but is that power at the source or power read by a meter at the patient's skin surface?  And I find no mention of duration, which is required to understand the total power delivered in a treatment.



#18 pone11

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Posted 25 June 2019 - 12:44 PM

2014, A Controlled Trial to Determine the Efficacy of Red and Near-Infrared Light Treatment in Patient Satisfaction, Reduction of Fine Lines, Wrinkles, Skin Roughness, and Intradermal Collagen Density Increase

 

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of two novel light sources for large area and full body application, providing polychromatic, non-thermal photobiomodulation (PBM) for improving skin feeling and appearance. Background data: For non-thermal photorejuvenation, laser and LED light sources have been demonstrated to be safe and effective. However, lasers and LEDs may offer some disadvantages because of dot-shaped (punctiform) emission characteristics and their narrow spectral bandwidths. Because the action spectra for tissue regeneration and repair consist of more than one wavelength, we investigated if it is favorable to apply a polychromatic spectrum covering a broader spectral region for skin rejuvenation and repair.

 

Materials and methods: A total of 136 volunteers participated in this prospective, randomized, and controlled study. Of these volunteers, 113 subjects randomly assigned into four treatment groups were treated twice a week with either 611–650 or 570–850 nm polychromatic light (normalized to ∼9 J/cm2 in the range of 611–650 nm) and were compared with controls (n=23). Irradiances and treatment durations varied in all treatment groups. The data collected at baseline and after 30 sessions included blinded evaluations of clinical photography, ultrasonographic collagen density measurements, computerized digital profilometry, and an assessment of patient satisfaction.

 

Results: The treated subjects experienced significantly improved skin complexion and skin feeling, profilometrically assessed skin roughness, and ultrasonographically measured collagen density. The blinded clinical evaluation of photographs confirmed significant improvement in the intervention groups compared with the control.

 

Conclusions: Broadband polychromatic PBM showed no advantage over the red-light-only spectrum. However, both novel light sources that have not been previously used for PBM have demonstrated efficacy and safety for skin rejuvenation and intradermal collagen increase when compared with controls.

 

So some obvious questions:

 

* Has anyone studied how does red light affect male pattern baldness?   On one hand, it might lower inflammation and inflammation through prostaglandin expression is a key part of the condition.   Further, it is inflammation at the base of the hair, where topical treatments cannot penetrate, that are most responsible for the problem.   Red light might penetrate.   

 

On the other hand, red light would promote collagen formation, and this would make advanced male pattern baldness worse since it might promote collagen formation as a replacement for dead follicles.

 

* Has anyone studied whether red light would treat diabetic neuropathy?   To the extent that this lower local inflammation, would it increase blood saturation into tissues it is penetrating, including the hands and feet of patients with diabetic neuropathies?   It seems like it should be revolutionary for that application.

 

* Are there any clear conditions for which red light is contraindicated?



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#19 Oakman

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Posted 25 June 2019 - 01:13 PM

I am confused after reading this study.   Give us a specific red light product, and for that product:

 

* How far away did the subject stand from the light?

 

* How many minutes did they stand in front of the light?

 

They express an amount of power for the light, but is that power at the source or power read by a meter at the patient's skin surface?  And I find no mention of duration, which is required to understand the total power delivered in a treatment.

From the study:

Light Sources

Four units equipped with two different types of polychromatic light sources (low-pressure vs. mid-pressure lamps) were used to conduct this study. Table 2 lists the lamp technologies, lamp types, treatment area (full or part of the body), spectral values, session duration, and treatment doses for the units used in this study.

It is irrelevant a particular brand or model, and how far away from the light they were. Irradiance (at skin surface) and how many minutes dosed is relevant. Light is light. And once you know those parameters, you're done. That gives you the 'light dose'. The experiment can be duplicated with any other light source of your choosing, selecting only the desired frequency of light.

For my own experiments, I made my own lights of variang frequency, but for the most part 660nm red, measured the irradiance at a distance from the light, stood there, and dosed (length of time) accordingly to what I wanted. My red light is as good as anyone's.







Also tagged with one or more of these keywords: frequency, pemf, brain wave entrainment, brain wave, red light

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