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Genetic and epigenetic regulation of human aging and longevity

epigenetic genetic human ageing longevity lifestyle epigenomic changes

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#1 Engadin

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Posted 11 June 2019 - 06:08 PM


Published at Rejuvenation Science News (RSN)

 

 

S O U R C E :   ScienceDirect

 

 

 

 

Highlights

 

Genome-wide studies have implicated 57 gene loci in lifespan.

 

  • Epigenomic changes during aging profoundly affect cell function and stress resistance.
  • Dysregulation of transcriptional and chromatin networks is a crucial to aging.
  • Breakdown in chromatin connectivity results in inappropriate gene expression.
  • Epigenetic drift to an entopic middle ground means previouslyinactive genes “leak”.

 

 

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Abstract

 

Here we summarize the latest data on genetic and epigenetic contributions to human aging and longevity. Whereas environmental and lifestyle factors are important at younger ages, the contribution of genetics appears more important in reaching extreme old age. Genome-wide studies have implicated ~57 gene loci in lifespan.

 

Epigenomic changes during aging profoundly affect cellular function and stress resistance.

 

Dysregulation of transcriptional and chromatin networks is likely a crucial component of aging. Large-scale bioinformatic analyses have revealed involvement of numerous interaction networks.

 

As the young well-differentiated cell replicates into eventual senescence there is drift in the highly regulated chromatin marks towards an entropic middle-ground between repressed and active, such that genes that were previously inactive “leak”. There is a breakdown in chromatin connectivity such that topologically associated domains and their insulators weaken, and well-defined blocks of constitutive heterochromatin give way to generalized, senescence-associated heterochromatin, foci. Together, these phenomena contribute to aging.


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Also tagged with one or more of these keywords: epigenetic, genetic, human ageing, longevity, lifestyle, epigenomic changes

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